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1 Prof. Chuks Paul Maduabum Professor of Public Administration Dean, School of Management Sciences NOUN INAUGURAL LECTURE SERIES 6 TH EDITION.

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1 1 Prof. Chuks Paul Maduabum Professor of Public Administration Dean, School of Management Sciences NOUN INAUGURAL LECTURE SERIES 6 TH EDITION

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4 4 Preamble Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, permit me to commence this exercise by sharing my recent experience about Inaugural Lectures. Precisely, on Wednesday, July 17, 2013, I honoured an invitation to attend an Inaugural lecture delivered by a friend and Head, Department of Political Science, the University of Lagos – Professor Solomon Oladele Akinboye. Given my huge responsibilities in NOUN, the opportunity cost of being in Unilag. at that auspicious time was high but I must confess, it was a very rewarding venture. Professor Akinboye commenced his lecture by addressing a knotty question of “What is actually an Inaugural Lecture”? Citing Prof. Olajide Aluko, he submitted that there has been a gross misconception of Inaugural Lectures.

5 Accordingly, he pointed out that the founding fathers designed inaugural lectures for three purposes which are all academic: To provide a veritable avenue for the newly appointed Professor to critically analyze the state of his specialized discipline; To enable the Professor present a piece of unpublished research upon which he has been working before his appointment or completed afterward, with a view to displaying his credentials as a scholar and vindicating his appointment before a cross-section of the University community and outsiders; and To afford the Professor the opportunity to elaborate the research scheme that he intends to follow while occupying the Chair. 5

6 Two reasons are hereby advanced for the fore-going preamble as follows: first, to place this discourse in its proper perspective and; secondly, to further spread the “Gospel” of what our Inaugural Lecture really is. Having alluded to this submission, my lecture is influenced largely by it as would be discovered later in this presentation. The couching of the topic of my lecture equally has a historical antecedent thus: There was a great man who made great impression on me through his writings and publications at which he reflected on societal values and operations. This man was one of the early recipients of the National Merit Award in Nigeria, indeed the first, going by the Guardian Newspaper publication of Sunday May 18, 2014. And as is required, he delivered a lecture as part of the Award ceremony titled: “What has literature got to do with it? 6

7 A great man who made great impression on me “What has literature got to do with it?” There was a country

8 That man was Professor Chinua Achebe who shortly before he joined his ancestors in year 2013, released, yet another one titled: “There was a country”. The title of his lecture kept me wondering what Prof. Achebe, though typical of his writings was driving at. My investigations led me to yet another document titled: “what has love got to do with it” by Tina Turner, courtesy of Professor Kayode Oguntuashe. Eventually I became fascinated with that title and patiently waited for an opportunity to adopt that style. That opportunity has just presented itself hence the title of my lecture. “What has Public Administration got to do with it?”. 8

9 Introduction Public Administration, although derived from Administration is both a discipline and an operational process Public Administration in Africa is inundated with immense challenges, every nation state, operate through this machinery All over Africa, there are low standards of living, a high level of illiteracy, inadequate shelter, escalating unemployment, low income & negligible savings

10 In her chequered history, Nigeria has experienced various forms of government from colonial, through parliamentary, military and now presidential, all in an effort to get it right. The present democratically elected government in Nigeria, in an attempt to confront head-on the challenges of development, is actively engaged in the dynamic process of promoting socio-economic change. This is aimed at eradicating poverty and conquering hunger, disease, ignorance and squalor. 10

11 Mr. Vice-Chancellor, Sir, against the foregoing backdrop, this lecture is arranged as follows: Conceptual Clarifications; Evolution of Public Administration; The Nigerian Experience; Public Administration versus National Development; Current Assessment; Challenges and Treatment Variables; and Epilogue. 11

12 3.0 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS It has been argued repeatedly that public administration, as a subject, better describes the government of a given state. The point must however, be made that the world of administration is the world of politics. In order to fully conceptualize administration, we must understand the concept of politics. If there is no politics, there would be no administration and vice versa. Politics refers to those activities or goings-on in the institutions of government. Politics could equally be defined as the struggle for power and influence especially in government. A realistic School of thought feels that the purpose of interaction among people is the struggle for power. 12

