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加爾文與清教徒神學 中華福音神學院 2014-2015 下學期.

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Presentation on theme: "加爾文與清教徒神學 中華福音神學院 2014-2015 下學期."— Presentation transcript:

1 加爾文與清教徒神學 中華福音神學院 下學期

2 清教徒論聖經與靈修: 聖經權威、必要、充分、清晰性

3 普遍啟示 “There are three ways whereby God… revealeth himself, his properties, his mind, and will, to the sons of men”: 一、 “He doth it by his works, both of creation and providence”; 二、“God declares himself—his sovereign power and authority, his righteousness and holiness—by the innate (or ingrafted) light of nature, and principles of the consciences of men.” (John Owen, The Divine Originall of Scripture)

4 普遍啟示 「無可推諉」:普遍啟示的清晰性 內在與外在的普遍啟示乃“able to evince themselves to be from [God], without any external help, assistance, testimony, or authority”、“without any possibility of mistake” (John Owen, The Divine Originall of Scripture)

5 聖經的必要性 普遍啟示的不充分性:“Men do not receive the revelation intended in the way intended”,乃因 “the depraved, vicious habits of [men’s] minds, their enmity against God, and dislike of him” (John Owen, The Nature of Divine Revelations) 聖經必要性:否定聖經必要性的人 “do endeavour to expel all true divine faith out of the world” (John Owen, The Nature of Divine Revelations)

6 西敏告白:聖經必要性 “Although the light of nature, and the works of creation and providence do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God, as to leave men unexcusable; yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God, and of His will, which is necessary unto salvation. Therefore it pleased the Lord, at sundry times, and in divers manners, to reveal Himself, and to declare that His will unto His Church; and afterwards for the better preserving and propagating of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the Church against the corruption of the flesh, and the malice of Satan and of the world, to commit the same wholly unto writing; which makes the Holy Scripture to be most necessary; those former ways of God's revealing His will unto His people being now ceased.”

7 聖靈默示聖經 Verbal-Plenary Inspiration: “God was so with them, and by the Holy Ghost so spake in them—as to their receiving of the Word from him, and their delivering of it unto others by speaking or writing—as that they were not themselves enabled, by any habitual light, knowledge, or conviction of truth, to declare his mind and will, but only acted as they were immediately moved by him” (John Owen, Works XVI, p. 298)

8 默示:三大要素 1. The inspiration of the minds of these prophets, with the knowledge and apprehension of the things communicated unto them. 2. The suggestion of words unto them, to express what their minds conceived. 3. The guidance of their hands, in setting down the words suggested; or of their tongues, in uttering them unto those by whom they were committed to writing; as Baruch wrote the prophecy of Jeremiah from his mouth (Jer. 36:3, 8). (John Owen, quoted in Packer, Quest for Godliness, p. 87)

9 默示與無誤 歐文:“if either of these were wanting, the Scripture could not be absolutely and every way divine and infallible.”

10 聖經的屬神源頭:聖靈默示 “By Scripture is understood the sacred Book of God. It is given by divine inspiration; that is, the Scripture is not the contrivance of man’s brain, but is divine in its origin… The Holy Scripture is to be highly reverenced and esteemed, because we are sure it came from heaven” (Thomas Watson, A Body of Divinity)

11 聖靈默示與光照的區別 “This spiritual light (聖靈光照) is not the suggesting of any new truths or propositions not contained in the word of God. This suggesting of new truths or doctrines to the mind, independent of any antecedent revelation of those propositions, either in word or writing, is inspiration; such as the prophets and apostles had, and such as some enthusiasts pretend to” 聖靈光照 “reveals no new doctrine, it suggests no new proposition to the mind, it teaches no new thing of God, or Christ, or another world, not taught in the Bible, but only gives a due apprehension of those things that are taught in the word of God.” (Jonathan Edwards, ‘A Divine and Supernatural Light’)

12 聖經權威 至高權威不證自明: “He [God] hath, by his Spirit, implanted in it [Scripture] and impressed on it such characters of his goodness, power, wisdom, holiness, love to mankind, truth, faithfulness, with all the rest of his glorious excellencies and perfections, that at all times, and in all places, when the expansion of it is stretched over men by his providence—without any other witness or testimony given unto it—it declares itself to be his, and makes good its authority from him; so that the refusal of it upon its own evidence brings unavoidable condemnation on the souls of men” (John Owen, Divine Originall)

13 西敏告白:聖經權威 “The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, and obeyed, depends not upon the testimony of any man, or Church; but wholly upon God (who is truth itself) the author thereof: and therefore it is to be received, because it is the Word of God.”

