Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Vikings in Paris but first a reminder of where we left them but first a reminder of where we left them.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Vikings in Paris but first a reminder of where we left them but first a reminder of where we left them."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vikings in Paris but first a reminder of where we left them but first a reminder of where we left them

2 After Lindisfarne numerous attacks in British Isles and Ireland After Lindisfarne numerous attacks in British Isles and Ireland Began to colonize off coast of Scotland Began to colonize off coast of Scotland Next turned attention southward Next turned attention southward Looking not at Christian Churches Looking not at Christian Churches But at trading posts But at trading posts like Dorestad on the Rhine like Dorestad on the Rhine

3 834. A fleet of Danes came to Frisa 834. A fleet of Danes came to Frisa laid waste to part of it. On through Utrecht to Dorestad On through Utrecht to Dorestad Slaughtered some took others away, and burned surrounding region. Slaughtered some took others away, and burned surrounding region. Annals of St. Bertin Why such a time lag? Why such a time lag? 1 st ~ st ~ 793 Dorestad 834 Dorestad 834

4 Charlemagne and Frankia Charlemagne and Frankia Charlemagne's vast empire of Frankia Charlemagne's vast empire of Frankia Modern day – France, West Germany, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy Modern day – France, West Germany, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy Dominated Europe Dominated Europe Culminating with his crowning as the 1 st Holy roman emperor on Christmas day in 800 Culminating with his crowning as the 1 st Holy roman emperor on Christmas day in 800

5 Although unwieldy Although unwieldy Charlemagne constantly fighting to defend or hold together the empire Charlemagne constantly fighting to defend or hold together the empire Charlemagne set up a series of watches and guards along the “northern sea” Charlemagne set up a series of watches and guards along the “northern sea” These along with naval flotillas were able to guard against, and prevent, large scale Viking raiding These along with naval flotillas were able to guard against, and prevent, large scale Viking raiding

6 Upon death in 814 succeeded by Upon death in 814 succeeded by Louis the Pious Louis the Pious As committed to the cause as his father As committed to the cause as his father But, did not have the same forceful character But, did not have the same forceful character Civil wars began to break out Civil wars began to break out And the Vikings with a nose for opportunity moved in And the Vikings with a nose for opportunity moved in

7 First probed Seine in 820 First probed Seine in 820 Then settled back to closer targets Then settled back to closer targets Utrecht and Dorestad in 834 Utrecht and Dorestad in 834 Expanding to Antwerp in 836 Expanding to Antwerp in 836 southern Britain at around the same time southern Britain at around the same time And the trading post of And the trading post of

8 840 Louis the Pious died leaving the empire to his three sons 840 Louis the Pious died leaving the empire to his three sons Louis the German in the east Charles the Bald in the west Lothar in the centre and Italy With division, internal conflicts and pressure from external raiders the empire began to collapse With division, internal conflicts and pressure from external raiders the empire began to collapse

9 842 – Vikings back on the Loire with a fleet of 67 ships 842 – Vikings back on the Loire with a fleet of 67 ships Rumored to have been aided by a rebel Count – Lambert – who wanted Nantes for himself Rumored to have been aided by a rebel Count – Lambert – who wanted Nantes for himself Lambert’s pilots guided the Viking fleet down the Loire River Lambert’s pilots guided the Viking fleet down the Loire River On June 24 th during the celebration of St John’s day they struck On June 24 th during the celebration of St John’s day they struck Rebel Count stepped in and assumed power over shattered town Rebel Count stepped in and assumed power over shattered town

10 Death of Louis the Pious turned Frankia into a Viking hunting ground Death of Louis the Pious turned Frankia into a Viking hunting ground Also taught Vikings that activity could be a full time commitment Also taught Vikings that activity could be a full time commitment After attack on Nantes After attack on Nantes Vikings wintered at Noirmoutier rather than return home Vikings wintered at Noirmoutier rather than return home

11 841 – Rouen on the Seine 841 – Rouen on the Seine 842 – the trade city of Quentovis 842 – the trade city of Quentovis Near modern day Boulogne Near modern day Boulogne 845 – Hamburg 845 – Hamburg 845 Viking, Ragnar, entered Seine with 120 ships 845 Viking, Ragnar, entered Seine with 120 ships Charles the Bald attempted to repulse Charles the Bald attempted to repulse

12 Deployed army on either side of river Deployed army on either side of river Crossfire backfired Crossfire backfired Rangar assessed which was the weaker of two banks Rangar assessed which was the weaker of two banks Attacked quickly defeated one bank Attacked quickly defeated one bank Hung 111 captives in view of opposing bank Hung 111 captives in view of opposing bank Crippled morale and ripped the heart out of resistance Crippled morale and ripped the heart out of resistance

