Presentation on theme: "- Due to the horrific events of the Holocaust, high ranking Nazi officials were put on trial for crimes against humanity (war crimes) - During 1945 and."— Presentation transcript:
- Due to the horrific events of the Holocaust, high ranking Nazi officials were put on trial for crimes against humanity (war crimes) - During 1945 and 1946, an international Military Tribunal representing 23 nations put 24 Nazi war leaders on trial in Nuremberg, Germany. -14 Nazi leaders were sentenced to death due to their involvement in the Holocaust. -12 were executed (hung) on October 16, 1946. The other two committed suicide before the execution -The Nuremburg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law and international court system.
-In 1947, the UN and the British wanted to combat the ills of the Holocaust and help the Jewish people attain the goal of having their own independent country -The British, who controlled the Palestine region, agreed to give it to the Jewish people which marked the establishment of Israel. -In 1949, Israel was able to draw its own borders taking additional lands that were home to the Muslim Palestinians. -The creation of Israel would begin a series of conflicts between the Jewish people and the displaced Palestinians that still exists today.
-After the war, leaders from the Soviet Union, France, Great Britain, and the U.S met to discuss the future of eastern Europe met in Yalta, USSR. -The Soviet Union wanted to set up Pro-Soviet governments in the eastern European countries they took over at the end of World War II. -The Soviet Union wanted these countries Pro-Soviet in order to create a buffer zone that would shield itself from another invasion from the west. -The U.S, Great Britain and France wanted democracy and free elections to take place in these countries. -This difference in opinion would lead to the Cold War.
-After the war, the eastern European countries governments were dominated by the Pro-Soviet Communist parties -The countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania became part of the Soviet Union -The countries of Poland, Hungary, Czech, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Albania established Pro-Soviet Communist governments. -These nations became known as Soviet Bloc Countries. -Europe was now divided into Pro-US democratic countries and Pro-Soviet Communist countries. -Winston Churchill described this division as an “Iron Curtain”
- At the Yalta Conference, Germany was divided into American, British, French and Soviet Union occupations zones. -The division of Germany was meant to be temporary, however, the differences between the Soviet Union and the U.S made the reunited Germany appear less and less likely. -The Soviet Union wanted to punish Germany for the terrible losses the Soviet Union had suffered. -The U.S, Britain, and France wanted to rebuild rather than punish Germany.
-The U.S and Britain thought that a unified German nation was their best guarantee against the rise of another Hitler. -Also a strong Germany would deserve better as a buffer against the Soviet Union. -The Allies set a goal of Denazification or removing of Nazism in Germany. -In 1949, Britain, the U.S and France combined their zones into one nation, The German Federal Republic, or West Germany. (Pro-Capitalism -The same year, the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic, or East Germany (Pro-Communism)
Cold War tensions began to heat up in Berlin, Germany. Just like the rest of Germany, Berlin was also divided into sections. The U.S, Britain, and France controlled West Berlin, while the Soviet’s controlled East Berlin. Stalin ordered a blockade of West Berlin. He hoped that this blockade would force western powers to give up West Berlin. The U.S began to airlift food and supplies into West Berlin. In 1951, the Pro-Soviet east Berlin built a wall between east and west to stop the flow of people and supplies. This wall became known as the Berlin Wall and would divide the city for over 28 years.
- Weakened by war, Britain and France were concentrating on rebuilding rather than stopping the expansion of the Soviet Union. -Only the United States had the military and economic resources to counter the Soviet Union. -The U.S introduced the foreign policy of Containment to stop the spread of communism -Two plans were introduced in order to stop other countries from establishing Pro-Soviet Communist governments A. Marshall Plan B. Truman Doctrine
A. Marshall Plan - introduced by US Sec. of State George Marshall - Provide aid to European countries trying to rebuild after the War (established Pro-US ties with countries on the edge of aligning with the Soviet Union) -The countries of West Germany, Greece and Turkey received aid under the Marshall Plan B. Truman Doctrine -Additional aid to European countries threatened by Communism
-In 1949, the U.S and 10 western European countries signed a mutual defense treaty known as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). -Members of NATO agreed to aid any member nation attacked by an outsider. -When West Germany joined NATO, the Soviet Union created it’s own alliance known as the Warsaw Pact with seven eastern European countries. -
In April 1945, 50 countries met in the United States and adopted the United Nations Charter. United Nations (U.N) became an international organization devoted to world peace and security. Member nations agreed to submit disputes to the U.N for peaceful settlements. They also agreed to work together to solve world problems such as disease and world hunger.
