Presentation on theme: "Reforming American Society"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reforming American Society SECTION 1SECTION 2SECTION 3SECTION 4Religion Sparks ReformSlavery and AbolitionWomen and ReformThe Changing WorkplaceNEXT
2 Religion Sparks Reform Section 1Religion Sparks ReformA renewal of religious sentiment—known as the Second Great Awakening—inspires a host of reform movements.NEXT
3 Religion Sparks Reform 1SECTIONReligion Sparks ReformThe Second Great AwakeningReligious Activism• Second Great Awakening—religious movement, sweeps U.S. after 1790• Individual responsible for own salvation, can improve self, society• Preacher Charles Grandison Finney inspires emotional religious faith• Large gatherings; some preachers get 20,000 or more at outdoor campsRevivalism• Revival—gathering to awaken religious faith; lasts 4 to 5 days• Revivalism greatly increases church membershipContinued . . .NEXT
4 The Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was more than a series of religious 'crazes' and camp meetings. It was an organizing process that helped to give meaning and direction to people suffering in various degrees from the social strains of a nation on the move into new political, economic and geographical areas. The Awakening was a general social movement that organized thousands of people into small groups.
5 The African-American Church 1SECTIONcontinued The Second Great AwakeningThe African-American ChurchCamp meetings, Baptist, Methodist churches open to blacks and whitesSouthern slaves interpret Christian message as promise of freedomIn East, free African Americans have own churchesAfrican Methodist Episcopal Church—political, cultural, social placeNEXT
6 Transcendentalism and Reforms 1SECTIONTranscendentalism and ReformsTranscendentalism• Ralph Waldo Emerson leads group practicing transcendentalism:- literary and philosophical movement- emphasizes simple life- truth found in nature, emotion, imagination• Henry David Thoreau puts self-reliance into practice, writes Walden• Thoreau urges civil disobedience, peaceful refusal to obey lawsNEXT
7 Americans Form Ideal Communities 1SECTIONAmericans Form Ideal CommunitiesUtopias• Utopian communities—experimental groups, try to create perfect place• In 1841, transcendentalist George Ripley establishes Brook Farm• Most utopias last only a few yearsShaker Communities• Shakers share goods, believe men and women equal, refuse to fight• Do not marry or have children; need converts, adoption to surviveNEXT
8 Schools and Prisons Undergo Reform 1SECTIONSchools and Prisons Undergo ReformReforming Asylums and Prisons• Dorothea Dix gets 10 states to improve conditions for mentally ill• Reformers stress rehabilitation to obtain useful position in societyImproving EducationIn early 1800s, school not compulsory, not divided by gradePennsylvania establishes tax-supported public school system in 1834Horace Mann establishes teacher training, curriculum reformsBy 1850s, all states have publicly funded elementary schoolsNEXT
9 Slavery and Abolition Section 2 Slavery becomes an explosive issue, as more Americans join reformers working to put an end to it.NEXT
10 Slavery and Abolition Abolitionists Speak Out 2SECTIONSlavery and AbolitionAbolitionists Speak OutThe Resettlement Question1820s over 100 antislavery societies advocate resettlement in AfricaBenjamin Lundy’s “Union Humane Society” advocates gradual emancipation and return to AfricaMost free blacks consider themselves American; few emigrateWhites join blacks calling for abolition, outlawing of slaveryWilliam Lloyd Garrison• William Lloyd Garrison—radical white abolitionist; founds:- New England Anti-Slavery Society- American Anti-Slavery Society• The Liberator calls for immediate emancipation— freeing of slavesContinued . . .NEXT
11 William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator Garrison typified all that the slave states hated and feared. Nor were he and other Abolitionists particularly popular in the free states. Few citizens there were particularly upset about slavery elsewhere, and hardly any of them believed in giving Blacks equality—as long as there were no Blacks in their neighborhood, that was enough. To the average free-stater, Garrison was a disturbing radical—for all the causes he so loudly supported, not antislavery alone. On October 21, 1835, Garrison was nearly lynched by a Boston mob; he had to be jailed and temporarily escorted out of the city in order to keep him alive.