13 Easter Sunday 845 he pounced on Paris Easter Sunday 845 he pounced on Paris Sacked the city Sacked the city Demanded and received 7,000 pounds of Silver from Charles the Bald to leave Demanded and received 7,000 pounds of Silver from Charles the Bald to leave Bought Charles 6 years of peace to deal with internal enemies Bought Charles 6 years of peace to deal with internal enemies Set precedent that other Vikings would follow Set precedent that other Vikings would follow By middle of the ninth century whole of Frankish Empire in a state of calamity By middle of the ninth century whole of Frankish Empire in a state of calamity Monk of Noirmoutier wrote Monk of Noirmoutier wrote

14 “The number of ships increases, the endless flood of Vikings never ceases to grow. Everywhere Christ’s people are the victims of massacre, burning, and plunder, clear proof of which will remain as long as the world itself endures. The Vikings overrun all that lies before them, and none can withstand them. They sieze the cities of Bordeux, Périgueux, Limoges, Angoulême, Toulouse; Angers, Tours, and Orléans are made deserts; the ashes of many a saint are counted away... Ships past counting voyage up the Seine, and throughout the entire region evil grows strong” “The number of ships increases, the endless flood of Vikings never ceases to grow. Everywhere Christ’s people are the victims of massacre, burning, and plunder, clear proof of which will remain as long as the world itself endures. The Vikings overrun all that lies before them, and none can withstand them. They sieze the cities of Bordeux, Périgueux, Limoges, Angoulême, Toulouse; Angers, Tours, and Orléans are made deserts; the ashes of many a saint are counted away... Ships past counting voyage up the Seine, and throughout the entire region evil grows strong”

15 Now recognized that Vikings became settlers and traders Now recognized that Vikings became settlers and traders Advance art and technology throughout Europe Advance art and technology throughout Europe Must not lose sight of fact that they were also savage and destructive also Must not lose sight of fact that they were also savage and destructive also Although a time of brutality Although a time of brutality Actions in Franikia considerably more brutal and murderous than most. Actions in Franikia considerably more brutal and murderous than most.

16 Gradually raids became more organized and ambitious Gradually raids became more organized and ambitious Example Bjorn Ironside and fellow commander Haestin Example Bjorn Ironside and fellow commander Haestin Began in 857 with attack upon Paris Began in 857 with attack upon Paris What one historian described as a “holocaust” What one historian described as a “holocaust” City almost totally destroyed City almost totally destroyed Only 4 buildings still standing Only 4 buildings still standing

17 Ease and success led to other thoughts. Ease and success led to other thoughts. If they could sack greatest city in Northern Europe If they could sack greatest city in Northern Europe why not sack the greatest city in the world why not sack the greatest city in the world Rome Rome Bjorn and Haestin sailed from Paris on trail of havoc and destruction around coasts of Europe to the Mediterranean Bjorn and Haestin sailed from Paris on trail of havoc and destruction around coasts of Europe to the Mediterranean

18 Initially easy pickings round the coast of Brittany and into the Bay of Biscay Initially easy pickings round the coast of Brittany and into the Bay of Biscay When they reached the shores of Moorish Spain their ships were laden with prisoners, gold and silver When they reached the shores of Moorish Spain their ships were laden with prisoners, gold and silver Lost two ships in an attempted attack on Spain then pressed on through the Straits of Gibraltar Lost two ships in an attempted attack on Spain then pressed on through the Straits of Gibraltar Sacked Algeciras before crossing to Africa Sacked Algeciras before crossing to Africa Took Africans as prisoners Took Africans as prisoners Who ended up shivering as slaves in Ireland Who ended up shivering as slaves in Ireland Before shifting back to the coasts of Spain and France Before shifting back to the coasts of Spain and France

19 Here they raided the Balerics, Narbonne and the Camargue Here they raided the Balerics, Narbonne and the Camargue They continued east to Italy They continued east to Italy May have sacked Pisa May have sacked Pisa Then attacked and raided Luna Then attacked and raided Luna Between Pisa and Genoa Between Pisa and Genoa Suggestions that they may have got as far east as Alexandria in Egypt Suggestions that they may have got as far east as Alexandria in Egypt

20 Eventually they turned around and headed back Eventually they turned around and headed back Attacked in the Straits of Gibraltar by Moors Attacked in the Straits of Gibraltar by Moors Heavy losses, eventually broke through and headed back up the Atlantic coast Heavy losses, eventually broke through and headed back up the Atlantic coast Stopping of in Navarre, to head inland and capture Pamplona, ransoming the Prince for a “Huge sum” Stopping of in Navarre, to head inland and capture Pamplona, ransoming the Prince for a “Huge sum”

21 862, 5 years after leaving, the Vikings returned safely to the mouth of the Loire river 862, 5 years after leaving, the Vikings returned safely to the mouth of the Loire river Only 20 of the original 62 ships returned Only 20 of the original 62 ships returned This was both: This was both: A spectacular and heroic voyage whose fame would not be forgotten A spectacular and heroic voyage whose fame would not be forgotten A preposterous exercise in piracy that brought untold misery A preposterous exercise in piracy that brought untold misery

