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Reforming American Society

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Presentation on theme: "Reforming American Society"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reforming American Society
SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Religion Sparks Reform Slavery and Abolition Women and Reform The Changing Workplace NEXT

2 Religion Sparks Reform
Section 1 Religion Sparks Reform A renewal of religious sentiment—known as the Second Great Awakening—inspires a host of reform movements. NEXT

3 Religion Sparks Reform
1 SECTION Religion Sparks Reform The Second Great Awakening Religious Activism • Second Great Awakening—religious movement, sweeps U.S. after 1790 • Individual responsible for own salvation, can improve self, society • Preacher Charles Grandison Finney inspires emotional religious faith • Large gatherings; some preachers get 20,000 or more at outdoor camps Revivalism • Revival—gathering to awaken religious faith; lasts 4 to 5 days • Revivalism greatly increases church membership Continued . . . NEXT

4 The Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening was more than a series of religious 'crazes' and camp meetings. It was an organizing process that helped to give meaning and direction to people suffering in various degrees from the social strains of a nation on the move into new political, economic and geographical areas. The Awakening was a general social movement that organized thousands of people into small groups.

5 The African-American Church
1 SECTION continued The Second Great Awakening The African-American Church Camp meetings, Baptist, Methodist churches open to blacks and whites Southern slaves interpret Christian message as promise of freedom In East, free African Americans have own churches African Methodist Episcopal Church—political, cultural, social place NEXT

6 Transcendentalism and Reforms
1 SECTION Transcendentalism and Reforms Transcendentalism • Ralph Waldo Emerson leads group practicing transcendentalism: - literary and philosophical movement - emphasizes simple life - truth found in nature, emotion, imagination • Henry David Thoreau puts self-reliance into practice, writes Walden • Thoreau urges civil disobedience, peaceful refusal to obey laws NEXT

7 Americans Form Ideal Communities
1 SECTION Americans Form Ideal Communities Utopias • Utopian communities—experimental groups, try to create perfect place • In 1841, transcendentalist George Ripley establishes Brook Farm • Most utopias last only a few years Shaker Communities • Shakers share goods, believe men and women equal, refuse to fight • Do not marry or have children; need converts, adoption to survive NEXT

8 Schools and Prisons Undergo Reform
1 SECTION Schools and Prisons Undergo Reform Reforming Asylums and Prisons • Dorothea Dix gets 10 states to improve conditions for mentally ill • Reformers stress rehabilitation to obtain useful position in society Improving Education In early 1800s, school not compulsory, not divided by grade Pennsylvania establishes tax-supported public school system in 1834 Horace Mann establishes teacher training, curriculum reforms By 1850s, all states have publicly funded elementary schools NEXT

9 Slavery and Abolition Section 2
Slavery becomes an explosive issue, as more Americans join reformers working to put an end to it. NEXT

10 Slavery and Abolition Abolitionists Speak Out
2 SECTION Slavery and Abolition Abolitionists Speak Out The Resettlement Question 1820s over 100 antislavery societies advocate resettlement in Africa Benjamin Lundy’s “Union Humane Society” advocates gradual emancipation and return to Africa Most free blacks consider themselves American; few emigrate Whites join blacks calling for abolition, outlawing of slavery William Lloyd Garrison • William Lloyd Garrison—radical white abolitionist; founds: - New England Anti-Slavery Society - American Anti-Slavery Society • The Liberator calls for immediate emancipation— freeing of slaves Continued . . . NEXT

11 William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator
Garrison typified all that the slave states hated and feared. Nor were he and other Abolitionists particularly popular in the free states. Few citizens there were particularly upset about slavery elsewhere, and hardly any of them believed in giving Blacks equality—as long as there were no Blacks in their neighborhood, that was enough. To the average free-stater, Garrison was a disturbing radical—for all the causes he so loudly supported, not antislavery alone. On October 21, 1835, Garrison was nearly lynched by a Boston mob; he had to be jailed and temporarily escorted out of the city in order to keep him alive.

