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History of Spaceflight. First documented attempt at spaceflight in 1500 in China Wan Hu (China) Fireworks (rockets) strapped to chair.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Spaceflight. First documented attempt at spaceflight in 1500 in China Wan Hu (China) Fireworks (rockets) strapped to chair."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Spaceflight

2 First documented attempt at spaceflight in 1500 in China Wan Hu (China) Fireworks (rockets) strapped to chair

3 Most math and physics used in spaceflight was developed 1650-1910!

4 Influence of Science Fiction H. G. Wells Jules Verne

5 First Space Engineers Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (Russian, 1857-1935) – First to analyze rocket motion using Newton's Laws of Motion

6 Hermann Oberth (German, 1894-1989) – Published a paper in 1923 on the use of rockets for flying people into space

7 Robert Goddard (1882-1945) – Received first patent for a rocket in 1914 – first stable liquid-propellant rocket in 1926

8 German and Soviet Rocket Clubs formed in 1920's and 1930's – Werner von Braun (German) – Walter Dornberger (German) – Sergei Korolev (Russian)

9 WWII, Germany

10 YdK_M YdK_M

11 After the war, some German rocket scientists went to the USSR and some to the US (including von Braun)

12 The Space Race Primary interest in US and USSR was to develop rockets to deliver nuclear weapons to distant targets Oct 4, 1957 -- USSR placed Sputnik I (184 lb satellite) into Earth orbit; US feared that this meant USSR was technically superior and could launch nuclear weapons via rockets

13 Nov 3, 1957 -- USSR orbited Sputnik II (1120 lb spacecraft with passenger dog Laika, who lived for a week)

14 Werner von Braun took over US efforts Explorer I (18 lb. satellite) into orbit on Jan 31, 1958

15 March 1958 -- Pres. Eisenhower formed NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Admininstration)

16 National Defense Education Act Signed into law on September 2, 1958

17 April 12, 1961 -- Yuri Gagarin became first human to orbit Earth

18 May 5, 1961 -- Alan Shepard flew for 15 min. on sub-orbital flight

19 Feb. 1962 -- John Glenn first US astronaut to orbit Earth

20 Space Race became a race to the moon Pres. Kennedy challenged US to send astronauts to moon and back before 1970

21 iTe2100 iTe2100

22 Rocket plane development (X-1, X-15) - alternative path that US did not pursue some believe it would have been better

23 X -15 1959 -1968 World record for the fastest speed ever reached by a manned rocket powered aircraft. – 4,519 mph

24 15_tech 15_tech

25 Mercury Program Single astronauts

26 Gemini Program pairs of astronauts first space walks


28 Gemini Rendevous

29 Apollo Program triples of astronauts to the moon


31 Saturn V

32 FiCk FiCk


34 Moon Rover

35 DbqM&feature=fvwrel DbqM&feature=fvwrel


37 Space Shuttle (National Space Transportation System --NSTS) Development of shuttle system begun in 1970's First orbiter -- Enterprise (named by popular demand of Star Trek fans)

38 it.html it.html

39 List of orbiters: Enterprise Discovery Atlantis Endeavour (replaced Challenger) Challenger (destroyed during launch, Jan. 28, 1986 -- all crew were lost) Columbia (destroyed on re-entry, Feb. 1, 2003 -- all crew were lost)

40 Interstellar travel GI GI

41 Difficulties of interstellar travel Vast distances  very great speed and/or a very long travel time Vacuum Radiation Weightlessness Micrometeoroids

42 The fastest outward-bound spacecraft yet sent, Voyager 1, would take 72,000 years to get to Proxima CentauriVoyager 1

43 Solar sail Reduce time to ~ 2000 years

44 Nuclear pulse propulsion Reduce time to ~ 100 years

45 Fusion Powered Spacecraft Human Outer Planet Exploration (NASA/MSFC, 2003), ICAN-II (The Pennsylvania State University)

46 Relativistic Time Dilation As velocities approach the speed of light, relativistic time dilation would make the voyage much shorter for the travelervelocities approach the speed of lighttime dilation


48 Wormholes Schwarzschild wormholes or Einstein-Rosen bridges are bridges between areas of space

49 http://hyperphysics.phy- http://hyperphysics.phy-

50 Newton’s Laws of Motion and Rockets

51 Newton’s First Law of Motion Objects at rest tend to stay at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Objects in motion tend to stay in motion in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force.


53 Newton’s Second Law of Motion As force is increased, acceleration increases. As mass is increased, acceleration decreases. Therefore, force equals mass times acceleration. (force = mass x acceleration)


55 Newton’s Third Law of Motion For every action or force there is an equal, opposite and simultaneous reaction or force


57 topnav/materials/listbytype/Introduction_to_ Newtons_Laws.html topnav/materials/listbytype/Introduction_to_ Newtons_Laws.html


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