22 Back in England Sporadic attacks continued for several years Sporadic attacks continued for several years 850 a change in tactics 850 a change in tactics A group of Vikings (Danes) rather than attack and disappear stayed in England A group of Vikings (Danes) rather than attack and disappear stayed in England Wintering on the Isle of Thanent off the coast of Kent Wintering on the Isle of Thanent off the coast of Kent Over the next decade or so the Vikings worked their way up the East coast of England Over the next decade or so the Vikings worked their way up the East coast of England

23 Led initially by Ivor the Boneless and Halfden Led initially by Ivor the Boneless and Halfden They fought, bribed and tricked their way north to Northumbria They fought, bribed and tricked their way north to Northumbria Fall 866 they took York Fall 866 they took York capital of Northumbria capital of Northumbria Another shift in policy Another shift in policy Moved from setting up winter camps to taking over a large city – and staying Moved from setting up winter camps to taking over a large city – and staying Appointed a puppet King and with their rear safe headed south Appointed a puppet King and with their rear safe headed south

24 Vikings attacked and claimed land throughout England Vikings attacked and claimed land throughout England Making vassals of several regions Making vassals of several regions 871 shocked by a counter attack under Alfred of Wessex 871 shocked by a counter attack under Alfred of Wessex Although not able to defeat the Vikings Alfred was able to force a negotiated truce Although not able to defeat the Vikings Alfred was able to force a negotiated truce In 877 the Vikings, under Grunthum, broke the truce and attacked Wessex once more In 877 the Vikings, under Grunthum, broke the truce and attacked Wessex once more

25 Alfred pushed back and harried constantly Alfred pushed back and harried constantly Easter 878 looked as though the Vikings would expand their new English colony Easter 878 looked as though the Vikings would expand their new English colony Alfred managed to launch a successful counter-attack Alfred managed to launch a successful counter-attack Gunthrum forced into an unconditional surrender Gunthrum forced into an unconditional surrender received Christian baptism as part of the price of peace received Christian baptism as part of the price of peace Gunthrum honored the treaty and moved back into East Anglia Gunthrum honored the treaty and moved back into East Anglia Setting up dual control of England Setting up dual control of England

26 Alfred in control of the South and West Alfred in control of the South and West Vikings remained in control of the North and East Vikings remained in control of the North and East This situation would remain in place for many years This situation would remain in place for many years Untill Canute was able to expand Viking terriotory and become de facto King of England Untill Canute was able to expand Viking terriotory and become de facto King of England A situation which remained until the arrival of William the Conquerer A situation which remained until the arrival of William the Conquerer

27 However the influence of the Viking remained in many ways on English culture from this point forward However the influence of the Viking remained in many ways on English culture from this point forward One example can be seen in events still taking place to this day on the Isle of Man One example can be seen in events still taking place to this day on the Isle of Man Small island of the British Coast Small island of the British Coast

28 The East Consolidation in Sweden led to expansion Consolidation in Sweden led to expansion Across Baltic Across Baltic Latvia Latvia Divna – Dnieper Rivers Divna – Dnieper Rivers Forced out Forced out “we seek a prince to rule over us and judge us according to the law” “we seek a prince to rule over us and judge us according to the law” Novgorod – Rusland Novgorod – Rusland Intermarige – Russians Intermarige – Russians AD 839 reached Constantinople AD 839 reached Constantinople

29 Crescent and the Cross

30 Between fall of Rome and early crusades Between fall of Rome and early crusades Mediterranean was relatively free of piracy Mediterranean was relatively free of piracy Crusades lent impetus to a new trade Crusades lent impetus to a new trade Re-enter the pirates Re-enter the pirates Pirates across North African coast took advantage of this new trade Pirates across North African coast took advantage of this new trade

31 Terminology “Barbary coast” & “Barbary Pirates” “Barbary coast” & “Barbary Pirates” Originally coined c.1500 Originally coined c.1500 Not often used Not often used Reintroduced at a later period Reintroduced at a later period at the time Europeans used at the time Europeans used Moors Moors Turks Turks Occasionally Africans Occasionally Africans

32 Initial pirates although Islamic Initial pirates although Islamic Driven by the usual motivation of pirates Driven by the usual motivation of pirates Greed and profit Greed and profit But as well as enriching themselves But as well as enriching themselves They also struck a blow against Christianity for Islam They also struck a blow against Christianity for Islam

33 Muslim states traditionally not overly interested in the sea Muslim states traditionally not overly interested in the sea Advanced where their armies could march Advanced where their armies could march General who had conquered Egypt referred to the sea as General who had conquered Egypt referred to the sea as “ a huge beast which silly folk rode like worms on logs ” “ a huge beast which silly folk rode like worms on logs ”

34 Pirates fleets began to grow in size attracting support and money Pirates fleets began to grow in size attracting support and money Also began to make arrangements with rulers of states of North Africa Also began to make arrangements with rulers of states of North Africa Algiers Algiers Morocco Morocco Tripoli Tripoli Tunis Tunis Rulers began to make profit but also gained prestige within the Muslim world Rulers began to make profit but also gained prestige within the Muslim world The rulers supported pirates for many years The rulers supported pirates for many years