13 Having perceived the concept of politics, it now becomes imperative to address the concept of public administration. Public administration as a concept attracts several commentaries from different authorities. One name that is so easily associated with the concept that cannot be easily glossed over is Woodrow Wilson. In fact, his recognition is in connection with the pioneering works he did in the field of public administration. Some of these authorities are Wilson (1887:197-222); Dimock and Dimock (1969:13); Omolayo and Arowolaju (1987:11-12); Maduabum (2008; and 2014). The unanimity of their definitions is that public administration is the action, business side of government. 13

14 The dichotomy between public administration and business administration is summaried by Balogun (1988) thus: “Whereas public administration pursues non- economic and socio-political goals, business administration embarks on economic goals and is specifically interested in profit maximization”. 14

15 15 The inextricable linkage between government and public administration led us to. The International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences and it has this to say about governnance: “The art of exercising of legitimate authority, and protecting and adapting the community by making and carrying out decisions”. (Sills, 1968: 214-217). The term ‘government’ is further explained as an instrument of a state by which its existence is maintained, its functions carried out and its policies and objectives realised. Our position is that government makes decisions with regards to the welfare and other interests of the citizens on their behalf. And public administration is the process of transmitting these decisions and other welfare facilities to the citizens. This process is being driven by an Agency referred to as Public Service (pp. 7-8).

16 Another concept that cannot escape the prying eyes of our analysis is Development. On this, a unanimity of definitions is provided by Olugbemi (1987:431); Soares and Quintella (2008:105); and Sant’Ana (2008:51) as follow: Sustained increase in such aggregate economic indices as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross National Income (GNI), Per Capita Income (PCI), etc; The reflection of (i) above is the enhanced capacity of citizens to meet their vital daily commitments while allowing them a comfortable margin to save for the rainy day; The reduction, if not elimination, of inequality, unemployment, poverty, disease and ignorance; The diffusion of influence and the guarantee of basic freedoms, including the freedom to participate meaningfully in the political process; and The assurance of a stable and peaceful political order essential for sustained productive activities and a guarantee of the safety of lives and property. Having established the parameters and working definitions, the central theme of the next section is the evolution of public administration. 16

17 4.0 IN THE BEGINNING As a discipline, the study of public administration could be traced to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Its prominence emerged from the technology that generated the Industrial Revolution. Consequently, its earliest development occured in Great Britain and later spread to the United States of America. In fact, the first degree in public administration at the Master’s level was awarded in 1926 at the Maxwell School of Public Administratiion, Syracuse University, New York. Yet, it is to Woodrow Wilson, who later became the President of the United States of America, that we must attribute more positive contributions through academic articles on the subject; 17

18 In 1882, he wrote his now classic essay on The Study of Administration, in which he pleaded for a most business-like efficiency in government. He insisted that a dichotomy must exist between politics and public administration. This was clearly a reaction to the era of “spoils system” which existed at the time. Wilson’s argument was that politics was associated with corruption which should not in any way infitrate the civil service. One of the consequences of Woodrow’s constributions was the passing of the Pendleton Act by Congress in 1883. 18

19 Other contributors are: 1. In 1910, Frank Goodnow wrote a book titled: “Politics and Administration”. 2. In 1926 Leonard White wrote a book titled: “The Study of Public Administration”. 3. In 1927, W. F. Willoughby wrote another book titled, “Principles of Public Administration”. 19

20 1. In 1930, Urwick and Gullick wrote papers on Public Administration. 2. In 1938, Chester Barnard published, “Functions of the Executive”. 3. In 1947, Herbert Simon published “The Administrative Behaviour”. 20

21 5.0 THE NIGERIAN VERSION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Public Administration in Nigeria of today is a product of shaping and reshaping stages of metamorphosis and the like. Our submission is that it would appear that the influence of colonialism in our national discourse is gradually becoming an overbeaten path. Yet it will equally appear fallacious or, should we say, an academic suicide for any discussion to be undertaken on the history of public administration in Nigeria without recourse to the influence of colonialism. Simply put, Nigeria’s colonial experience laid the foundation for economic and political underdevelopment of the country. 21

22 The structural deformities and contradictions inherited in 1960 have continued to militate directly or indirectly against possibilities for growth, stability and development. Political initiatives and regime initiatives have had to contend with structurally determined and conditioned crises and contradictions while making it possible for new problems to emerge and fetter. The post-colonial alignment and realignment of class forces in Nigeria have operated within the overall deformities and distortions introduced and nurtured by the colonial state and the colonial elite. 22

