Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 2 Did you know? Sleep disorders affect up to 70 million people in the United States. This costs about $100 billion each year in accidents, medical bills and lost work. (Statistic from Brain Facts, Society for Neuroscience, 2002) Sleepwalking is also known as "somnambulism"; sleep talking is also known as Somniloquy.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 3 Highlights from the National Sleep Foundation's 2001 Sleep in America telephone survey of 1,004 adults:National Sleep Foundation's 63% of the surveyed adults get less than the recommended eight hours of sleep per night; 31% get less than seven hours. 40% of surveyed adults in the US report having trouble staying awake during the day. Over the last five years, people in the US have worked more and slept less. Eight out of ten people said that they would sleep more if they knew it would improve their health and memory.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 6 Take Our Quiz! 1.On average, how many years of people's lives do they spend dreaming? A. 1 year B. 2 years C. 4 years D. 6 years 2. 2. Dreams only occur during REM sleep. A. True B. False 3. What part of the brain is switched off while a person is dreaming? A. Visual processing areas B. Limbic system (emotions and memories) C. Smell processing areas D.Frontal lobe (rational thought and encoding memories)
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 7 4. In the recent Leonardo DiCaprio film, Inception, his character was aware of when he was dreaming and was able to actively participate in his dreams. This is called: A. Awake dreaming B. Lucid dreaming C. Tripping D. Altered states 5. When people are snoring, they aren't dreaming. A. True B. False 6. If you hold your breath in a dream, you hold your breath in real life, too. A. True B. False
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 8 7. Those who dream in black and white instead of color are often: A. Blind B. Over 55 years of age C. Babies D. Male. 8. Who are particularly good lucid dreamers? A. Filmmakers B. Gamers C. Teachers D. Children
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 9 9. Nightmares are: A. More common in women than in men B. More common in children than in adults C. Most often about being pursued or attacked D. All of the above 10. The best way to remember your dreams is: A. When you go to bed, tell yourself you will remember your dreams B. Set your alarm to go off every 90 minutes so you'll wake up at the end of REM sleep cycles C. Keep a dream journal next to your bed D. All of the above
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 10 Take Our Quiz! Correct Answers 1. On average, how many years of people's lives do they spend dreaming? A. 1 year B. 2 years C. 4 years D. 6 years Source: Discovery Health: Dreams and REM SleepDiscovery Health: Dreams and REM Sleep 2. Dreams only occur during REM sleep. A. True B. False Source: Frequently Asked Questions about Dreaming; University of California - Santa CruzFrequently Asked Questions about Dreaming 3. What part of the brain is switched off while a person is dreaming? A. Visual processing areas B. Limbic system (emotions and memories) C. Smell processing areas D.Frontal lobe (rational thought and encoding memories) Source: Research gathered by Amy Hardie in the making of The Edge of Dreaming
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 11 4. In the recent Leonardo DiCaprio film, Inception, his character was aware of when he was dreaming and was able to actively participate in his dreams. This is called: A. Awake dreaming B. Lucid dreaming C. Tripping D. Altered states Source: "Inception is a clunker, but lucid dreaming is cool“Inception is a clunker, but lucid dreaming is cool by John Horgan, Scientific American blog, Aug. 2, 2010. 5. When people are snoring, they aren't dreaming. A. True B. False Source: Discovery Health: Dreams and REM SleepDiscovery Health: Dreams and REM Sleep 6. If you hold your breath in a dream, you hold your breath in real life, too. A. True B. False Source: Discovery Health: Dreams and REM SleepDiscovery Health: Dreams and REM Sleep
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 12 7. Those who dream in black and white instead of color are often: A. Blind B. Over 55 years of age C. Babies D. Male Source: "Black and white TV generation have monochrome dreams"Black and white TV generation have monochrome dreams by Richard Alleyne, The London Telegraph, Oct. 17, 2008. 8. Who are particularly good lucid dreamers? A. Filmmakers B. Gamers C. Teachers D. Children Source: "Videogames train you for lucid dreaming?" BoingBoing, May 28, 2010.Videogames train you for lucid dreaming? 9. Nightmares are: A. More common in women than in men B. More common in children than in adults C. Most often about being pursued or attacked D. All of the above Source: "How to turn nightmares into good dreams" by Margaret Talbot, The New Yorker, Nov. 16, 2009.How to turn nightmares into good dreams
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 13 10. The best way to remember your dreams is: A. When you go to bed, tell yourself you will remember your dreams B. Set your alarm to go off every 90 minutes so you'll wake up at the end of REM sleep cycles C. Keep a dream journal next to your bed D. All of the above Source: Discovery Health: Dreams and REM SleepDiscovery Health: Dreams and REM Sleep
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 19 Are there people who never dream? Only in special, rare cases. Dreams are most likely during a phase of sleep called REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Even people who say they never remember dreams, usually do remember dreams when lab technicians wake them up during REM sleep. The main exception seems to be people with rare kinds of brain damage. How many minutes does it take for the average, normal person to fall asleep? 15 - 20