12 David Walker Frederick Douglass 2 SECTIONcontinued Abolitionists Speak OutDavid Walker• David Walker’s Appeal advises blacks to rebel against their masters and fight for freedom, not wait to get it• A document that has been described as "for a brief and terrifying moment. . ., the most notorious document in America."Frederick Douglass• As a slave, Frederick Douglass taught to read, write by owner’s wife• Douglass escapes; asked to lecture for Anti-Slavery Society• Douglass’s The North Star: abolition through political actionNEXT
13 Life Under Slavery The Slave Population Rural Slavery 2 SECTIONLife Under SlaveryThe Slave PopulationPopulation increases from 1810 (1.2 million) to 1830 (2 million)18th century, most slaves recent arrivals, work on small farmsBy 1830, majority are American, work on plantations or large farmsRural SlaveryOn plantations, men, women, children work dawn to dusk in fieldsSlaves are whipped, have little time for food, no breaks for restContinued . . .NEXT
14 Nat Turner’s Rebellion 2SECTIONcontinued Life Under SlaveryUrban SlaveryDemand in southern cities for skilled black slavesSlave owners hire out their workers to factory owners and to work as artisansTreatment of slaves in cities less cruel than on plantationsNat Turner’s Rebellion• Nat Turner, preacher, leads slave rebellion; about 60 whites killed• Turner, followers, innocent are captured; 200 killed in retaliationNEXT
15 Nat Turner RebellionOn August 21, 1831, Turner and several followers broke into the house of Turner’s master and killed him, along with 5 other members of the family. By the next day, Turner’s group had grown to 53, and in the course of that day 55 more whites were killed. By that time though, armed whites had gathered and dispersed the group. They proceeded to hunt down suspect blacks, killing about 100 (mostly innocent). Nat Turner was taken on October 30, and along with 16 others, hanged on November 11.
16 Slave Owners Defend Slavery 2SECTIONSlave Owners Defend SlaveryProslavery DefensesSlavery advocates use Bible, myth of happy slave as defensePost offices in slave states refuse to handle abolitionist mailSouthern congressmen secure adoption of gag rule:- limits or prevents debate- used on issue of slavery- deprives citizens of right to be heardNEXT
17 The Illegal Slave Trade and Slave Mutinies 2SECTIONThe Illegal Slave Trade and Slave MutiniesTensions with British over SlaveryAs champion of the seas, Brits make treaties with other nations to search ships with illegal cargo of slavesUS refuses to sign such a treaty; doesn’t allow searchesIllegal slave traders fly the American flag as protectionThe Amistad1839, Blacks brought illegally to Cuba from Africa mutiny on a Spanish ship, demand to be brought back to AfricaShip lands in ConnecticutAbolitionists successfully argue they should be freedThe Creole1841, slaves aboard American ship mutinyShip taken to British Bahamas; US argue Amistad case doesn’t applyBrits ignore US and free the slaves, slave states enragedNEXT
18 The AmistadThe Amistad case reached the Supreme Court, five members of which were from slave states. Arguing on behalf of freedom for the slaves was John Quincy Adams. So compelling were Adams’ arguments to the effect that that the slave trade was illegal by both American and Spanish law and that the Blacks were therefore striking back against kidnapping, that the Supreme Court supported their freedom. They were returned to Africa.