23 The consequence of the foregoing is that Nigeria is yet to recover from that experience. Many of the leaders in contemporary Nigeria were creations of the colonial system. Many of the officers in the bureaucracy were recruited and trained under the colonial system. Several officers in the army, itself originally a colonial creation, were recruited and trained under the colonial system. The educational and agricultural policies, even legal forms and patterns are structured after those of the British who ab initio, had no positive designs for Nigeria as a colony. 23

24 Environmental Factors that influence Public Administration in Nigeria Some of the factors identified as environmental are not peculiar to the Nigeria’s micro-system as they are also found to be characteristics of other developing countries in Africa. These factors are discussed hereunder: 1. Social Factor: The consequences of these are enormous. Within the Nigerian society, we find that family, local, state and ethnic loyalty compete with, and often take precedence over, loyalty to the Nation. This is so deeply rooted that it creates challenges in public administration practice, particularly with the attendant nepotism in all its facets. 24

25 (ii) The Educational System: This evolved from a colonially imposed elitist system of education with its focus on liberal arts. As severally argued, the colonial masters were not interested in educating their colonial subjects. Yet they required interpreters who would assist them in relating with the natives, hence the emphasis on reading and writing only. This patterned what in later years became popular, first, preference for the arts and social sciences to the detriment of core science and technology, and Secondly, too much emphasis on “paper qualification” rather than acquisition of skills”. Such paper qualifications acquired in liberal arts guaranteed Nigerians the much-sought-after “white-collar” jobs. The result is that today, students’ enrolment in tertiary institutions is more in favour of these liberal arts than science and technology. 25

26 6.0What of the Engine of this Process – the Public Service? The Engine of this process called public administration as earlier espoused, constitute the central bureaucracy called the public service. Our submission is that the evolution and convolution of this bureaucracy has similar experience as had earlier been elucidated The Nigerian Public Service of today has its remote origin in the amalgamation of the colony and protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria to form the colony and protectorate of Nigeria in 1914. The appointment of Sir Frederick Lugard as the Governor-General of the amalgamated territories on that date compelled the institution of a central bureaucracy to assist him in the administration of the whole territory. 26

27 Yet, it is to Sir Hugh Clifford, who succeeded Lugard as Governor- General in 1922, that we must attribute the institution of a structured and purposeful central administration for Nigeria in those early days. The emergent administration called the Nigerian Public Service was small in size and simple in structure, in consonance with the limited responsibility of government, essentially the maintenance of “law and order” for the purpose of promoting progress. 27

28 7.0. THE EVOLUTION OF CONSCIOUS DEVELOPMENTAL EFFORTS IN NIGERIA (Pp. 23-30) With the attainment of independence, the “regulatory” state gave way to what has been called the “positive” state. State intervention in production activity, through the instrumentality of the public sector, became a choice. 28

29 In summary, the roles of public sector include: (i) incursion into essential socio-economic areas where the private enterprise is reluctant or incapable of operating due to: (a) the enormity of the initial capital outlay; (b) the long gestation period; (c) low profitability; and (d) Security element arising therefrom. (ii) promotion of employment and skill for maintaining stability in depressed areas; (iii) fair distribution of community needs; and (iv) economic catalyst. 29

30 8.0 NIGERIA’S MARCH TO GREATNESS (p. 30) The Nigeria’s quest for growth and greatness are weaved around ‘Development’ the baseline of which is improved life of the citizens. This commenced with the launching of the first Ten- years Colonial Development and Welfare programme as an earnestness of Britain’s new resolve to assist the development of the colonies. 30

31 (i) The developmental objectives of Nigeria were declared in 1970 and aimed at achieving: a united, strong and self-reliant nation; a just and egalitarian society; a great and dynamic economy; a land of full and bright opportunities for all citizens; and a free and democratic society. 31

32 (ii) The various National development Plans: First National Development Plan - 1962 - 68 Second National Development Plan - 1970 - 74 Third National Development Plan - 1975 - 80 Fourth National Development Plan - 1981 - 85 The Rolling Plans etc. 32

33 The question may be asked, of what use are all these to the citizens if indeed development is all about improvement of their welfare? About this, we restate that the raison d’être` of government, any government, is the good life for citizens (the greatest happiness of the greatest number). Government therefore demonstrates its responsibility to the citizens by its responsiveness to their needs. These needs are expressed by the citizens themselves through their demands made via various channels. These Needs/Demands are schematically represented overleaf: 33

