Driven 3 Outline Motivation Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Theories –Non-theory –Need-Motive-Value Theories –Cognitive Choice Theories Thomas’ Model –Origins –The Model –Taking Action Paradigm Shifts The Leadership Connection Sources
Driven 4 Motivation The force that drives people to behave in a way that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior Individual variability in behavior not due solely to: –a) Individual differences in ability –b) Environmental demands 3 major dependent variables 1. Direction of behavior 2. Intensity of action 3. Persistence of behavior
Driven 5 General Model of Performance Ability Situational Constraints Motivation BehaviorPerformance
Driven 6 Motivation Extrinsic means external to a thing, its essential nature, or its original character; applies to what is distinctly outside the thing in question or is not contained in or derived from its essential nature Motivators Reinforcers, Punishers & Incentives Like money, gold stars, treats, prizes, grades and praise OR Better jobs, promotions, salary increase, and the like Intrinsic belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing; originating or due to causes within a body, organ, or part Motivators Comes from doing the thing itself Desire for increased self- esteem, quality of life, responsibility, job satisfaction, and the like
Driven 7 Theories of Work Motivation A. Non-Theories of Motivation 1. Reinforcement Theory (Skinner et. al) Three key concepts: 1. Stimulus 2. Response 3. Reward Evaluation of Reinforcement Theory Principles of reinforcement theory do “work” Theory is still an incomplete picture of human motivation
Driven 8 Theories of Work Motivation B. Need-Motive-Value Theories Emphasize the role of personality traits and stable needs and values 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 2. Alderfer’s ERG Theory (Not addressed) 3. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory 4. Job Characteristics Theory 5. Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Driven 9 Theories of Motivation 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory TYPE OF NEED Generic definitions PHYSIOLOGICAL Salaries and wages Safe and pleasant working conditions SECURITY Pension and health care plans. Job tenure. Emphasis on career paths within the organization PHYSIOLOGICAL Basic to survival of organism and includes food, water, rest, shelter, air, etc. SECURITY Concerned with providing a safe and secure environment, free from threats to one’s existence Deficit (d-) Needs SOCIAL Work organization that permits interaction with colleagues Social and sports events. Office and factory parties and outings BELONGING Deal with the need for friendship, affection, affiliation, sometimes referred to as social needs EGO Creation of jobs with scope of achievement, autonomy, responsibility, and personal control. Work enhancing personal identity Feedback and recognition for good performance (e.g. promotions, “employee of the month” awards) ESTEEM Concerned with the desire of people to have a stable, high evaluation of themselves and to have respect from other people SELF-ACTUALIZING Encouragement of complete employee commitment Job a major expressive dimension of employee’s life SELF-ACTUALIZATION Refers to the desire to achieve self-fulfillment, to develop one’s potential to the fullest, to become everything that one is capable of becoming, and to achieve fulfillment of one's life goals TYPE OF NEED Workplace examples EXTRINSIC…………INTRINSIC
Driven 10 Theories of Motivation 3. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factors vs. Motivator Factors EXTRINSIC…………INTRINSIC Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction No Satisfaction Satisfaction Hygiene Factors Motivator Factors Zero Level Overlap
Driven 12 Theories of Motivation 4. Job Characteristics Theory (cont.) (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) 3 critical psychological states Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of actual results of the work This theory replaced Herzberg’s theory for organizational settings. Focuses on task outcomes only, does not account for activity-related awards. Knowledge of results and experienced responsibility are only rewarding when results are positive.
Driven 13 Theories of Motivation 5. Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci, 1971) Motivation is a function of the desire to fulfill higher order needs Need for competence Need for self-determination Use of extrinsic rewards only satisfies lower order needs Intrinsic motivation undermined by organization’s focus on extrinsic rewards (?) External events have controlling aspect and information aspect Deci presents the importance of autonomy and authenticity Focuses on task activities, (i.e. choice), but not task purposes (i.e. meaningfulness)
Driven 14 The Overjustification Effect Individuals offered extrinsic rewards for continued performance of an interesting task show decreases in intrinsic motivation Perceived decrease in self-determination Rewards seen as controlling Goals shift from learning/mastery to gains in terms of rewards Persistence only lasts until extrinsic motivator is gained Extrinsic motivators may not always exist Extrinsic motivators may not inoculate against feelings of discouragement May begin seeking out easy goals Other “controlling” factors: Task deadlines Limited choice Contingent rewards Negative feedback Evaluation by others Competition
Driven 15 Punished By Rewards Kohn explains that rewards fail for five reasons: 1. Rewards punish 2. Rewards rupture relationships 3. Rewards ignore reasons 4. Rewards discourage risk-taking 5. Rewards destroy intrinsic motivation for the things we do Fundamentally Kohn; and many other advocates against extrinsic motivators, view the use of rewards (or punishments) as “Do this and you’ll get that!”