In the 1920’s, Chinese intellectual founded the Chinese communist party. They were inspired by the Russian revolution and the ideas of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. As the communist party grew stronger the nationalist, who controlled China, became alarmed. Chiang Kai-Shek, leader of the nationalists, led a series of military operations to eliminate the Chinese communists. The Chinese communists fled from northern China to southern China to escape from Chiang’s nationalist army.
This escape became known as The Long March. Many communists died during this 6000 mile journey. On this journey, Mao Zedong established himself as the leader of the communist party. By the end of World War II, China was plunged into civil war. From 1945 to 1949, the nationalist party battled a takeover plot by the Chinese communists led by Mao Zedong. The U.S., in support of their containment policy, gave the nationalists nearly $2 Billion in aid.
In 1949, the communists gained control of mainland China. Chiang Kai-Shek and his supporters fled to Taiwan. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the people’s republic of China. In 1950, China and the Soviet Union signed a treaty of mutual friendship. The new government in China became a dictatorship under Zedong and the communist party. Under Mao’s reign, Chinese troops expanded into Tibet. The Dalai Lama, Buddhist leader of Tibet, Fled to India. India welcomed many Tibetan refugees.
The communist government won the support of the peasants by introducing land reform. In 1958, Mao launched a new program called The Great Leap Forward to increase agricultural production and industrial output. The program ultimately failed. By the mid 60’s, Mao Zedong introduced the Cultural Revolution. Mao feared the communism was losing strength so he launched a program to instill communist thinking throughout China.
When Stalin died in 1953, a power struggle took place among party leaders. The communist announced their new leader would be Nikita Khruschev. Khruschev shocked the world by denouncing Stalin to the Soviet communist party congress. He accused Stalin as being a tyrant who committed terrible crimes against the Soviet people. The Soviet Union entered a period known as de- Stalinization. Despite the changes the Soviet Union remained a totalitarian state.
The U.S policy of containment was tested in the southeast Asian country of Korea. Korea, which was a Japanese territory was split into two sections after World War II. The country was divided around the 38 th Parallel. North Korea became under control of the Soviet Union. The U.S took control of South Korea. In 1950, the Soviet- backed North Koreans invaded South Korea. South Korea appealed to the United Nations for help. The U.N security council decided to send troops to South Korea under the command of U.S general Douglas MacArthur.
The North Koreans continued to advance through South Korea. By September 1950, North Korea controlled most of the Korean peninsula except a small portion in the southeast. Gen. Macarthur ordered a sneak attack in northern South Korea in an attempt to trap North Korean troops stationed in South Korea. This attack caught the North Koreans by surprise and led half of the North Korean army to surrender. The UN troops decided to pursue the other half of the North Korean army that retreated across the 38 th parallel to North Korea. The UN forces mostly made up of US troops, pushed almost to the Chinese border in North Korea. The Chinese felt threatened by the un troops so close to the border and decided to send 300,000 Chinese troops into Korea. The Chinese greatly outnumbered UN and South Korean forces and eventually pushed them out of North Korea The Korean War Pg. 2
The Chinese eventually moved into South Korea and took over the capital city of Seoul. Gen. Macarthur wanted US president Truman to authorize a nuclear attack against China. When Truman declined, Macarthur went over Truman’s head and took his case to congress and the press. In response, president Truman removed Macarthur from his position. over the next two years, UN forces drove the Chinese back to North Korea. Finally, in 1953, the UN and North Korea signed a peace treaty ending the Korean war. North and South Korea would remain divided. A demilitarized zone was established to separate the two nations. These two nations are still divided, North Korea being a communist state while South Korea is democratic.