14 聖靈光照 & 聖經權威 聖靈內在與外在的雙重見證 外在:“giving evidence in and by the Scripture unto its own divine originall” 內在: “work of the Holy Spirit on the minds of men, enabling them to believe” (Owen, Divine Originall) “We acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed in the Word” (西敏信仰告 白,1.6)

15 西敏告白:聖靈光照與聖經權威 We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church to an high and reverent esteem of the Holy Scripture. And the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole (which is, to give all glory to God), the full discovery it makes of the only way of man's salvation, the many other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof, are arguments whereby it does abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God: yet notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof, is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.

16 聖經的充份性 “[It] may be inferred from this position, that the scriptures are the word of God…, that we owe no obedience to the injunctions of men farther than they are sufficiently warranted by the written word” (John Flavel) “Is all Scripture of divine inspiration? Then it…condemns the Enthusiasts, who, pretending to have the Spirit, lay aside the whole Bible, and say the Scripture is a dead letter, and they live above it… The Spirit of God acts regularly, it works in and by the Word; and he that pretends to a new light, which is either above the Word, or contrary to it, abuses both himself and the Spirit” (Thomas Watson)

17 西敏告白:聖經的充分性 The whole counsel of God concerning all things necessary for His own glory, man's salvation, faith and life, is either expressly set down in Scripture, or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture: unto which nothing at any time is to be added, whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men. Nevertheless, we acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed in the Word: and that there are some circumstances concerning the worship of God, and government of the Church, common to human actions and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of nature, and Christian prudence, according to the general rules of the Word, which are always to be observed

18 聖經的清晰性 “The word is perspicuous, and hath ‘notas insitas veritatis’ in all necessary truth, as being written not for scholars only, but for vulgar and illiterate men” (Edward Reynolds)

19 聖經的清晰性 “Scripture is so framed, as to deliver all things necessary to salvation in a clear and perspicuous way. There are indeed some obscure passages in it to exercise our understandings, and prevent our lothing of overmuch plainness and simplicity: yet whatsoever is needful for us to satisfie hunger, and nourish our souls to life eternal, is so exprest (I do not say it may be understood, but so) as men that do not wilfully shut their eyes against the light, cannot possibly but understand it” (John Arrowsmith)

20 西敏告白:聖經的清晰性 “All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all: yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed for salvation are so clearly propounded, and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.”

21 清晰性與權威性 Analogia fidei(信仰的類比):以經解經=總原則解 經
西敏告白:”The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself: and therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it must be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.”

22 聖經與靈修 聖經的清晰性: “due use of the ordinary means”  在ordinary life當中落實聖經
清教徒靈修法:Discursive Meditation 聖經是觀世界的眼鏡,正如禮拜天是 “market day of the soul” 「榮耀的點滴」: “Drops of glory”

23 加爾文與清教徒論「呼召」

24 加爾文論「護理」 不明白神的護理 = 人間一切勞苦愁煩的根源
神的護理與人的責任: “No disregard for secondary causes” 以「賜我們日用的飲食」為例

25 清教徒:普遍 & 特殊呼召* 「普遍呼召就是歸順基督信仰的呼召,是上帝教 會每一個成員都領受的… 即從這世界被召出來, 分別為聖成為神的兒女。」 (William Perkins) 特殊呼召:「每個受造物都是神的僕人,各從其 職來榮耀神;有些領受這樣的呼召、有些領受那 樣的呼召。」 (Thomas Manton) *以下多數引文出自《清教徒的工作倫理》, Leland Ryken著,曾劭愷譯

26 呼召:工作的神聖性 「刷碗及講道的工作似乎有不同等級的聖俗之分; 但事實上,論到哪一種工作較討神喜悅,這二者 在神眼中是沒有分別的。」 (William Tyndale) 「神所重視的不是表面的工作,而是工作者的 心。」(Richard Baxter)

27 呼召:事奉人、事奉神 「我們今生至高的目標,就是在蒙召從事的工作 上服事人,而藉此事奉神。」 (William Perkins)
人必須藉由事奉人來事奉神 強調 productivity 的神聖性 利益 = by-product 事奉人 = means 榮耀神、享受神 = end Richard Baxter:「藉由事奉雇主來事奉神」

28 今生的呼召:清教徒的時間觀 「在你的呼召上勤奮努力…;若你以屬天、順服的 意識,喜樂地用你手所作的工來服事神,那麼你 的工作,就等於把所有時間都放在屬靈操練上。 這必蒙神悅納。」 (Richard Baxter) 「一個垂死之人在向一群垂死之人傳道」 (“as never sure to preach again, and as a dying man to dying men”) 「不要盼望自己能夠長壽;要活得像那些垂死 之人一樣,時時意識到自己明天可能就會被主接 去了。」 “Redeem the time”

29 入世,不屬世 In but not of the world
「若上帝是主宰我們的上帝,那麼祂就必須在一 切事上作我們的主宰。」(“If God be God over us, he must be over us in every thing.”)(Peter Bulkeley) 這是天父世界

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