34 Fig. 2: Schematic Representation of Citizens Demands on Government. 34 Demand for Shelter Demand for Education Demand for Security Demand for Roads Demand for Water Demand for Infrastructure Demand for Power Demand for Transportation Demand for Food Demand for Health Government

35 35

36 The schema presents what could aptly be referred to as Government – Citizens Demand Model. At one end of a continuum is a small group of people called Government who were elected to pilot the affairs of the nation. At the other end are the citizens who elected this group. The point must be made that first, this small group emerged from among the citizens – government of the citizens. Secondly, they were elected by the citizens – government by the citizens, and Thirdly, they were elected to fulfill the yawnings of the citizens expressed through their demands – government for the citizens. This expression is commonly referred to as Government of the people by the people and for the people. 36

37 Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, this model throws up the question being asked ab initio – what has Public Administration got to do will all these? As earlier posited, government and the citizens are at opposite ends of a continuum. In between these ends is a process through which government can reach out to the citizens with a view to meeting their demands. That process is public administration. And the public service constitutes the engine while the public servant is the driver of that process. 37

38 The Nigeria’s Developmental Agenda (p. 33) The citizen’s demand on government is articulated within a policy framework referred to as developmental agenda. The situation as of today is that whatever Developmental Agenda enunciated in Nigeria was presumably weaved around the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) constitute a strategic Agenda for the governance of 189 countries of the world that pledged their commitment to those goals in the year 2000. Emergence of the goals was informed by a genuine concern by both developing and advanced countries to ensure a meaningful development outcome. 38

39 These countries reached a consensus on how best to tackle abject poverty and other human miseries such as illiteracy, gender inequality, infant and maternal mortality, HIV and Aids, malaria, squalor and environmental degradation. In consonance with the Declaration, developed countries renewed their commitment to raise resources for financing development. They promised to ensure that 0.7 percent of their Gross National Income is made available through Official Development Assistance (ODA) to developing countries. The developing countries also vouched their commitment to improved governance. 39

40 The Millennium declaration has been translated into eight goals christened, The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs, which use 1999 as the base year, aim to achieve the following by 2015: Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; Goal 2: achieve universal primary education; Goal 3: promote gender equality; Goal 4: reduce child mortality; Goal 5: improve maternal health; Goal 6: combat HIV & AIDS, malaria and other diseases; Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability; and Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development. 40

41 Nigeria, as a signatory to the Millennium Declaration, is committed to achieving the MDGs by 2015. This commitment was demonstrated by the then President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo (GCFR), when he launched a Reform Agenda. 41

42 The President emphasized: “The reforms being introduced will be all encompassing and all embracing ……….. no community, no individual or group would be left out in the reform ………. In the process of that reform, if some people are hurt, we have no apology. We will do what has to be done to make Nigeria move forward, to make it what I believe, God has created it to be, a land flowing with “Milk and Honey”, a country to be respected within the comity of nations, a land of glory; a land of prosperity, a land of what is right and not a land of anything can go”. 42

43 Within the framework of the reform are the strategies of: National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS); 7-Point Agenda of the Yar’adua Administration; and The Transformation Agenda of the Jonathan Administration. NEEDS version of the state and local government are: State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDS); and Local Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LEEDS). 43

44 The conceptual issues on NEEDS/SEEDS/LEEDS are based on four goals: poverty reduction; wealth creation; employment generation: and value re-orientation. 44

45 Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, the assessment of these developmental Agenda/Reforms instigated a number of studies as follows: i. A Study visit to Mexico and Brazil It will be recalled that an Expert Group was put together by the Federal Government to study the implementation of MDGs in Countries identified and adjudged as adopting best practices in governance and administration. As a member of this group, I took part in the study of Mexico and Brazil in year 2009. Our findings from this study revealed that as at 2009, these countries had accomplished particularly the first five (5) goals and had gone ahead to set new goals/ targets in this direction. A point to note however, is a similarity between Nigeria and Brazil (one of the countries studied) in the area of long period of military interregnum. This study constituted a stimulant for carrying out similar studies back home in Nigeria. 45

46 (ii) Assessment of NEEDS The framework for actualizing the goals of NEEDS as earlier stated, is anchored on three pillars: Empowering people and improving social service delivery; Fostering private sector led growth; and Enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of government. It will be recalled that NEEDS I and II span the period between 2004 and 2011. Assessment of NEEDS reflects targeted dates. The targets and actual accomplishments are indicated in the table on pp. 37-38. 46