Driven 16 Punished By Rewards Kohn suggests six methods to reduce the impact of rewards: 1. Get rewards out of people faces. 2. Offer rewards [only] after the fact as a surprise. 3. Never turn the quest for rewards into a contest. 4. Make rewards as similar as possible to the task. 5. Give people as much choice as possible re: use of rewards. 6. Try to immunize individuals against the motivation-killing effects of awards. KOHN’S FACTORS TO BUILD INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Collaboration requires that the members of the group or classroom rally around the true concept of working together for the success of the group. Content requires that the task, job, or learning experience cover a fulfilling and rewarding role. (this might be called Meaningfulness) People must be afforded the maximum amount of Choice in what and how they perform their tasks or work. This facilitates buy-in and participation.
Driven 17 Meta-analytic Reviews A. Cameron & Pierce (1994) Found no evidence of harmful effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation Remember Deci? B. Cameron & Eisenberger (1996) Found that rewards may enhance intrinsic motivation C. Eisenberger, Pierce & Cameron (1999) Found no support for negative impact of rewards on feelings of self-determination.
Driven 18 Theories of Motivation B. Cognitive Choice Theories 1. Equity Theory (Adams, 1965) This theory is based on the principle of social comparison Equity considerations Input/output ratio for self and others 2 types of inequity 1. Underpayment 2. Overpayment Inequity = Tension
Driven 19 Theories of Motivation 2. Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964) A cognitive theory that assumes that all people are completely rational decision makers People expend effort on activities that will lead to desired outcomes or rewards 5 major components to the theory Job outcomes Valence (V) Instrumentality (I) Expectancy (E) Force (F)
Driven 20 Theories of Work Motivation VIE Model F = E ( VI) Example: Increasing job performance Assume that there are two valued outcomes associated with increased job performance Pay increase Promotion 6.4 OutcomeVIE F = E ( VI) F = (.80) [(8 x.3) + (6 x.4)] F = 3.84
Driven 21 Intrinsic Motivation Is that how you get motivated? With a calculator in hand? With purely rational thinking? Most of these models fail in one way or another.
Driven 22 Theories of Motivation C. Self-Regulation Theories 1. Goal-setting Theory (Locke & Latham, 1991) A person’s actions and motivation are governed by goals that the person is trying to attain Goals serve as a motivational basis for task performance in that: 1. They motivate people to exert effort in line with the demands of their goal 2. They lead individuals to persist in their activities until they reach their goal 3. They direct attention to relevant behaviors or outcomes
Driven 23 Theories of Motivation 1. The Goal Setting Theory Effect (cont.) Specific, difficult goals lead to higher performance levels than vague, easy, or do-your-best goals Difficult, specific goals: 1. Lead to more effort expenditure 2. Lead to higher levels of persistence 3. Direct attention better 4. Require higher performance for the individual to be satisfied 5. Are typically associated with valued outcomes
Driven 24 Theories of Motivation 2. General model of self-regulation (Bandura, 1986; Carver & Scheier, 1981) Three major activities in self-regulation: A. Self-observation B. Self-evaluation Goal-performance discrepancies (GPD) Positive GPD = performance > goal (meet or exceed goal) Negative GPD = performance < goal (fail to meet goal) C. Self-reaction Self-dissatisfaction Goal abandonment or revision
Driven 25 Thomas’ Model Builds on these previous theories of Intrinsic Motivation Five Characteristics of Job Design Shape Experienced Meaningfulness, Causal Responsibility for Task Outcomes, and Knowledge of Results Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham Task Purpose Feedback and Rewards Shape Levels of Experienced Choice (Self Determination) and Competence Cognitive Evaluation Theory Deci & RyanTask Activities CONTENTTHEORYTHEORISTSFOCUS
Driven 26 Thomas’ Model Intrinsic Task Rewards TASK-RELATED Rewards PSYCHOLOGICAL Rewards (Intrinsic to Person) INTRINSIC NONTASK REWARDS (Psychological Rewards From Membership - Power, Affiliation, Pride in Organization) INTRINSIC TASK REWARDS (Psychological Rewards From Task) EXTRINSIC TASK REWARDS (Task Rewards from Others: Pay, Recognition) “intrinsic motivation involves psychological rewards that individuals derive directly from a task”