35 No single power Christian or Muslim had ability (or committed desire) to suppress the pirates No single power Christian or Muslim had ability (or committed desire) to suppress the pirates Islamic pirates attacked Christian ships with support of Muslim leaders Islamic pirates attacked Christian ships with support of Muslim leaders Christian Pirates attacked Islamic ships with the support of Christian leaders Christian Pirates attacked Islamic ships with the support of Christian leaders

36 1504 a Muslim pirate attacked and captured a papal war galleys 1504 a Muslim pirate attacked and captured a papal war galleys The two galley were lapse in their security The two galley were lapse in their security Allowed themselves to become separated Allowed themselves to become separated When a small ship approached the lead galley the leader did not worry until to late When a small ship approached the lead galley the leader did not worry until to late The ship approached fast and easily took the ship The ship approached fast and easily took the ship Dressing in the captives clothes and forcing prisoners below decks they approached and took the second ship Dressing in the captives clothes and forcing prisoners below decks they approached and took the second ship

37 Pirate released Muslim slaves who worked the oars on the papal ships Pirate released Muslim slaves who worked the oars on the papal ships Returned to Tunis a hero Returned to Tunis a hero This Pirate was This Pirate was Arouj Barbarossa Arouj Barbarossa One of two Barbarossa brothers One of two Barbarossa brothers Barbarossa = Red Beard Barbarossa = Red Beard

38 Barbarossa brothers were the son of a Greek potter Barbarossa brothers were the son of a Greek potter They were born Christian and later converted to Islam They were born Christian and later converted to Islam Arouj joined the Turkish pirates Arouj joined the Turkish pirates Gradually gained respect and power Gradually gained respect and power Persuaded his crew to break free of masters in Constantinople Persuaded his crew to break free of masters in Constantinople Headed out as an independent crew Headed out as an independent crew

39 Actions against the Papal vessels gained him prestige Actions against the Papal vessels gained him prestige The leader of Tunis became an alley offering a safe port and market The leader of Tunis became an alley offering a safe port and market Ferdinand of Spain assumed as his Christian duty the responsibility of suppressing the Barbary Pirates Ferdinand of Spain assumed as his Christian duty the responsibility of suppressing the Barbary Pirates Spanish occupied an island that dominated Algiers harbor Spanish occupied an island that dominated Algiers harbor After the main force had departed Arouj began to retake the region After the main force had departed Arouj began to retake the region

40 After a war of constant attrition After a war of constant attrition During which Arouj lost an arm During which Arouj lost an arm His forces grew to include and extensive fleet and 5000 land troops His forces grew to include and extensive fleet and 5000 land troops Eventually invited by King of Algiers to attack and destroy Spanish on island Eventually invited by King of Algiers to attack and destroy Spanish on island Arouj had bigger plans, strangled king and took control Arouj had bigger plans, strangled king and took control Harsh leader – local population invited Spanish to help remove him Harsh leader – local population invited Spanish to help remove him

41 Eventually Spaniards cornered and killed Arouj Eventually Spaniards cornered and killed Arouj Death greeted with great joy by the Christian world Death greeted with great joy by the Christian world Motivated his brother Kheyer-ed-din Motivated his brother Kheyer-ed-din Who had been the leader of his brothers fleet Who had been the leader of his brothers fleet To take revenge on the Christian world To take revenge on the Christian world A revenge that shocked and shifted the balance of power in the Mediterranean and beyond A revenge that shocked and shifted the balance of power in the Mediterranean and beyond

42 Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman the Magnificent leader of the Muslim world leader of the Muslim world Had defeated a Christian force on Rhodes Had defeated a Christian force on Rhodes Removing the Christian presence in the region Removing the Christian presence in the region Disappointed in his fleet looks for help Disappointed in his fleet looks for help Kheyr-ed-din Barabrosa at this time inherited brothers troops and kingdom that had rebelled Kheyr-ed-din Barabrosa at this time inherited brothers troops and kingdom that had rebelled Appealed to Suleiman Appealed to Suleiman

43 In return for Kheyr-ed-din’s fealty In return for Kheyr-ed-din’s fealty Suleiman loaned crack troops Suleiman loaned crack troops Appointed him Governor of the region Appointed him Governor of the region Kheyer-ed-din regained his brother’s kingdom town by town Kheyer-ed-din regained his brother’s kingdom town by town Suleiman invited Kheyr-ed-din to oversea the rebuilding of his fleet Suleiman invited Kheyr-ed-din to oversea the rebuilding of his fleet He sailed with the fleet and began to attack Europe attacking several locations in Italy He sailed with the fleet and began to attack Europe attacking several locations in Italy

44 Took large numbers of prisoners and goods Took large numbers of prisoners and goods Then turned his attention to the Spanish dependency of Tunis in Africa Then turned his attention to the Spanish dependency of Tunis in Africa After several victories he turned his attention to the Island out side the harbor of Algiers After several victories he turned his attention to the Island out side the harbor of Algiers After a seventeen day siege the Spanish were defeated After a seventeen day siege the Spanish were defeated He razed the fort and constructed a mole to connect the island to the main land He razed the fort and constructed a mole to connect the island to the main land

