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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 by Pearson Education. Reproduced by permission of the publisher. Further reproduction is prohibited without written permission.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 by Pearson Education. Reproduced by permission of the publisher. Further reproduction is prohibited without written permission."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 by Pearson Education. Reproduced by permission of the publisher. Further reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the publisher. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Consciousness

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Consciousness I.What is Consciousness? II.What Happens When We Sleep? III.What Are Dreams and What Do They Mean? IV.Is it Possible to Control Consciousness by Using Biofeedback, Hypnosis and Meditation? V.How do Drugs Alter Consciousness?

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 What is Consciousness? –A general state of being aware of and responsive to events in the environment and one’s own mental processes –Are mind and body separate? Yes: Doctrine of Dualism No: Materialism

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Levels of Consciousness Alert Attention Awake, but on “Automatic Pilot” Unconscious Asleep –Altered state of consciousness A state of consciousness that is dramatically different from ordinary awareness –Metacognition The ability to think about and regulate one’s own thinking

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep The Sleep–Wakefulness Cycle: Circadian Rhythms –Internally generated patterns of bodily functions that vary over a ~24-hour period –Function even in the absence of normal cues

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep Sleep Stages: REM and NREM Sleep 1. Studying Sleep Electroencephalograms (EEGs) These differ in frequency: These differ in amplitude:

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep Stages Two types of sleep a.Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep High-frequency, low amplitude brain- wave activity Systematic eye movements Occurs only after four stages of non- REM (NREM) sleep

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Two types of Sleep b.NREM Sleep –Increasing bodily relaxation –Slower EEG activity –Slower heart rate and respiration –More difficult to awaken as the four stages of NREM sleep progress

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep Stages 3.Typical Sleep Cycle a. Stages i.Stage 1 ii.Stage 2

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Stages iii.Slow Wave Sleep a) Stage 3 b) Stage 4 Delta Activity

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Typical Sleep Cycle b.Sequence and Timing –Sleepers take about 30 to 40 minutes to go through the four stages of NREM sleep –They then go from stage 4, back through stages 3, 2, and 1 –Then they nearly awaken before going into REM

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep Stages 4.REM Sleep –Physiologically similar to being awake –Difficult to awaken from Paralysis of the postural muscles –Vivid, long-lasting, detailed dreams –Sometimes called paradoxical sleep

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep C.Sleep Deprivation –The longer a person is deprived of sleep, the greater the effect will be –Sleep deprivation is comparable to the effects of alcohol on driving –Sleep debt is a common—and dangerous—problem –Rats totally deprived of sleep die

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep F.Sleep Disorders 1. Narcolepsy Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of sleep Affects about 1 in 2,000 people Has a genetic component Effective drug treatment has been developed

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep Disorders 2.Sleep Apnea –Causes airflow to stop for at least 15 seconds –Loud snoring is a symptom –Can be life threatening –Several effective therapies that keep the airway clear have been developed

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep Disorders 3.Insomnia –Problems in getting or staying asleep –Affects as many as 1 in 10 people –Behavioral treatments for insomnia include relaxation training, thought restructuring, and self-hypnosis 4. Night Terrors –Panic attacks that occur within 60–90 minutes of falling asleep –They occur in NREM sleep, usually stage 4

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sleep Disorders 5.Sleepwalking –Runs in families –Occurs in stage 4 sleep Motor portions of the brain are active Cognitive portions of the brain show little activity in this stage –It is NOT dangerous to wake a sleepwalker

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Dreams and Dreaming A. What is a Dream? –A state of consciousness that occurs during sleep –Do occur during NREM sleep, but tend to be less bizarre and contain less action imagery

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Dreams and Dreaming B. The Content of Dreams –Dreams are mostly visual, and most are in color –Tend to focus on events and people a person comes into contact with –Environmental stimuli that do not awaken a sleeper are incorporated into dreams

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 The Content of Dreams Lucid dreaming occurs when one is aware of dreaming as it happens

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Dreams and Dreaming C. Dream Theories 1. Psychodynamic Views a. Freud Freud believed dreams expressed desires, wishes, and unfulfilled needs that exist in the unconscious Two types of content –Manifest content –Latent content

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Psychodynamic Views b.Carl Jung (1875 – 1961) –Three purposes of dreams Make sense of life’s tasks Compensate for unconscious urges Predict the future –Dreams give expression to the collective unconscious - storehouse of ideas and images inherited from out ancestors –Archetypes - the actual ideas and images inherited from our ancestors

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Dream Theories 2. Cognitive View –Dreams reflect the same kind of thinking people do when they are awake –Cross-cultural studies demonstrate life events affect dream content

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Dream Theories 3. Biological View Activation-synthesis theory of dreaming Research support –REM activity is important for memory –REM initiates cognitive processing, not vice versa

25 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Dream Theories 4. Evolutionary View –Dreams are practice for dealing with real threats