12 David Walker Frederick Douglass 2
SECTION continued Abolitionists Speak Out David Walker • David Walker’s Appeal advises blacks to rebel against their masters and fight for freedom, not wait to get it • A document that has been described as "for a brief and terrifying moment. . ., the most notorious document in America." Frederick Douglass • As a slave, Frederick Douglass taught to read, write by owner’s wife • Douglass escapes; asked to lecture for Anti-Slavery Society • Douglass’s The North Star: abolition through political action NEXT

13 Life Under Slavery The Slave Population Rural Slavery 2
SECTION Life Under Slavery The Slave Population Population increases from 1810 (1.2 million) to 1830 (2 million) 18th century, most slaves recent arrivals, work on small farms By 1830, majority are American, work on plantations or large farms Rural Slavery On plantations, men, women, children work dawn to dusk in fields Slaves are whipped, have little time for food, no breaks for rest Continued . . . NEXT

14 Nat Turner’s Rebellion
2 SECTION continued Life Under Slavery Urban Slavery Demand in southern cities for skilled black slaves Slave owners hire out their workers to factory owners and to work as artisans Treatment of slaves in cities less cruel than on plantations Nat Turner’s Rebellion • Nat Turner, preacher, leads slave rebellion; about 60 whites killed • Turner, followers, innocent are captured; 200 killed in retaliation NEXT

15 Nat Turner Rebellion On August 21, 1831, Turner and several followers broke into the house of Turner’s master and killed him, along with 5 other members of the family. By the next day, Turner’s group had grown to 53, and in the course of that day 55 more whites were killed. By that time though, armed whites had gathered and dispersed the group. They proceeded to hunt down suspect blacks, killing about 100 (mostly innocent). Nat Turner was taken on October 30, and along with 16 others, hanged on November 11.

16 Slave Owners Defend Slavery
2 SECTION Slave Owners Defend Slavery Proslavery Defenses Slavery advocates use Bible, myth of happy slave as defense Post offices in slave states refuse to handle abolitionist mail Southern congressmen secure adoption of gag rule: - limits or prevents debate - used on issue of slavery - deprives citizens of right to be heard NEXT

17 The Illegal Slave Trade and Slave Mutinies
2 SECTION The Illegal Slave Trade and Slave Mutinies Tensions with British over Slavery As champion of the seas, Brits make treaties with other nations to search ships with illegal cargo of slaves US refuses to sign such a treaty; doesn’t allow searches Illegal slave traders fly the American flag as protection The Amistad 1839, Blacks brought illegally to Cuba from Africa mutiny on a Spanish ship, demand to be brought back to Africa Ship lands in Connecticut Abolitionists successfully argue they should be freed The Creole 1841, slaves aboard American ship mutiny Ship taken to British Bahamas; US argue Amistad case doesn’t apply Brits ignore US and free the slaves, slave states enraged NEXT

18 The Amistad The Amistad case reached the Supreme Court, five members of which were from slave states. Arguing on behalf of freedom for the slaves was John Quincy Adams. So compelling were Adams’ arguments to the effect that that the slave trade was illegal by both American and Spanish law and that the Blacks were therefore striking back against kidnapping, that the Supreme Court supported their freedom. They were returned to Africa.

19 Women and Reform Section 3
Women reformers expand their efforts from movements such as abolition and temperance to include women’s rights. NEXT

20 Women and Reform Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s
3 SECTION Women and Reform Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s Cultural and Legal Limits on Women • Cult of domesticity—only housework, child care for married women • Single white women earn half of men’s pay for doing same job • Women have few legal rights; cannot vote, sit on juries - do not have guardianship of own children • A married woman’s property, earnings belong to her husband • Women delegates at World’s Anti-Slavery Convention rejected • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott form women’s rights society NEXT

21 Women Mobilize for Reform
3 SECTION Women Mobilize for Reform Women Abolitionists • Middle-class white women inspired by religion join reform movements • Sarah and Angelina Grimké— work for abolition - daughters of Southern slave owner • Some men support women reformers; others denounce them Working for Temperance • Many women in temperance movement—prohibit drinking alcohol • Widespread use of alcohol in early 19th century • American Temperance Society founded 1826; 6,000 local groups by 1833 Continued . . . NEXT