47 As indicated in table 1, pages 37-38, there has been tremendous and consistent improvement in the performance of the economy since the inception of NEEDS in 2004. Real GDP annual growth rate averaged 6.6% (2009-2011) as against the annual target of 6.0%; Oil sector annual growth rate average – 0.23% as against 0.0% targeted (2009 -2011); Non-oil sector average annual growth rate; 8.2% as against the NEEDS target of 8.0%; Inflation rate on the average, is 10.03%, (2009 -2011); Reduction of fiscal deficits to less than 3% of the GDP; Stable exchange rate (convergences of parallel exchange rates). 47

48 External reserves grew by an annual average rate of about 230%; from US$7.68 billion in 2009 to US$43 billion at the end of 2011; Favourable external balance as reflected in increasing value of non-oil exports; Phenomenal growth in the net in-flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and portfolio investment, particularly in the banking and telecommunications sectors; FDI rose from US$1.866b in 2009 to US$2.3b and US$4.8b in 2010 and 2011 respectively; Reduction in external debt stock from over US$30 billion to less than US$5 billion; and Favourable rating of Nigeria by International Credit rating agencies. 48

49 Assessment of SEEDS The National Planning Commission (NPC) in collaboration with development partners in Nigeria carried out SEEDs Benchmarking exercise. The NPC and States deliberated in a 3-day joint consultative workshop and agreed on the framework for the joint assessment of SEEDS. The Benchmarks were developed to measure four areas of States performances using certain identifiable indicators. For each of the measures, several indicators spelled out in detail what evidence a State may produce to show what appropriate actions have been taken to develop and implement SEEDS. 49

50 The Benchmark areas and their measures are as follows: Benchmark 1: Policy – Measures A to C in pp. 39 -40 Benchmark 2: Budget and Fiscal Management – Measures A to H in p. 40 Benchmark 3: Service Delivery – Measures A to D in pp. 40-41 Benchmark 4: Communication and Transparency – Measures A and B in p. 41 50

51 States performance for two consecutive years (2007 and 2010) based on points scored on indicators from the foregoing are displayed in tables 2 and 3, pages 42 and 44. 51

52 The latest Benchmarking Study on the Performance of SEEDS was undertaken in 2010. The Results are indicated in table 3 below: Table 3: SEEDS BENCHMARKING RESULTS 2010 S/N STATE TOTAL SCORE POSITION 1. FCT61.55 1st 2. Lagos57.45 2nd 3. Ondo53.55 3rd 4. Enugu52.75 4th 5. Oyo52.15 5th 6. Ogun51.45 6th 7. Kaduna51.5 7th 8. Kwara48.85 8th 9. Osun48.85 9th 10. Ekiti48.45 10th 52

53 S/N STATE TOTAL SCORE POSITION 11.Rivers48.2 11th 12.Kano48.012th 13.Cross River47.513th 14.Imo46.814th 15.Nasarawa46.715th 16.Delta46.2516th 17.Edo46.1517th 18.Niger46.018th 19.Plateau45.5519th 20.Kogi45.420th 53

54 S/N STATE TOTAL SCORE POSITION 21.Adamawa45.15 21st 22.Katsina44.95 22nd 23.Benue44.3 23rd 24.Bauchi44.25 24th 25.Borno44.25 25th 26.Anambra44.25 26th 27.Akwa-Ibom42.75 27th 28.Jigawa42.2 28th 29.Sokoto41.5 29th 30.Ebonyi41.15 30th 54

55 S/N STATE TOTAL SCORE POSITION 31. Gombe 40.9 31st 32. Yobe 38.15 32nd 33. Abia 37.15 33rd 34. Taraba36.05 34th 35. Kebbi35.8 35th 36. Bayelsa33.25 36th 37. Zamfara 32.75 37th Source: Federal Republic of Nigeria (2010) SEEDS Benchmark Report 2010 (Abuja: National Planning Commission) 55

56 A comparative analysis of tables 2 and 3 reveals the following between 2007 and 2010. Ten (10) states recorded improvement. Thirty two (32) states and FCT recorded improved performances on at least one out of the four (4) benchmarks. Similarly eighteen (18) states show improved performance in Infrastructure and Utilities. Twenty two (22) on Regulatory Services. Nine (9) on Business Development Support and Investment Promotion. Six (6) on Security. 56

