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1 Philadelphia University Sleep DeprivationDr. Abdul-Monim BatihaAssistant ProfessorCritical Care NursingPhiladelphia University
2 Outlines: DEFINITION. STAGES OF SLEEP. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. CIRCADIAN DESYNCHRONIZATION.DYSFUNCTIONAL SLEEP.SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN CRITICAL CARE UNITS.
3 EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN CRITICAL CARE UNITS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION.NURSING ROUTINES AND INTERVENTIONS.PHARMACOLOGY AND SLEEP.NURSING’S CHALLENGE.PREPARING THE PATIENT FOR SLEEP.
4 DefinitionSleep is a state of unconsciousness from which a person can be aroused by appropriate sensory or other stimuli.(Guyton 1991(It is a reversible behavioral state of perceptual disengagement from and unresponsiveness to the environment.(William 2004)
5 Sleep is the state of natural rest observed in most mammals Sleep is the state of natural rest observed in most mammals. It is characterized by a reduction in voluntary body movement, decreased reaction to external stimuli, an increased rate of anabolism the synthesis of cell structures, and a decreased rate of catabolism( the breakdown of cell structures(. regular sleep is necessary for survival.(Free encyclopedia 2007)
6 Adults normally spend Approximately one third of their lives asleep .
7 Research involving the simultaneous monitoring of the Electroencephalogram (EEG)Electrooculogram (EOG)Electromyogram (EMG)
8 STAGES OF SLEEP Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) Rapid eye movement (REM) Consists of four stagesStage I and II — 50% to 60 % of sleep, light sleepStage III and IV — 20% of sleep, deep-sleep states (delta sleep)Rapid eye movement (REM)20-25% of total sleep
11 In Stage 1The individual may not even be aware that he has begun to sleep.Still aware of his surroundings,The individual is relaxed and drowsy,His thoughts are aimless and begin to driftThinking is less reality-oriented.Amplitude of brain waves low.
12 The individual is less reactive to outside stimuli, but can still be aroused easily. Body temperature and vital signs start to drop as metabolism slows.Stage 1 is a brief stage, lasting no more than 7 minutes.Lasts 2% to 5% of total sleep time.
13 Stage 2 of NREM sleepIs a slightly deeper sleep and is a transition or “door” stage to deeper NREM stages or to REM sleep.The individual is no longer aware of his surroundings,Amplitude of brain waves higher.
14 and is a little harder to awaken. Fragments of dreams may occur,Eyes slowly roll from side to side.Metabolism and vital signs continue to decrease.Sleep spinder.Lasts 5-15 minutes.This is the most stable and predominant NREM sleep stage in adults.
15 NREM Stage 3 sleepIs much deeper than that of Stage 2, and the individual is now more difficult to arouse.Snoring may begin to occurBecause of decreased muscle tone. Vital signs, body temperature, and metabolism aredecreased.Roughly 15 to 20 minutes after falling asleep.
16 Stage 4 NREM sleepDeepest sleep stage, and the individual is very difficult to awaken.Sometimes referred to as “weary sleep," it is at this time that sleep walking and bed-wetting can occur.The individual rarely moves at this time
17 vital signs and metabolism are at their lowest, with the parasympathetic system dominant. Elevated GH and other anabolic hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, imply that anabolism is taking place, particularly in tissues with a high protein content.Thus activities include protein synthesis and tissue repair.
18 When people speak of having had a good night’s sleep, it is likely primarily Stage 4 sleep that they are referring to.NREM Stages 3 and 4 are the deepest stages of sleep and are often reported together asdelta-wave sleep, for the amplitude of waves seen on the EEG during these stages.20% to 25% of sleep for the adult, but this percentage decreases with age.
19 REM sleep REM sleep is sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep. REM sleep is a very active stage with a high degree of cerebral and physiologic activity.REM sleep continues to facilitate protein anabolism, but during this same time there is great fluctuation in autonomic nervous system activity, causing heart rate variability.
20 Increases in parasympathetic tone. Sympathetic stimulation.
21 There is increased cerebral blood flow during REM sleep . Evidence suggests that the adrenalin surge that more than doubles during REM sleep may be responsible for episodes of ischemia, sudden cardiac death, and strokes in the early morning hours.Most dreams occur during REM sleepREM sleep can last from 5 to 35 minutes
22 REM sleep is of great importance to nurses because as the patient is entering this stage of sleep, the nurse may notice a change in vital signs and become concerned that the patient's condition is worsening.