Driven 27 Intrinsic Motivation ‘Interpretive’ Model of Empowerment Sense of CHOICE Sense of MEANINGFUL -NESS Sense of COMPETENCE Sense of PROGRESS ACCOMPLISHMENT Rewards OPPORTUNITY Rewards From Task ACTIVITIES From Task PURPOSE
Driven 28 Intrinsic Motivation ‘Interpretive’ Model of Empowerment Choice is the opportunity you feel to select task activities that make sense to you and perform them in ways that seem appropriate. The feeling of choice is the feeling of being free to choose - of being able to use your own judgment and act out of your understanding of the task. Competence is the accomplishment you feel in skillfully performing task activities you have chosen. The feeling of competence involves the sense that you are doing good, quality work on the task. Meaningfulness is the opportunity you feel to pursue a worthy task purpose. The feeling of meaningfulness is the feeling that you are on a path that is worth your time and energy - that you are on a valuable mission, that your purpose matters in the larger scheme of things. Progress is the accomplishment you feel in achieving the task purpose. The feeling of progress involves the sense that the task is moving forward, that your activities are really accomplishing something.
Driven 29 Intrinsic Motivation Taking Action on with the Empowerment Model CHOICE Delegated authority Trust in workers Security (no punishment for honest mistakes) A clear purpose Information MEANINGFULNESS A non-cynical climate Clearly identified passions An exciting vision Relevant task purposes Whole tasks COMPETENCE Knowledge Models Positive Feedback Skill recognition Challenge High, non-comparative standards PROGRESS A collaborative climate Milestones Celebrations Access to customers Measurement of improvement
Driven 30 Sense of Choice Personal LevelTeam Level Delegated authority Trust in workers Security A clear purpose Information Giving members the right to make decisions relative to their task, including the spending of resources. Trusting members judgment, and giving them the space to exercise it. Supporting experimentation, no blame or punishment for honest mistakes. Deciding upon a clear team objective or direction to guide decision-making. Sharing with team all the information they need to make decisions. Negotiating the right to make your own decisions relative to your task. Listening to and trusting your own judgment. Having the courage to try things you believe will work, not yielding to your fears. Clarifying and negotiating a clear purpose for your task activities. Contacting people to request any information required.
Driven 31 Sense of Competence Personal LevelTeam Level Knowledge models Positive Feedback Skill Recognition Growth Opportunities, Challenge High Non-comparative Standards Providing models of task performance through training, role modeling, mentoring and shared learning. Providing feedback that is more ‘appreciative’ than ‘deficiency focused’. Building on what is done well rather than focusing on mistakes and shortcomings. Giving credit for successes - attributing to skill (rather than luck, others or easy tasks). Stretching team with gradually increasing demands and challenges. Not putting team in competition with one another, ensure recognizing one member’s competence does not threaten others. Networking and researching for models, mentors and training opportunities. Appreciating successes, limiting deficiency focusing, requesting positive feedback. Recognizing the role of your competencies in your successes. Trying new tasks, further developing old tasks. Avoiding self-defeating comparisons to others, learning from their success without fear.
Driven 32 Sense of Meaningfulness Personal LevelTeam Level Non-cynical climate Clear Passions Exciting Vision Relevant Task Purposes Whole Tasks Providing a non-cynical environment that encourages idealism and caring. Developing a shared value system for the team that identifies the group’s priorities. Constructing a vision for the future the team wants to create; ensuring that vision adds value to the world. Adopting task purposes that are clearly related to the vision; sowing their contribution; protecting team from low value busy work. When possible, giving members tasks that are whole projects, or major identifiable portions of a project. Seeking supportive teammates who help nurture your ideals; controlling cynicism. Understanding your own values; seeking teammates who share them; stating your values to teammates. Buying into the vision and making it yours; negotiating necessary changes; building a vision in the absence of one. Ensuring your task purposes contribute to the vision: “What can be done here that is meaningful?” eliminating low value busy work. Negotiating responsibility for whole, identifiable tasks.