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 20 Of course, this varies from person to person and from time to time. If you consistently fall asleep much faster (say, within 5 minutes, every single night), this could be a sign that you are overly sleepy. If you consistently take more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, you may have insomnia. How many hours of sleep should young people (ages 11 – 17) get each night? 9-10 Research shows that young people your age don’t perform their best, and don’t awaken easily without an alarm clock, unless they get close to ten hours of sleep! Do you get enough sleep? 12
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 21 How many nightmares does the average young adult have in one year? 12 Some people have many nightmares. Others have none. (Psychological tests show that nightmare sufferers may be more open, sensitive, and trusting than other people.) The frequency of nightmares changes with age. Children aged 3-8 are particularly susceptible to nightmares. The once-a-month figure (above) comes from research on college students. Most nightmares are due to stress, illness, trauma, or physical discomfort.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 22 How many dreams does the average person have in one night? 3 - 5 This is really a guess. But each night, we typically have 3 – 5 periods of REM sleep. And when scientists wake people up from REM sleep in sleep labs, most of them (80%) report that they were dreaming. The number could actually be much higher, since it is possible to report dreams from other sleep stages, too. But researchers say that it is probably impossible to remember all (or even most!) of your dreams, because your memory just doesn’t work the same way when you are asleep. Do blind people dream? Yes. The dreams of people blind from birth feature sounds, touches, emotions, etc. – just like their waking experience. (People who went blind after age 7 usually see some visual images in their dreams.) Which animals dream?All mammals (except the spiny anteater).
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 23 If you have a pet, you have probably seen the animal twitch in its sleep. All mammals experience REM sleep, and research suggests that during REM, they experience the same hallucinations that we humans call dreams. But different species go through the cycles of sleep at different rates. For instance, cats’ REM periods are only 24 minutes apart. Opossums’ REM periods are about 90 minutes apart, the same as ours. Sleepwalking occurs in which type of sleep? "Slow Wave" sleep / Delta sleep Most sleepwalking happens during the deepest kind of sleep, Slow Wave Sleep (SWS). Contrary to popular opinion, it is not harmful to wake up a sleepwalker. However, it may be hard to do. (People are usually very hard to wake up from SWS.) Kids often outgrow sleepwalking, although the problem can linger into adulthood. Do people dream in color?Yes
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 24 People who pay more attention to color in waking life (artists, etc.) are more likely to notice the colors in their dreams. But even people who don’t normally notice color in their dreams are often able to recall specific dream colors under certain circumstances (awakened during REM in a sleep lab, and asked specific color questions by the technician.) Is it true that if you die in your dream, you’ll die in real life? No It is a common superstition, but a false one. Many people do wake up from dreams or nightmares just before the unavoidable death of their dream-self. Even in our dreams, we have a strong survival instinct; many peoples’ dreaming minds simply will not allow the dream to continue if death seems certain. But some people do dream of their own death and live to tell about it.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 25 What percentage of American adults say that they have had a psychic dream? 66 Reports of psychic dreams are amazingly common. Scientists often attribute the reports to chance or coincidence. But those who have experienced these dreams staunchly believe in psychic phenomenon. What do you think? How many major religions have teachings that include Divine/spiritual dreams? All.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 26 The Bible mentions quite a few important dreams, as do the sacred texts of all major world religions. Most religions teach that: Dreams can be a way of communicating with a Higher Power. Not all dreams should be regarded as messages from God. What does your religion teach about dreams? What do the following have in common? Pregnancy, psychological trauma, natural awakening (without an alarm clock) Increase dream recall
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 27 What do the following have in common? Loss of creative thinking, irritability, slower reaction times, difficulty learning new skills Effects of sleep deprivation It really is a bad practice to pull "all nighters" before important exams. It affects the way your brain works, and also may affect its ability to store knowledge in an orderly way for long-term retrieval. Your creative thinking and your good mood are usually the first things to suffer! What do the following have in common? Feel awake but unable to move, may sense an "evil presence" in the room, may struggle to breathe Symptoms of sleep paralysis (also called an "Old Hag" experience)
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 28 The Bible mentions quite a few important dreams, as do the sacred texts of all major world religions. Most religions teach that: Dreams can be a way of communicating with a Higher Power. Not all dreams should be regarded as messages from God. What does your religion teach about dreams? What do the following have in common? Pregnancy, psychological trauma, natural awakening (without an alarm clock) Increase dream recall