22 3 SECTION continued Women Mobilize for Reform Education for Women • Until 1820s, few opportunities for girls past elementary school • Academic schools for women become available -Various schools solely for women open - 1837: Oberlin College admits 4 women; first coeducational college • African-American girls have few opportunities to get good education Continued . . . NEXT

23 Women and Health Reform
3 SECTION continued Women Mobilize for Reform Women and Health Reform • Elizabeth Blackwell, doctor, opens clinic for women, children; first to get medical degree 1849 • Catharine Beecher’s conducts national survey-- finds most women unhealthy • Amelia Bloomer rebels, designs loose pants; popular with other women NEXT

24 Women’s Rights Movement Emerges
3 SECTION Women’s Rights Movement Emerges Seneca Falls Reform encourages women’s movement, give opportunities outside home 1848, Stanton, Mott hold Seneca Falls Convention for women’s rights “Declaration of Sentiments” modeled on Declaration of Independence Attendees approve all but one resolution of Declaration unanimously: - men and women are equal - urge women to participate in public issues - narrowly pass women’s suffrage Continued . . . NEXT

25 3 SECTION continued Women’s Rights Movement Emerges Sojourner Truth Former Northern slave Sojourner Truth travels country preaching Later argues for abolition, women’s rights NEXT

26 The Changing Workplace
Section 4 The Changing Workplace A growing industrial work force faces problems arising from manufacturing under the factory system. NEXT

27 The Changing Workplace
4 SECTION The Changing Workplace Industry Changes Work Rural Manufacturing • Cottage industry—manufacturers supply materials, goods made in homes • Entrepreneurs like Francis Cabot Lowell open weaving factories in MA - by 1830s Lowell and partners have 8 factories, 6,000 employees Continued . . . NEXT

28 4 SECTION continued Industry Changes Work Early Factories • Early 1800s, artisans produce items people cannot make themselves: - master—highly experienced artisan - journeyman—skilled worker employed by master - apprentice—young worker learning craft • Factories revolutionize industry: cost of household items drops • With machines, unskilled workers replace artisans NEXT

29 Farm Worker to Factory Worker
4 SECTION Farm Worker to Factory Worker The Lowell Mill • Most mill workers are unmarried farm girls - under strict control of female supervisor - live together in boarding houses • Owners hire females who can be paid lower wages than men • Factory pay better than alternatives—sewing, domestic work, or nothing at all • Most girls stay at Lowell only for a few years Continued . . . NEXT

30 Conditions at Lowell Strikes at Lowell 4
SECTION continued Farm Worker to Factory Worker Conditions at Lowell • Work 12 hours in heat, dark, poor ventilation: - cause discomfort, illness • Conditions continue to deteriorate; 800 mill girls conduct a strike: - work stoppage to force employer to respond to worker demands Strikes at Lowell • 1834, strike over pay cut; 1836, strike over higher board charges • Company prevails both times, fires strike leaders • 1845, Lowell Female Labor Reform Association founded NEXT

31 Workers Seek Better Conditions
4 SECTION Workers Seek Better Conditions Workers Unionize • Artisans form unions; begin to ally selves with unskilled workers • 1830s–1840s, 1–2% of workers organized, dozens of strikes - employers use immigrants as strikebreakers Immigration Increases • European immigration to the U.S. increases 1830–1860 • German immigrants cluster in upper Mississippi Valley, Ohio Valley A Second Wave • Irish immigrants settle in large Eastern cities • Disliked because Catholic, poor; resented because they work for low pay Continued . . . NEXT

32 National Trades’ Union
4 SECTION continued Workers Seek Better Conditions National Trades’ Union 1830s, unions from same trade unite to standardize wages, conditions 1834, organizations from 6 industries form National Trades’ Union Bankers, owners form associations; courts declare strikes illegal Court Backs Strikers In 1842, Massachusetts Supreme Court upholds right to strike In 1860, only 5,000 union members; 20,000 people in strikes NEXT

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