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Controlling Consciousness A. Biofeedback –A process in which people receive information about the status of a physical system –Feedback used to learn to control the activity of the system –Uses electronic equipment

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Biofeedback It provides awareness of systems people are not normally aware of (such as heart rate) –Allows control of physical responses not normally under conscious control Greatest success is in treating chronic headaches (especially migraines) Many benefits are related to relaxation

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Controlling Consciousness B. Hypnosis –A procedure during which a person’s sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behaviors change because of suggestions made to the person

29 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Hypnosis Factors in hypnosis –Good hypnotic participants have Good visual imagery abilities High concentration –Practice –Suggestibility

30 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Hypnosis Effects of hypnosis –Not very good at improving memory Suggestibility under hypnosis leads to distorted memories Makes recovered memories very controversial

31 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Hypnosis Uses of hypnosis –Aids relaxation –Helps control pain –Helps people cope with stress and anxiety

32 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Controlling Consciousness C. Meditation –Use of a variety of techniques to produce a state of consciousness characterized by a sense of detachment –Types of meditation: Mindfulness Concentrative –Leads to relaxation –Helps manage heart disease

33 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Drugs A drug is a chemical substance that alters biological or cognitive processes –Psychoactive drugs Alter behavior, thought, or perception Therefore, can affect consciousness Properties of drugs –Tolerance –Dependence –Withdrawal –Addiction

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Psychoactive Drugs 1. Sedative–Hypnotics –A class of drugs that relax and calm a user –Can induce sleep at higher doses –Depress neural activity Sometimes called sedatives or depressants

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sedative–Hypnotics a.Alcohol –Produces tolerance and dependence –Crosses blood–brain barrier –Depresses brain activity Dampens arousal Decreases inhibitions Slows reaction time –Women metabolize alcohol more slowly than men

36 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Sedative–Hypnotics b. Tranquilizers c. Barbiturates d. Opiates –Derived from the opium poppy –Opium, morphine, and heroin –Synthetic opiates Oxycodone (OxyContin) and hydrocodone (Vicodin) Chemically similar and have similar effects –Their medical uses include pain relief

37 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Opiates In the brain, opiates occupy endorphin receptors –Neurochemicals manufactured in the brain –A natural mechanism of pain relief Opiates produce high tolerance and dependence in those who use them for pleasure Few people given opiates for pain relief in hospitals become addicted

38 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Psychoactive Drugs 2. Stimulants –Drugs that increase alertness, reduce fatigue, and elevate mood states –Also tend to increase blood pressure, heart rate, metabolic rate, and decrease appetite –All stimulants have tolerance and dependence properties

39 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Stimulants a. Caffeine b. Nicotine –Addictive drug in tobacco –Does lead to strong dependence and unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

40 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Stimulants c. Amphetamines –Produce arousal and alertness –Also produce strong dependence and tolerance –Some people use amphetamines for their appetite-suppressing effects –Continued use can cause altered thoughts Unfounded suspicion Symptoms similar to schizophrenia

41 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Stimulants d. Cocaine –Increases alertness –Rapidly creates positive feelings –These effects are short-lived, creating an urge to use more –Strong potential for abuse

42 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Psychoactive Drugs 3. Psychedelic Drugs –Affect mood, thought, memory, judgment, and perception –Sometimes called hallucinogens –Alter perception and produce vivid imagery –Their impact varies widely depending on the user and the particular drug

43 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Psychedelic Drugs a. LSD –Lysergic acid diethylamide –Produces altered visual and auditory perception –Sometimes causes changes in time and distance perception

44 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Psychedelic Drugs b. Ecstasy –Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) –Causes massive release of serotonin in the brain May lead to prolonged problems regulating serotonin levels May contribute to depression and memory problems

45 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Psychedelic Drugs c. Marijuana –Most widely used illicit drug –Reactions vary widely –Affects judgment and coordination –May produce “psychological dependence” in some

46 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Drugs B. Drug Use and Abuse –Alcohol and tobacco present the biggest drug problems in the United States 51% of adolescents are current drinkers and 27% are current smokers Only 6% of the total population are current users of marijuana Only 4% use other illicit drugs –Indirect effects cause most problems associated with drug use

47 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Drug Use and Abuse What is Substance Abuse? –When use leads to negative consequences –When drugs are overused and relied on to deal with everyday life –A person is a substance abuser if: The person has used a substance for one month Use has caused legal, personal, social, or vocational problems The person repeatedly uses the substance even in situations when doing so is hazardous

48 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 What is Substance Abuse? If dependence has developed –Withdrawal symptoms will occur if use is decreased or stopped Withdrawal symptoms are typically the opposite of a drug’s effects Typically unpleasant Can be stopped by taking more drugs Doing so often considered addiction

49 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 What is Substance Abuse? Genetic factors in drug use –Alcoholism is not inherited –Genetic factors do relate to the metabolism of alcohol These create a genetic predisposition Does not automatically lead to development of alcoholism


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