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 29 People who have been through traumatic experiences such as rape, wartime combat, or natural disasters, usually notice that their dream recall increases sharply. The hormonal changes (and/or lighter sleep) of pregnancy also seem to boost dream recall. Some medications can cause a sudden surge of dreams. You are much more likely to remember dreams if you wake up naturally and have an unhurried morning. What do the following have in common? Bright lighting, warm temperature, cold feet, caffeine, stress Worsen sleep
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 30 Even with your eyes closed, some light gets through your eyelids and sends a subtle "wake-up" signal to your brain. When the room is hot, it may cause nightmares. Studies show it takes longer to fall asleep when your feet are cold. Some people feel that caffeine does not affect them much, since they can still fall asleep. But research shows that the quality of caffeinated sleep probably isn’t as good; there are more arousals and restless movements. Caffeine can stay in your system and affect your sleep for 6 hours. What do the following have in common? Waking up at the same time every day, milk & turkey near bedtime, regular "white" noise Improve sleep
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 31 People who maintain very regular schedules of bedtime and awakening times tend to sleep better. Milk and turkey contain an amino acid called tryptophan, which may improve sleep. Some light sleepers benefit by listening to a very constant noise (such as an electric fan), which may help cover up irregular background noises that might otherwise wake them up. What do the following have in common? Alcohol, marijuana, depression Decrease dream frequency All of these affect REM sleep, and suppress dreams. Oddly enough, some people may actually feel they dream more after having alcohol, for example. Why? Because when our bodies are deprived of REM sleep, they eventually go into "REM rebound", an intense REM state that tries to "make up for lost time" in that sleep stage. The resulting dream may be more memorable (and/or more disturbing!), but in reality, the body is still not getting enough REM sleep time.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 32 People have been describing this phenomenon since ancient times. Scientists have a theory about why it may happen. Ordinarily, during dreaming sleep, our brain sends a chemical message that paralyzes our body (which protects us from acting out our dreams and getting into a lot of trouble!) But sometimes, for unknown reasons, something goes wrong and this protective paralysis doesn’t go away when we first wake up. It’s as if it takes our brain a minute to realize that dreaming sleep has ended. The hallucinations of dreams may continue, too, resulting in visions of evil creatures. Why are the visions almost always scary? Because it is very scary to feel helpless and paralyzed, which may trigger us to imagine scenes of malevolent spirits.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 33 What do the following have in common? Asleep, dreaming, aware that the dream images are dreams, may include ability to control the dream Characteristics of lucid dreams During ordinary dreams, we are not aware that the experience is actually a dream. No matter how strange or bizarre the dream becomes, we usually believe it to be real and act accordingly – that is, until we wake up and realize our error! In lucid dreams, the dreamer suddenly thinks, "Hey – right now I am dreaming all of this!" Sometimes, this awareness dawns during a nightmare. We try to make ourselves wake up to end it. Some people (including sects of Tibetan monks) try to cultivate this mental state.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 34 What do the following have in common? Loud and irregular snoring, daytime drowsiness, intermittent pauses in breathing during sleep Symptoms of sleep apnea Sleep apnea is a potentially life-threatening breathing disorder that occurs during sleep. It is about as common as adult asthma. It is usually treated with a special breathing mask that is worn during sleep. What do the following have in common? Jerking in sleep, discomfort in limbs at sleep onset, daytime drowsiness, difficulty falling asleep Symptoms of movement- related sleep disorders
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 35 Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and Periodic Limb Movement in Sleep (PLMS) are movement-related sleep disorders. Sufferers kick and jerk a lot at night, often rhythmically, and may experience great discomfort or "restlessness" of the limbs (especially legs) at night. What do the following have in common? Muscle weakness (especially with emotion), severe daytime drowsiness, hallucinations on the borders of sleep, sleep paralysis Symptoms of narcolepsy
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 36 Narcolepsy is a relatively rare sleep disorder, but it often has a profound effect. People with severe narcolepsy may fall asleep in the middle of a sentence, or may drop to the ground during laughter or tears. The onset of symptoms usually occurs during adolescence or early adulthood. What do the following have in common? Acting out violent dreams, thrashing or moving about in the bed primarily toward the early morning hours. Symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder (RSBD)
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 37 Although it may be mistaken for sleepwalking, RSBD is actually very different. It is a disorder of REM sleep in which the normal muscle paralysis of REM does not function properly. Unfortunately, aggressive or violent dreams seem to be a part of this syndrome, so it may lead to serious injury for the sleeper or his/her bed partner. It occurs more often (although not exclusively) in elderly men who have other neurological problems.