57 (iv) Assessment of LEEDS Successful implementation of LEEDS, we aver, will make the greatest impact in Nigeria since greater proportion of the citizens is concentrated at that grassroots level. Hence, we undertook an empirical study of the implementation of LEEDS in 2010. Methodology The method adopted for this study was collection of relevant data with the aid of structured and unstructured interview techniques. 57

58 The structured interview questions were derived from the outcome of a 3-day workshop organized by the National Planning Commission (NPC) for the 36 States of the Federation on the framework for joint assessment of SEEDS. These, were adopted in this study for assessment of LEEDS. Using the purposive sampling procedure, twelve (12) out of the thirty six (36) States in Nigeria covering the six (6) geo-political zones were identified. Two (2) states were isolated in each of the six (6) geo-political zones. Within each of the two (2) states, some local government areas (LGAs) were randomly selected. The total number of LGAs per state, informed the number selected in that state for the study to ensure fair distribution. 58

59 The field exercise was carried out by three (3), Research Assistants in each of the states isolated for the study and for a period of eight days. Functionaries in each state such as Secretary to the State Government. Head of Civil Service of the State. Honourable Commissioner in charge of Local Government and Chieftaincy Affairs and some Permanent Secretaries were interviewed using unstructured interview technique designed from the outcome of the 3-day workshop mentioned earlier. The purpose was to uncover the policy objectives and direction of the state government with regards to the design and application of SEEDS and LEEDS. 59

60 Armed with the emerging information, we approached a subsequent target group thus: The local government officials; Community Leaders; Village Heads; and Other beneficiaries of local government services. With structured interview technique. The emerging data were further explained with the aid of tabular analysis. Table 4 indicates a summary of the areas covered by the study. 60

61 61

62 The table indicates a wider coverage in the North-East Geo-Political zone where 62.5% and 36.4% of LGAs were covered in Taraba and Gombe States respectively. Similar wide coverage is noticed in Nasarawa State with 61.5% LGAs covered. However, Cross River (27.0%) and Kaduna (26.0%) States took the rear. RESULTS are found in pages 47-52. 62

63 Summary of findings – pp. 52 – 53 An overall assessment however reveals a far cry from the MDGs and SEEDS/LEEDS targets. In fact, non of the MDGs was consciously and seriously being addressed hence there were: glaring poverty all over the place; increase in crime rate largely due to unemployment; mortality rates due to little attention paid to health related issues; despite so much campaigns and jingles, cases of HIV/AIDS were in the increase. Leadership at the local government and community levels appeared confused with regards to MDGs’ guided development. There was absence of MDGs offices in virtually all the LGAs studied hence the minimal development observed were haphazard and at the whims and caprices of particular leaders. The communities were, in most cases, left to bear the brunt of developing their communities through self-help efforts. Politicization of developmental issues at the local level and the jurisdictional buck-passing between the state and local governments gave much room for corrupt tendencies much to the disadvantage of the communities. 63

64 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTAL AGENDA: AN ASSESSMENT The inextricable linkage between the Yar`adua’s 7-point Agenda and Jonathan’s Transformation Agenda is captured within the context of National Developmental Agenda. Adoption of Monitoring and Evaluation strategy by government institutions and agencies which is referred to as Score-Card, aided the assessment of progress made so far. key Performance Indicates (KPIs) were applied as instruments. This is articulated hereunder on a sector-by-sector basis. Note: Statistical analyses leading to the verdicts are contained in pp. 54 - 57. 64

65 HEALTH SECTOR The healthcare targets were met to a large extent. 65 EDUCATION SECTOR For 2009, there is a worrying decrease in the number of enrolment versus number of graduates for that year. JOB CREATION FAILURE IN PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES The Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity would need to partner with the private sector for accelerated performance of its set targets by 2013.

66 INTERNAL SECURITY A marginal increase in the overall crime rate. 66 EXTERNAL SECURITY Achievements of the Ministry of Defence include the ability to meet international obligations to peace operations. Assisting internal security with military aids and improved inter- operationability in joint operation exercises. INFRASTRUCTURE Marginal improvement was recorded particularly in power supply

67 TRANSPORTATION Marginal improvement was recorded 67 WOMEN AFFAIRS There were increased proportion of women occupying decision making positions in Nigeria and the progress made towards achieving the MDGs target by 2015.