45 In response Charles V Spain sent Christian pirate Andrea Doris to attack Tunis In response Charles V Spain sent Christian pirate Andrea Doris to attack Tunis Charles V was hailed as a hero after a successful attack by Doris Charles V was hailed as a hero after a successful attack by Doris 1538 the fleets of Crescent and Cross met in the Adriatic 1538 the fleets of Crescent and Cross met in the Adriatic The Christian fleet was routed by Kheyr-ed-din and his Muslim fleet The Christian fleet was routed by Kheyr-ed-din and his Muslim fleet

46 1541 Charles V attempted to regain prestige and power by sending out another fleet 1541 Charles V attempted to regain prestige and power by sending out another fleet A fleet of 500 ships left A fleet of 500 ships left Dorea warned that they were leaving at a bad time of year Dorea warned that they were leaving at a bad time of year But Charles waved aside his concerns But Charles waved aside his concerns A storm decimated the fleet A storm decimated the fleet 300 officers and 8000 men were killed 300 officers and 8000 men were killed So many slaves were taken that the price dipped to a degree that it was said that a Christian slave was “not worth an onion” So many slaves were taken that the price dipped to a degree that it was said that a Christian slave was “not worth an onion”

47 Disaster weakened Charles’ grip over Europe Disaster weakened Charles’ grip over Europe Independence campaigns began Independence campaigns began 1543 Francis I of France concluded a treaty with Suleiman for help against Spain 1543 Francis I of France concluded a treaty with Suleiman for help against Spain Suleiman sent Kheyr-ed- din to support Francis Suleiman sent Kheyr-ed- din to support Francis

48 In Marseilles the flag of Our Lady was replaced with the Crescent In Marseilles the flag of Our Lady was replaced with the Crescent Kheyr-ed-din spent time in Marseilles but conducted no campaigns against Spain Kheyr-ed-din spent time in Marseilles but conducted no campaigns against Spain Eventually dismissed Eventually dismissed Kheyr-ed-din died a few years later Kheyr-ed-din died a few years later After his death he was placed in a sepulcher After his death he was placed in a sepulcher His corpse reappeared several times His corpse reappeared several times Eventually a Greek magician advised he be buried with a black dog Eventually a Greek magician advised he be buried with a black dog After this time the Kheyr-ed-din was at peace After this time the Kheyr-ed-din was at peace

49 Dragut became commander-in-chief of the Turkish fleet Dragut became commander-in-chief of the Turkish fleet Dragut was born a peasant and Muslim Dragut was born a peasant and Muslim Ran away from home and took to the sea Ran away from home and took to the sea Proved to be a successful sailor and rose through the ranks Proved to be a successful sailor and rose through the ranks

50 Known as the “drawn sword of Islam” Known as the “drawn sword of Islam” Dragut worked his way along North Africa Dragut worked his way along North Africa Attacking everywhere in Spanish hands Attacking everywhere in Spanish hands Before tuning his attention to the strong hold of Malta Before tuning his attention to the strong hold of Malta Malta was held by the Knights of Malta Malta was held by the Knights of Malta In effect the Christian counterpart of the Barbary Pirates In effect the Christian counterpart of the Barbary Pirates

51 1565 Dragut attacked Malta 1565 Dragut attacked Malta Fleet of 185 ships and 30,000 men Fleet of 185 ships and 30,000 men The attack was going well until a rumor of Spanish support caused the attacking fleet to flee The attack was going well until a rumor of Spanish support caused the attacking fleet to flee Dragut was killed Dragut was killed October 7, 1570 a large Spanish fleet October 7, 1570 a large Spanish fleet 206 Galleys, 48,000 men 206 Galleys, 48,000 men Met with the Turkish fleet now under Ochiali Met with the Turkish fleet now under Ochiali After a long battle the Turkish fleet was defeated After a long battle the Turkish fleet was defeated

52 In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue

53 Leaving aside the facts that Leaving aside the facts that A) The Vikings were in America before Columbus A) The Vikings were in America before Columbus B) Columbus did not ‘find’ America because Native Americans hadn’t lost it B) Columbus did not ‘find’ America because Native Americans hadn’t lost it C) his arrival led to the death of millions of people C) his arrival led to the death of millions of people It is the arrival of Columbus that leads to the next stage of piracy that I will turn It is the arrival of Columbus that leads to the next stage of piracy that I will turn The West Indies and Buccaneers The West Indies and Buccaneers

54 Post 1492, post the annihilation of the Aztec and Inca people Post 1492, post the annihilation of the Aztec and Inca people Spain dominant power in Europe Spain dominant power in Europe Due to the wealth they were able to extract Due to the wealth they were able to extract Aim protect that wealth and power Aim protect that wealth and power

55 Spanish colonists required by law to: Spanish colonists required by law to: Associate only with members of the Catholic faith Associate only with members of the Catholic faith Trade only with Spain Trade only with Spain If there was something they could not obtain they were to do without If there was something they could not obtain they were to do without Colonists tended to ignore these rules Colonists tended to ignore these rules