23 The cyclic Nature of sleep Walking↓NREM(Stage 1)NREM (Stage 2)NREM ( Stage 3) REMNREM ( Stage 4) NREM (Stage 2)NREM ( Stage 3)The cyclic Nature of sleep
25 The cyclic nature of sleep and wakefulness is thought to be regulated by complex neurochemical reactions arising in the tissues of the brain stem known as the reticular formation.
26 The sleep-wakefulness cycles, as well as the REM/nonREM cycle, are throughout be mediated by the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Current research suggests that the control of sleep is a very complex process not confined to one localized part of the brain.
27 Circadian rhythmThe sleep-wake cycle follows the circadian rhythm in a 24-hour cycle synchronized with other biologic rhythms. Nighttime sleep is the normal pattern for most adults.
28 When sleep occurs during the low phase of the circadian rhythm, circadian synchronization is present . Sleep that occurs during normal waking hours is out of phase or desynchronized
29 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8AM PM PM AM AMTime 8 am i IjSleep desynchronizationFig Sleep synchronization and desynchronization with circadian rhythm.
30 Desynchronized sleep is rated as poor-quality sleep and causes a decreased arousal threshold; therefore frequent awakenings are more likely. Irritability, restlessness, depression, anxiety, and decreased accuracy in task performance are characteristic effects of desynchronized sleep.
31 Resynchronization with the circadian rhythm must occur whenever sleep has become desynchronized for the individual to establish a normal sleep-activity pattern. Although variable among individuals, the resynchronization process is thought to require a minimum of 3 days with a consistent sleep-wake schedule.
32 During resynchronization, the individual often feels fatigued and unable to perform all of his or her activities of daily living.
33 CIRCADIAN DESYNCHRONIZATION The loss of rhythmicity may result from external stressors, which then alters the timing relationships of neural, hormonal, and cellular systems.Humans respond to stressors, such as surgery, immobilization, and pain, with increased levels and altered timing of adrenal and other hormones.
34 Farr and other reported that circadian levels; the timing of temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate; and urinary excretion of catecholamines, sodium, and potassium were altered after surgery in hospitalized patients.
35 Nursing interventions that maintain normal rhythmicity of the day-night cycle.
36 SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN CRITICAL CARE UNITS Patients in critical care units often experiencea lack of sleep or frequent disruptions to their sleep, further compounding their illness.Psychological stress alone can temporarilyaffect an individual’s sleep patterns.More time is spent trying to initiate sleep, and when sleep occurs, it mainly consists of lighter sleep in Stages 1 and 2
38 Research has shown that patients in critical care units may spend 40% to 50% of their sleep time awake, and of the remaining sleep time only 3% to 4% in REM sleep.Psychological stressors may cause an individual to need more REM sleep and may cause the individual to feel that they dreamed more than usual and had less restful sleep.
39 Illness and hospitalization certainly increase psychological stress, but unfortunately hospitalization makes it less possible for the individual to obtain adequate REM sleep.
40 Novaes and colleagues (1997)conducted a study to evaluate physical and psychological stressors in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Fifty patients were asked to complete the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale, ranking the 40 items from not stressful to very stressful. Of these 40 items, not being able to sleep was ranked as the second most important stressor, second only to pain.
41 Using EEGs, Hilton documented quantity and quality of sleep of nine patients in a respiratory critical care unit. Total sleep time ranged from 6 minutes to 13.3 hours. Only 50% to 60% of the sleep occurred at night, and no patients had complete sleep cycles. NREM stage 1 sleep predominated, to the deprivation of all other stages. Significant deprivation of restorative sleep (NREM stages 3 and 4) was demonstrated with only 4.7% to 10.5% of sleep time being spent in these stages (normally 30% to 35%).
42 Shaver, in a review of sleep research, notes that sleep deprivation is considered to be a contributing factor in postoperative psychosis.
43 There is substantial evidence to support the fact that 4 days of sleep deprivation results in a decreased production of ATP, the critical energy substance.
44 EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN CRITICAL CARE UNITS Sleep deprivation has been shown to induce a catabolic state and negatively affect the immune system and healing.There is decreased ability to resist and fight infection, further impacting the healing process and hospitalization.Immunosuppressionand decreased tissue repair
45 studies report decreased pain tolerance and profound fatigue of the sympathetic nerve centers. Cortisol secretions are normally diminished during sleep and rise in the morning following circadian rhythms.Sleep deprivation in critical care patients prolongs cortisol secretion and results in decreased healing, making patients more susceptible to infection and a prolonged recovery process.