The United States policy of containment was also tested in the southeast Asian country of Vietnam. In the early 1900s, France controlled much of southeast Asia including Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. During the 1920s and 1930s, nationalist revolts began to spring up throughout southeast Asia. a young Vietnamese nationalist, Ho Chi Minh, turned to the communists for support in his quest for freedom for Vietnam. After World War II, Ho Chi Minh and his communist nationalists led a revolt against France. The United States supported the French in order to defeat Ho Chi Minh. the US described this communist threat to Vietnam in the terms of a domino theory.
This meant that the smaller southeast Asian nations were like dominos and if one fell to communism then eventually all would fall to communism. Eventually, the communist nationalists defeated France. according to the peace agreement Vietnam would be divided into to two countries at the 17 th parallel. North Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh would be a communist nation, while south Vietnam would be democratic. However, the leader of south Vietnam ruled as a dictator and soon opposition groups such as the Vietcong, communist revolutionaries backed by north Vietnam, began to gain strength in south Vietnam. in august 1964, north Vietnamese patrol ships attacked two us destroyers.
In 1975, communist rebels known as the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot took over Cambodia and established a brutal communist government. In order to transform Cambodia into a communist nation, Pol Pot slaughtered nearly 2 million people. In 1978, Vietnam invaded Cambodia and overthrew the Khmer Rouge and established a less repressive government. In 1989, the Vietnamese withdrew from Cambodia. Finally, in 1993, under the supervision of the UN, Cambodia established a democratic state.
After World War II, rapid industrialization, population growth and a lingering gap between the rich and poor led Latin American countries to seek help from the two superpowers. In the 1950s, Cuba was ruled by an unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista, who had US support. In 1959, a young lawyer named Fidel Castro led a revolution against Bastista’s regime. At first, Castro was praised for bringing social reforms and improving Cuba’s economy. However, Castro was a harsh dictator. He suspended elections, jailed or executed his opponents and tightly controlled the press. When Castro took control and nationalized the Cuban economy, he took over US owned sugar mills and refineries. In response, the US ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba.
When Castro took control and nationalized the Cuban economy, he took over US owned sugar mills and refineries. In response, the US ordered an embargo on all trade with Cuba. Then, Castro turned to the Soviet Union for economic and military aid. In 1960, the US began to train anti- Castro Cuban exiles to start a revolution in Cuba. In April 1961, they invaded Cuba landing at the Bay of Pigs. Castro quickly stopped the invaders, humiliating the US. The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced Soviet leader Krushchev that the US would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America. In July 1962, the Soviet secretly began to build nuclear missile sites in Cuba.
In October 1962, US spy planes discovered the sites. president John F. Kennedy demanded the removal of the sites because they were so close to the US. Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba to prevent the Soviets from installing new missile sites. For 12 days, people around the world feared this event would cause a nuclear war between the Soviet Union and the US. Fortunately, the soviets backed down from the US and agreed to remove the missile sites if the US promised not to invade Cuba. This event became known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
In 1949, the Soviet Union exploded their first atomic bomb. With that, US president Truman was determined to develop a more deadly weapon before the Soviets did. The hydrogen or h-bomb began to be tested by American scientists. The h-bomb would be thousands of times more powerful than the a-bomb. A hydrogen bomb power came from the fusion, or joining of atoms, rather than the splitting of atoms with the a- bomb. In 1952, the US tested their first hydrogen bomb. the Soviets exploded their first in 1953. In strengthening their army against any communist attacks, the US began stockpiling nuclear weapons. The Soviets responded by stockpiling nuclear weapons and building up their military. This would be the start of the nuclear arms race that would last till the late 1980s.