56 Spanish colonists traded with anyone who had what they needed Spanish colonists traded with anyone who had what they needed French and British merchants happy to help French and British merchants happy to help Merchants prospered Merchants prospered Spanish authorities worked hard to stamp them out Spanish authorities worked hard to stamp them out Harder they tried Harder they tried the more those people believed they needed to be there the more those people believed they needed to be there

57 France attempted to form a colony in Florida in 1562 France attempted to form a colony in Florida in 1562 quickly wiped out quickly wiped out Spain not able to prevent the British settlement of St. Kitts Spain not able to prevent the British settlement of St. Kitts However, they captured several British merchant ships and However, they captured several British merchant ships and “cut off the hands, feet, noses, and ears of the crews and smeared them with honey and tied them to trees to be tortured by flies and other insects” “cut off the hands, feet, noses, and ears of the crews and smeared them with honey and tied them to trees to be tortured by flies and other insects”

58 Spanish claimed actions were justified Spanish claimed actions were justified Dealing with pirates Dealing with pirates French claim French claim Had no fortification in the region Had no fortification in the region no judicial presence no judicial presence Therefore no legal responsibility Therefore no legal responsibility English crown affirmed to Spain that English crown affirmed to Spain that It had issued no commissions It had issued no commissions therefore had no authority or responsibility in the region therefore had no authority or responsibility in the region

59 Despite political détente all parties were being economical with the truth Despite political détente all parties were being economical with the truth British and French because despite their claims British and French because despite their claims They would use any methods to carve out a place in the New World They would use any methods to carve out a place in the New World Wanted a piece of the New World pie Wanted a piece of the New World pie ‘unofficially’ encouraged: ‘unofficially’ encouraged: Attacks on Spanish shipping Attacks on Spanish shipping Settlement attempts Settlement attempts Spanish attacking traders and pirates alike Spanish attacking traders and pirates alike

60 Early French merchants began to settle on the island of Hispaniola Early French merchants began to settle on the island of Hispaniola Joined by a number of Englishmen and members of other nations Joined by a number of Englishmen and members of other nations The population rose to about 500 who lived by hunting The population rose to about 500 who lived by hunting Small groups head out establish a camp Small groups head out establish a camp

61 Lived at the camp for a year or so Lived at the camp for a year or so When they shot a beast they would When they shot a beast they would Butcher it Butcher it Drink its ‘brandy’ Drink its ‘brandy’ The blood-hot marrow The blood-hot marrow After a number of animals were killed returned to the camp stretched out the hides After a number of animals were killed returned to the camp stretched out the hides Lived on meat alone which they dried over ‘boucans’ Lived on meat alone which they dried over ‘boucans’

62 Hard and dangerous life Hard and dangerous life Primarily because the Spanish were determined to eliminate them Primarily because the Spanish were determined to eliminate them Chosen method to hunt them and then burn them at the stake Chosen method to hunt them and then burn them at the stake Hoped to intimidate them Hoped to intimidate them Made them hate the Spanish Made them hate the Spanish prepared to fight to the death prepared to fight to the death

63 Capture proved difficult Capture proved difficult Soldiers operating on foreign terrain Soldiers operating on foreign terrain Buccaneers excellent marksmen Buccaneers excellent marksmen Could shoot an orange from a tree through the stem without hitting the tree or the fruit Could shoot an orange from a tree through the stem without hitting the tree or the fruit Spanish soldiers often retreated when faced with only a single buccaneer Spanish soldiers often retreated when faced with only a single buccaneer If Spain had left them alone may well have remained content with their lives If Spain had left them alone may well have remained content with their lives

64 Not Spain’s approach Not Spain’s approach New tactic New tactic Shot the animals not the people Shot the animals not the people Cattle didn’t shoot back Cattle didn’t shoot back This technique did force the buccaneers of Hispaniola This technique did force the buccaneers of Hispaniola But it also reinforced their hatred for the Spanish But it also reinforced their hatred for the Spanish The buccaneers fled to a little island of the coast of Hispaniola The buccaneers fled to a little island of the coast of Hispaniola Tortuga Tortuga

65 Hispaniola & Tortuga Ile de la Tortue Ile de la Tortue Tortuga Island Tortuga Island Named after the islands turtle population Named after the islands turtle population

66 In Tortuga the buccaneers In Tortuga the buccaneers Built homes Built homes Founded an egalitarian society Founded an egalitarian society Survived by turning to the sea Survived by turning to the sea attacking occasional ship selling goods from market on Tortuga attacking occasional ship selling goods from market on Tortuga One day this all changed One day this all changed Thanks to a French buccaneer from Dieppe Thanks to a French buccaneer from Dieppe Known as Pierre Le Grand - “Peter the Great” Known as Pierre Le Grand - “Peter the Great”