19 Women and Reform Section 3 Women reformers expand their efforts from movements such as abolition and temperance to include women’s rights.NEXT
20 Women and Reform Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s 3SECTIONWomen and ReformWomen’s Roles in the Mid-1800sCultural and Legal Limits on Women• Cult of domesticity—only housework, child care for married women• Single white women earn half of men’s pay for doing same job• Women have few legal rights; cannot vote, sit on juries- do not have guardianship of own children• A married woman’s property, earnings belong to her husband• Women delegates at World’s Anti-Slavery Convention rejected• Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott form women’s rights societyNEXT
21 Women Mobilize for Reform 3SECTIONWomen Mobilize for ReformWomen Abolitionists• Middle-class white women inspired by religion join reform movements• Sarah and Angelina Grimké— work for abolition- daughters of Southern slave owner• Some men support women reformers; others denounce themWorking for Temperance• Many women in temperance movement—prohibit drinking alcohol• Widespread use of alcohol in early 19th century• American Temperance Society founded 1826; 6,000 local groups by 1833Continued . . .NEXT
22 3SECTIONcontinued Women Mobilize for ReformEducation for Women• Until 1820s, few opportunities for girls past elementary school• Academic schools for women become available-Various schools solely for women open- 1837: Oberlin College admits 4 women; first coeducational college• African-American girls have few opportunities to get good educationContinued . . .NEXT
23 Women and Health Reform 3SECTIONcontinued Women Mobilize for ReformWomen and Health Reform• Elizabeth Blackwell, doctor, opens clinic for women, children; first to get medical degree 1849• Catharine Beecher’s conducts national survey-- finds most women unhealthy• Amelia Bloomer rebels, designs loose pants; popular with other womenNEXT
24 Women’s Rights Movement Emerges 3SECTIONWomen’s Rights Movement EmergesSeneca FallsReform encourages women’s movement, give opportunities outside home1848, Stanton, Mott hold Seneca Falls Convention for women’s rights“Declaration of Sentiments” modeled on Declaration of IndependenceAttendees approve all but one resolution of Declaration unanimously:- men and women are equal- urge women to participate in public issues- narrowly pass women’s suffrageContinued . . .NEXT
25 3SECTIONcontinued Women’s Rights Movement EmergesSojourner TruthFormer Northern slave Sojourner Truth travels country preachingLater argues for abolition, women’s rightsNEXT
26 The Changing Workplace Section 4The Changing WorkplaceA growing industrial work force faces problems arising from manufacturing under the factory system.NEXT
27 The Changing Workplace 4SECTIONThe Changing WorkplaceIndustry Changes WorkRural Manufacturing• Cottage industry—manufacturers supply materials, goods made in homes• Entrepreneurs like Francis Cabot Lowell open weaving factories in MA- by 1830s Lowell and partners have 8 factories, 6,000 employeesContinued . . .NEXT
28 4SECTIONcontinued Industry Changes WorkEarly Factories• Early 1800s, artisans produce items people cannot make themselves:- master—highly experienced artisan- journeyman—skilled worker employed by master- apprentice—young worker learning craft• Factories revolutionize industry: cost of household items drops• With machines, unskilled workers replace artisansNEXT
29 Farm Worker to Factory Worker 4SECTIONFarm Worker to Factory WorkerThe Lowell Mill• Most mill workers are unmarried farm girls- under strict control of female supervisor- live together in boarding houses• Owners hire females who can be paid lower wages than men• Factory pay better than alternatives—sewing, domestic work, or nothing at all• Most girls stay at Lowell only for a few yearsContinued . . .NEXT
30 Conditions at Lowell Strikes at Lowell 4 SECTIONcontinued Farm Worker to Factory WorkerConditions at Lowell• Work 12 hours in heat, dark, poor ventilation:- cause discomfort, illness• Conditions continue to deteriorate; 800 mill girls conduct a strike:- work stoppage to force employer to respond to worker demandsStrikes at Lowell• 1834, strike over pay cut; 1836, strike over higher board charges• Company prevails both times, fires strike leaders• 1845, Lowell Female Labor Reform Association foundedNEXT
31 Workers Seek Better Conditions 4SECTIONWorkers Seek Better ConditionsWorkers Unionize• Artisans form unions; begin to ally selves with unskilled workers• 1830s–1840s, 1–2% of workers organized, dozens of strikes- employers use immigrants as strikebreakersImmigration Increases• European immigration to the U.S. increases 1830–1860• German immigrants cluster in upper Mississippi Valley, Ohio ValleyA Second Wave• Irish immigrants settle in large Eastern cities• Disliked because Catholic, poor; resented because they work for low payContinued . . .NEXT
32 National Trades’ Union 4SECTIONcontinued Workers Seek Better ConditionsNational Trades’ Union1830s, unions from same trade unite to standardize wages, conditions1834, organizations from 6 industries form National Trades’ UnionBankers, owners form associations; courts declare strikes illegalCourt Backs StrikersIn 1842, Massachusetts Supreme Court upholds right to strikeIn 1860, only 5,000 union members; 20,000 people in strikesNEXT