46 Lack of sleep has also been shown to contribute to upper airway musculature dysfunction and hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, adversely affecting gas exchange. This could have a significant impact on patients with respiratory problems, particularly those who are being weaned from the ventilator or those who have just been extubated
47 Signs and symptoms of sleep deprivation The signs and symptoms of sleep deprivationmay not be so apparent, at least initially.Behavioral changes such as restlessness and irritability may occur within 48 hours.Disorientationslurred speech may precede psychotic behavior, which can occur within 96 hours
48 If a patient is deprived primarily of NREM sleep He may experience:- fatigue, apathy, speech deterioration, poor judgment, and lack of energy.- ptosis and lack of facial expression.
49 Deprivation of REM sleep May cause the patient to feel continually tired and have difficulty concentrating. When deprived of REM sleep for greater than 24 to 48 hours, the patient may experience irritability, confusion, poor impulse control, paranoia, and hallucination, or exhibit aggressive behavior
50 If an individual does not obtain enough sleep to meet his biological needs, this sleepdeprivation will accumulate over time until the brain signals the body to obtain sleep.If sleep deprivation is prolonged, when the patient finally enters sleep, it consists of predominantly Stage 2 and the deep recovery sleep of Stage 4. REM sleep usually does not occur until the second or third night
51 CAUSES OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION IN CRITICAL CARE UNITS Related to patient:1- Age.2- physical condition (underlying disease).3- Pain.4- Anxiety, and stress.Related to staff:1- Procedures are interrupting the sleep time.Related to the environment1- Noisy,2- Unfamiliar environment,3- Lighting,
52 Dlin and others showed that the chief deterrents to sleep in the critical care unit in order of importance were (1) activity and noise, (2) pain and physical condition, (3) nursing procedures, (4) lights, (5) vapor tents, and (6) hypothermia.Woods and Falk20 found that 10% to 17% of noises in the critical care unit were of a level capable of arousing patients from sleep (greater than 70 decibels).
53 Sleep-disturbing events validated by EEG were mainly staff and environmental noise, which occurred on the average of every 20 minutes. Quality and quantity of sleep were reported as poor in all subjects. Nightmares, hallucinations, restlessness, or other behavioral changes were observed in 60% of the patients in the sample.
54 ASSESSMENT OF SLEEP PATTERN DISTURBANCE Description of the normal sleep patternِAny recent changes in the patient's normal pattern resulting from the acute illness.Recent and more distant history of sleep disturbances.The severity, duration, and frequency of the problem.
55 History of chronic illnesses and physical conditions that may disturb sleep. The critical care nurse should elicit history of snoring because of its relationship to sleep apnea and sleep disturbances.
56 The scientific standard for the measurement of sleep is the polysomnogram (PSG). Sleep efficiency is an important sleep variable defined as the proportion of actual sleep time in the total sleep period.(95% versus 65%)
57 Nursing routines and interventions -In order to have early morning laboratory workand test results available when physiciansmake rounds, most critical care units wakePatients at 5 AM or 6 AM to draw blood and doelectrocardiograms.
58 In a study of 203 patients from 4 ICU’s, patients were given a questionnaire on the day of discharge to evaluate their sleep during their stay in the ICU. The questions assessed perceived sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, perceived sleep disruption caused by environmental activities, and perceived sleep disruption caused by specific environmental noises. They that nursing interventions such as checking of vital signs were more disruptive to sleep than were other factors such as noise and light (Friedman,1999)
59 One study reported that nurses generally agreed that sleep was important to theirpatients, but found it difficult to organize theirassessment routines and tasks to evenAccommodate 2-hour periods of quiet time.(Olson,2001)
60 PHARMACOLOGY AND SLEEP Hypnotic drugs have been found to promote the lighter stages of sleep (i.e., NREM stage 2) and may, paradoxically, be the cause of night terrors, hallucinations, and agitation in the elderly.
61 If hypnotics are indicated, it is wise to first evaluate the medications that the patient isreceiving, to make certain that none of themare contributing to the patient’s inability tosleep. Consulting with the pharmacist mayhelp identify these medications so thatdiscussion can be initiated with the physician.