67 1602 ‘Peter the Great’ was at sea in a small boat 1602 ‘Peter the Great’ was at sea in a small boat crew of approx. 28 crew of approx. 28 low and supplies and about to head back to shore low and supplies and about to head back to shore Spotted large Spanish ship Spotted large Spanish ship Captain of the Spanish ship dismissed the small craft Captain of the Spanish ship dismissed the small craft Peter followed the ship until dusk Peter followed the ship until dusk

68 Peter encouraged men to attack the larger vessel Peter encouraged men to attack the larger vessel While men were swearing an oath to support each other to the death While men were swearing an oath to support each other to the death Second in command was drilling a hole in the boat Second in command was drilling a hole in the boat They came alongside and boarded They came alongside and boarded Peter and his crew quickly took over the ship Peter and his crew quickly took over the ship

69 Flag ship of the Spanish treasure fleet Flag ship of the Spanish treasure fleet Put ashore those he did not need Put ashore those he did not need Headed straight for France Headed straight for France Obtained a back dated privateers license Obtained a back dated privateers license Sold the ship and treasure and lived in leisure for the rest of his life Sold the ship and treasure and lived in leisure for the rest of his life

70 Alexandre Olivier Exquemelin Esquemeling, Exquemeling, or Oexmelin Born in France Born in France Indentured servant Indentured servant Turned surgeon Turned surgeon Sailed with Morgan Sailed with Morgan Kept records Kept records 1 st published st published 1678

71 1602 changed the meaning of the word buccaneer 1602 changed the meaning of the word buccaneer They now ranged farther from the island base and took larger prizes They now ranged farther from the island base and took larger prizes Attacked settlements as well as ships Attacked settlements as well as ships Successful captains became famous Successful captains became famous

72 At the end of a voyage At the end of a voyage Payments would be handed out as prearranged Payments would be handed out as prearranged Anything left over would then be shared out equally Anything left over would then be shared out equally Even when a buccaneering voyage failed Even when a buccaneering voyage failed The knowledge that others had succeeded and that other prizes were out there led many to try their luck The knowledge that others had succeeded and that other prizes were out there led many to try their luck

73 Website

74 November 1558 Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the British Throne following the death of her half sister Mary I November 1558 Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the British Throne following the death of her half sister Mary I

75 As the news was brought to Elizabeth she is reported to have stated As the news was brought to Elizabeth she is reported to have stated “A domino factum est mirabile in oculis nostris” “A domino factum est mirabile in oculis nostris” “This is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous to our eyes” “This is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous to our eyes” In reality the England she inherited was anything but marvelous In reality the England she inherited was anything but marvelous

76 She stepped into a precarious position She stepped into a precarious position The country was simmering with religious frustration The country was simmering with religious frustration Catholics and Protestants had vied for power and position under the previous two monarch’s Catholics and Protestants had vied for power and position under the previous two monarch’s Edward VI – Protestant Edward VI – Protestant Mary I - Catholic Mary I - Catholic

77 1559 nationwide audit of men and Arms was begun to find out 1559 nationwide audit of men and Arms was begun to find out How empty the royal coffers were How empty the royal coffers were How, or rather if, she would be able to secure her country’s borders How, or rather if, she would be able to secure her country’s borders A Protestant, Elisabeth led a country potentially at odds with most powerful Monarch in Europe A Protestant, Elisabeth led a country potentially at odds with most powerful Monarch in Europe Phillip II of Spain Phillip II of Spain One area of conflict – Caribbean One area of conflict – Caribbean

78 Elizabeth’s reign of 44 years would be dominated by England’s relationship to Spain Elizabeth’s reign of 44 years would be dominated by England’s relationship to Spain Decisions would continue to be based on Decisions would continue to be based on Defense of the realm Defense of the realm Revenue Generation Revenue Generation Official court favor Official court favor Court intrigue Court intrigue Central in the early years was trade and plunder Central in the early years was trade and plunder London the heartbeat and brain of trade London the heartbeat and brain of trade

79 The City of London merchants provided The City of London merchants provided approx. 75 % of Tax revenues approx. 75 % of Tax revenues as well as paying duties on numerous imports and exports as well as paying duties on numerous imports and exports Membership of 12 great livery companies of London provided the administrative hub of the city Membership of 12 great livery companies of London provided the administrative hub of the city The most powerful company at the time of Elizabeth’s ascension was the The most powerful company at the time of Elizabeth’s ascension was the Merchant Adventurers Merchant Adventurers

80 Membership in one of London’s companies could only be achieved after a long apprenticeship Membership in one of London’s companies could only be achieved after a long apprenticeship Even if new entrants were following the family line Even if new entrants were following the family line Ensured that unlike many other European trading centers Ensured that unlike many other European trading centers London was run by people who had been engaged in business since they were old enough to work London was run by people who had been engaged in business since they were old enough to work Merchant Adventurers made the wealth from the exportation of cloth to Antwerp and the import of luxury goods Merchant Adventurers made the wealth from the exportation of cloth to Antwerp and the import of luxury goods