68 ASSESSMENT OF THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE MDGs IN NIGERIA In spite of the foregoing efforts, verdict on Nigeria’s performance towards the MDGs is returned by two umpires: (i) The Federal Government: The Federal Government set up a Presidential Committee to monitor and assess the country’s performance on MDGs. An assessment of years 2008 and 2013 respectively is undertaken as follows: (ii) a. In year 2008, the Committee returned a verdict referred to as “Nigeria MDGs Report Card”. This is displayed in table 6, page 58. b. The Committee’s Report of 2013 displayed in table 7, PP. 59 – 61., is the 6 th in the series of such reports since year 2004: 68

69 Table 7 reveals that: (a) Nigeria is not likely to meet the 2015 target with regards to MDGs 1 (Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger) and 7 (Ensure Environmental Sustainability); (b) Nigeria is likely to meet the 2015 target in Goals 2 (Achieve Universal Primary Education), 5 (Improve Maternal Health), and 8 (Develop a Global Partnership for Development); and (c) Although the Country is not likely to meet the 2015 target with regards to Goals 3 (Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women), 4 (Reduce Child Mortality) and 6 (Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases) remarkable progress was made in that direction. For instance, the Ebola Scare of 2014 was effectively curtailed – kudos to the Jonathan Administration 69

70 (iii) Assessment by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) In its own assessment undertaken under the aegis of Civil Society in year 2009, the non-governmental organizations returned a verdict titled: “Civil Society Score- Card,” which we articulate hereunder: (a)53.6% of Nigerians are still living in abject poverty; (b)8 Million school-aged children are not in school; (c)Over 43% of Nigerians cannot read or write (60% are women); (d)One out of 100 Nigerian Children die before the age of five; (e)704 out of 100,000 Nigerian women die during child birth; (f)75 Million people in Nigeria have at least one episode of malaria annually; and (g)72 Million Nigerians have no access to safe drinking water; Source: This Day Newspaper, Wednesday August 1, 2009. 70

71 (iv) A corroboration of the foregoing was made by Professor Ibrahim Gambari on 17th January, 2014 thus: 68% of Nigerians live below the poverty line of less than $1.25 as defined by UNDP and World Bank, in terms of income poverty; The multidimensional poverty headcount is at 54%, the difference between the income and multidimensional poverty, being non-income related resources available to Nigerians in the latter category; (As you know we Nigerians know how to manage our wahala with the support of friends and family); 143 out of 1000 Nigerians die before the age of 5 years old; Maternal mortality ratio is 630 – meaning 630 women out of 100,000 die at child birth; 71

72 Adult literacy is at 61% and only 51% of school aged Nigerians, (that is from primary school to tertiary institutions) are enrolled; Primary school enrolment dropped from 103% in 2005 to 83% in 2010; The primary school situation is alarming because if Nigeria continues on this course, the literacy level would even drop further in the coming years due to the drop of enrolment in primary school; 72

73 All these put Nigeria at 153 among countries on the HDI at 0.471, the higest since the HDI was introduced in 1990 and lower than the Sub- Saharan Africa average of 0.475; Thus, with all our wealth, Nigeria belongs to the low human development category where its 2012 HDI (0.471) is higher than the global average value of that category of 0.466, but lower as noted than the Sub-Saharan Africa average; Nigeria is ranked 16th on the Fund for Peace Index of Failed States with 5-year trend showing that the situation is deteriorating; and Transparency International ranks Nigeria 144 (out of 175) on its 2013 corruption index. (Gambari, 2014: 13-14). 73

74 (v) An umpire – The Food and Agricultural Organization, an agency of the United Nations Organizations through its Director-General – Mr. Graziano da Silva made a pronouncement precisely in June, 2013 thus: 38 countries have already met internationally –set hunger eradication targets set for 2015 to halve the percentage of hungry people. According to him, these countries have met part of the first MDG (i.e. Goal No. I) which calls on member states to halve by 2015 the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. 74

75 Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, Nigeria, along with seven (7) other African countries (Algeria; Angola; Benin; Cameroon; Malawi; Niger; and Togo) made the list ( Source: United Nations News Centre, 75

76 (VI) A rather conflicting pronouncement was made precisely on Tuesday, 12th November, 2013 by the World Bank’s (another United Nations Agency) Country Director for Nigeria- Francoise Marie-Nelly at the bank’s Country Programme Review (Portfolio Review) in Enugu. According to her, “1.2 billion people live in destitution out of which 100 million are Nigerians”. (Amaefule Everesty, 2013:32). 76