62 Barbiturates e.g amobarbital they increases NREM2, and suppress REM
63 Benzodiazepines e.g. Diazepam increases NREM stage 1 and reduces both NREM stages 3 and 4 and REM. Morphine increases spontaneous arousals during sleep and shortens the sleep time by reducing both REM and NREM stages 3 and 4, resulting in overall lighter sleep.
64 It is the responsibility of the critical care nurse to assess the need for sedative and analgesic medications, to administer them in the most effective manner to promote sleep, and to monitor their effectiveness
65 NURSING’S CHALLENGEThe sleep process and effects of deprivation need to be incorporated into critical care education programs and continuing education programs, and encouraged as nursing research topics.Sleep requirements need to become part of the written multidisciplinary plan of care, to allow for care and assessment of patients, but incorporating blocks of uninterrupted sleep.
66 It needs to be discussed in shift to shift report, and may need to be discussed in Health Team Conference. Nursing activities should be organized to make sleep a priority for patients in critical care units.
67 Nursing interventions for promoting and preparing the patient for sleep
68 If the patient has a pulmonary artery and/or arterial line, make sure the transducer is leveled to right atrium with the patient’s head of the bed in the desired position. Leveling the transducer at the phlebostatic axis, with the patient in position for sleep, will assure that the assessment readings taken throughout the night are accurate to guide decision-making. Assess the patient and the intravenous lines for patency.
70 Assess the patient for any pain or discomfort. If pain medication is required, try to give it early enough so that it takes effect before bedtime and the patient will be pain-free and more relaxed. If sleep medication is ordered, offer it only after pain is relieved, so that the hypnotic will be more effective.
71 Offering a bedtime snack or a glass of warm milk may encourage sleep Offering a bedtime snack or a glass of warm milk may encourage sleep. Nursing activities such as freshening the bed linen and allowing the patient to brush his teeth, wash his face, and void before sleep are helpful.
72 Providing an extra pillow or blanket, arranging the pillows in a certain way, and assisting the patient to a comfortable position for sleeping may be helpful. A back massage can be very relaxing and therapeutic, and provides the patient with his nurse’s undivided attention for the moment.
73 For many patients, privacy or private room and providing the patient with his covering, pillows, and pajamas are all traditionally promote sleep.
74 Touch can be very therapeutic, and may provide an opportunity for the patient to ask questions or share concerns that might not otherwise have been verbalized.
75 If the patient has a tendency to nap during the day, morning naps should be encouraged rather than afternoon naps because afternoon naps consist mostly of deep sleep (Stage 4) and short periods generally leave the patient feeling tired. (Hayter J, 2003)
76 (Richards, 2002) tested the effect of a back massage and combination of muscle relaxation, mental imagery, and music on the sleep of 69 older men with a cardiovascular illness who were hospitalized in a critical care unit. Her study showed significant differences between the back-massage and the control group, in the percentage of Stage 2 and REM sleep, with the back-massage group sleeping longer than the control group.
78 When giving a hypnotic, make that the final trip to the patient’s room for the shift. Before leaving, make sure the patient has fresh water, and that the call light is within reach.
79 Titrate environmental stimuli: turn down light, alarms, and decrease noise from TV and talking. Activity during day time should be increased .Limiting caffeine intake after early afternoon will promote sleep in the evening.
80 Make sure the intermittent suction machine is turned off, the oxygen tubing is free of water,faucets are not dripping, and the urinal isempty and within reach. Pull the patient’scurtain closed to help block out light from theunit. If there is a door to the room, close it.
81 During the night, take note of any patient who appears not to be sleeping. Turning and wakefulness can often be detected on the monitor by movement. By checking on the patient, you may find that he is having pain, is anxious, or in some distress that need further assessment.
82 If it is necessary to assess the patient, perform procedures during the night, or bathe the patient, do so as quietly as possible. Since critically ill patients sometimes cannot tolerate a lot of activity at one time, try to space procedures to allow a minimum of 2 hours of uninterrupted sleep at a time.
83 Noise and interruptions should be kept to a minimum, to allow the patient to obtain themuch needed NREM Stages 3 and 4 sleep andREM sleep.
85 At bet time , provide information to lower anxiety At bet time , provide information to lower anxiety. Do review of the day and remind patient of the progress made toward recovery, then add what to expect for the next day.
86 Institute “PM” care back to basics, brushing teeth, washing face, before “ bedtime”.