Driven 33 Sense of Progress Personal LevelTeam Level Collaborative climate Milestones Celebrations Access to the customer Measurement of improvement Collaborating with team when coordination or support are needed - working together to meet the team’s needs. Providing clear information/direction on key events that will occur in achieving a task purpose. Celebrating team member progress with important milestones. Disseminating customer satisfaction feedback to the team (a measure of task success). On recurring tasks, using customer feedback and other criteria to help team continuously improve task performance. Building collaborative relationships with others involved in your tasks. Developing your internal milestones to achieve your task purposes. Tracking milestones; taking time to recognize and celebrate them. Making contact with your customers to gain feedback on your task performance. Monitoring and continuously improving your task performance.
Driven 34 Intrinsic Motivation “To understand intrinsic motivation, it’s important to see the limitations of the rational-economic (CET) model….At its heart, intrinsic motivation is not about rational calculation - it is about passion and positive feelings people get form their work. These feelings reinforce or energize workers [and] provide the fulfillment that is needed to keep today’s workers on the job. Building motivation, then, is about finding ways to enable and amplify those feelings” - Kenneth Thomas This is a shift in paradigms
Driven 35 The Self-Management process Commit to a Meaningful Purpose Perform Activities Choose Activities to Accomplish the Purpose Monitor Progress Toward the Purpose Monitor Activities for Competence The Paradigm Shift in Individuals
Driven 36 The Paradigm Shift in Management Old School (Command and Control) Emerging View (Collegial) Manager’s Role Worker’s Role Worker’s Motivation Post-industrial Paradigm Leadership and Coaching Self-management Mostly intrinsic Committed to task Gets rewards directly from doing the task well and self management Industrial Paradigm Directing and Controlling Compliance Mostly extrinsic No Commitment to task Responds to carrots and sticks controlled by management
Driven 37 Leadership Connection Leadership is influencing people—by providing purpose, direction, and motivation—while operating to accomplish the mission [or task] and improving the organization. FM , Department of the Army
Driven 38 The Role of Leadership Using the ‘Interpretive’ Model of Empowerment If we incorporate the Team and Personal Actions the end result is: Leading for CHOICE HANDING OFF Leading for MEANINGFULNESS INSPIRING Leading for COMPETENCE COACHING Leading for PROGRESS SCOREKEEPING and CHEERING
Driven 39 Sources Deci, E. & Flaste, R. (1996). Why we do what we do: Understanding self-motivation. New York: Penguin. Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. Department of Behavioral Sciences & Leadership, USMA. (1988). Leadership in organizations. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group. Department of Psychology. (2003). Work Motivation. University of Vermont. Retrieved June 15, 2003, from Department of the Army. (1989). Leadership: How to. FORSCOM Pamphlet Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2 nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Hackman, J.R. & Oldham, G.R. (1980). Work Redesign. Reading, M.A.: Addison-Wesley. Katzenbach, J.R. (2003). Why pride matters more than money: The power of the world’s greatest motivational force. New York: Crown Business.
Driven 40 Sources (cont.) Kohn, A. (1992). No contest: The case against competition. New York: Houghton-Mifflin. Kohn, A. (1999). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, a's, praise, and other bribes. New York: Houghton- Mifflin. Lead Institute. (2001). Leadership and intrinsic motivation. Ann Arbor, MI: The General Systems Consulting Group, Inc. Morgan, G. (1997). Images of organization (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the giant within: How to take immediate control of your mental, emotional, physical & financial destiny. New York: Simon & Shuster. Thomas, K. (1994). Intrinsic motivation at work: Building energy & commitment. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Thomas, K. & Jansen, E. (1996). Intrinsic motivation in the military: Models and strategic importance. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.
Driven 41 Summary Motivation Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Theories –Non-theory –Need-Motive-Value Theories –Cognitive Choice Theories Thomas’ Model –Origins –The Model –Taking Action Paradigm Shifts The Leadership Connection Sources