81 The Merchant Adventurers alongside the Gentleman at court were Elizabeth gateway to security The Merchant Adventurers alongside the Gentleman at court were Elizabeth gateway to security The wealth or treasure that they provided could both The wealth or treasure that they provided could both Buy them royal favor Buy them royal favor Provide funds to defend the realm Provide funds to defend the realm These are the people referred to by both allies and adversaries as These are the people referred to by both allies and adversaries as Corsairs, rovers, and pirates Corsairs, rovers, and pirates Although they are often referred to today as buccaneers (a word not coined in English till 1664) Although they are often referred to today as buccaneers (a word not coined in English till 1664)

82 These people were not the stuff of ordinary merchant stock These people were not the stuff of ordinary merchant stock These were men who had: These were men who had: A thirst for knowledge A thirst for knowledge Tremendous egos Tremendous egos desperation for wealth desperation for wealth An acute business sense An acute business sense Intelligence and cunning Intelligence and cunning And a high degree of Patriotism And a high degree of Patriotism

83 Initially thought great wealth through approaching Indies overland through the northeast Initially thought great wealth through approaching Indies overland through the northeast Muscovy Company was formed Muscovy Company was formed Despite promise, no great wealth came form Muscovy Despite promise, no great wealth came form Muscovy England’s future lay not in overland trade England’s future lay not in overland trade but in somehow dominating the sea but in somehow dominating the sea Control of the ‘English’ channel first step Control of the ‘English’ channel first step allowed for a larger stake in the money to be made flowing from the Netherlands allowed for a larger stake in the money to be made flowing from the Netherlands Other protestant seamen set out to ‘harvest’ the Catholic vessels that plied their trade in the same region Other protestant seamen set out to ‘harvest’ the Catholic vessels that plied their trade in the same region

84 Phillip of Spain having troubles with Low Countries and Ottoman Empire Phillip of Spain having troubles with Low Countries and Ottoman Empire France teetering on civil war France teetering on civil war Distractions gave Elizabeth opportunity to flex the muscles of her Gentlemen Distractions gave Elizabeth opportunity to flex the muscles of her Gentlemen Justification (or the needed excuse) came with the news that English Merchants in Spain had been arrested and put in front of the Inquisition Justification (or the needed excuse) came with the news that English Merchants in Spain had been arrested and put in front of the Inquisition

85 Led to reprisal attacks on Spanish shipping Led to reprisal attacks on Spanish shipping On one occasion a Spanish Crew were trussed in their own sails and thrown overboard to die On one occasion a Spanish Crew were trussed in their own sails and thrown overboard to die While their ship, now a prize, was sailed back to England While their ship, now a prize, was sailed back to England The Merchants also took this opportunity of Spanish distraction to begin to trade The Merchants also took this opportunity of Spanish distraction to begin to trade “beyond the line” “beyond the line”

86 “Beyond the line” included “Beyond the line” included Coast of Africa Coast of Africa the Indies the Indies the Caribbean the Caribbean the Spanish Main the Spanish Main the Philippines the Philippines Brazil Brazil Initially privately sponsored Initially privately sponsored But as further reports of actions against British traders in Spain filtered to England But as further reports of actions against British traders in Spain filtered to England As noted - Elizabeth stepped in As noted - Elizabeth stepped in

87 Elizabeth began to hand out Elizabeth began to hand out Letters of reprisal or letter de Marque Letters of reprisal or letter de Marque nothing new nothing new Since medieval time this system Since medieval time this system Allowed a merchant, traveler, or ship who had been robbed on foreign territory Allowed a merchant, traveler, or ship who had been robbed on foreign territory To recoup their losses To recoup their losses

88 As noted, this was a well-established practice within a number of countries from the medieval period As noted, this was a well-established practice within a number of countries from the medieval period Only being outlawed by most states in 1856 by the Declaration of Paris. Only being outlawed by most states in 1856 by the Declaration of Paris. Today only one country still retains the right with in its laws to issue such letters Today only one country still retains the right with in its laws to issue such letters The USA The USA

89 In Article 1 section 8 of the United States Constitution we find that congress has authority to In Article 1 section 8 of the United States Constitution we find that congress has authority to To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water

90 Elizabeth not only issued letters of mark. Elizabeth not only issued letters of mark. In October 1562 she also granted In October 1562 she also granted John Hawkins John Hawkins Permission to voyage to Africa to buy slave and sell them on Spanish plantations in the Caribbean Permission to voyage to Africa to buy slave and sell them on Spanish plantations in the Caribbean

91 In doing so she was In doing so she was Responding to the growing international diplomatic crisis Responding to the growing international diplomatic crisis For the queen and Privy council it was a political act For the queen and Privy council it was a political act And also to the outcry of her own people who demanded vengeance on the Inquisition and it perpetrators And also to the outcry of her own people who demanded vengeance on the Inquisition and it perpetrators For the people it was a matter of religion and pride For the people it was a matter of religion and pride But for the Merchants it was commercial But for the Merchants it was commercial Although it wavered into the political for them too Although it wavered into the political for them too

92 Elisabeth’s Sea dogs


Download ppt "Vikings in Paris but first a reminder of where we left them but first a reminder of where we left them."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google