77 In addition, Tijal Balton Akpan (2011: 16) observes that in the past few years, we have seen growth in Gross Domestic Product, but this has not been accompanied by any significant development outcomes for the majority of Nigerians. He emphasizes that jobs are critical to poverty reduction but they cannot be created in an economy that lacks the critical infrastructure to support business. 77

78 In year 2014, Nigeria’s Honourable Minister of Finance and Coordinating Minister of the Economy Dr. (Mrs.) Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala raised Nigeria’s hopes and optimism when she pronounced precisely during the Democracy Day Celebration that the Nigerian economy is the fastest growing economy in the world. She supported the position with the following statistics: (i)At 6.5 percent growth rate, the economy is the fastest in the world; (ii)The exchange rate has stabilized at between N155 and N160 to the dollar; (iii)Inflation which was 12.4 percent in 2011 is now 9 percent; (iv)The external reserve which was $32 billion in 2012 is now (2014) $50 billion; (v)Over $75 billion debt was paid off this year (2014). 78

79 Soon after this pronouncement, the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) through its President, Comrade Abdulwahed Omar in a communiqué issued at the end of its National Executive Committee (NEC) meeting countered the claims. He stated: “Although the economy is said to have recorded a growth rate of about 7 percent, it has created few or no job; leading to an all-time high unemployment records. Whereas official figures put unemployment at 24 percent, there are indicators to believe that the actual estimate could be as high as 60 percent or higher. Nearly all our employable youths remain unemployed constituting a veritable army of the hungry, disillusioned and angry with great potential for undermining the peace and security of the nation”. 79

80 The foregoing showcase both conflicting and not too impressive reports particularly as it relates to Goal No. I. For instance, in September 2010, the report was a poor performance; In June, 2013, FAO pronounced that Nigeria had met internationally-set hunger eradication targets; In the same year, November 2013, the World Bank pronounced Nigeria as housing 100 million destitute; Of all the 8 goals, destitution is mostly related to goal No. I; 80

81 If indeed, out of a population of about 160 million, 100 million, representing 62.5% are destitute; It clearly shows that nearly 15 years after institutionalizing the MDGs as a policy guide; The situation remains a far cry from the set target on this goal (No. 1); And in May, 2014 Nigeria’s Coordinating Minister for the Economy raised the hopes of Nigerians with regards to improved economy; Only to be countered by the NLC President; Interestingly both of them brandished statistics to support the conflicting claims. 81

82 Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, these conflicting stories, controversies and contradictions constitute a stimulant for an empirical study. In response, we undertook a pilot study. This study was made possible by Dr. (Mrs.) Nneka Chibogwu, the NOUN Centre Director, Awka, who enabled me regain the confidence I lost in my home state due to security challenges. The study was conducted in 8 villages that make up the Ojoto town in Anambra State. The villages are: (i) Ezieke; (ii) Umuchem (iii) Ire; (iv) Enugo; (v) Indiabo; (vi) Ezema; (vii) Umuezema; and (viii) Ojo. 82

83 And the study further strengthened our testing instrument by guaranteeing its validity and reliability. The outcome of this pilot study has instigated another study that will encompass the 6 geo-political zones in Nigeria. The focus this time will be MDG No. I on eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. The study will however be enhanced where and when a Research Grant is secured. 83

84 9.0 CHALLENGES Remote and immediate challenges to the quest for development in Nigeria could be categorized as follows: Political Instability pp. 66 – 67. Policy Inconsistencies and Summersaults pp. 67 – 69. Professor Gambari’s observation in this direction is instructive thus: “Nigeria’s development efforts have over the years been characterized by lack of continuity, consistency and commitment (3Cs) to agreed policies, programmes and projects as well as an absence of a long-term perspective. The culminating effect has been growth and development of the Nigerian Economy without a concomitant improvement in the overall welfare of Nigerian citizens”. Bureaucratization (Bureaucracy is dead. What it requires is a decent burial, Discuss) pp. 69 – 72. Corruption pp. 73 -78. 84

85 Most scholars and public commentators on the Instrument of Governance (the Nigeria Public Service) agree that corruption and abuse of office by political office holders are fallout of the breakdown of moral values and ethical standards in the country. Corruption has also been identified as one of the major problems confronting the nation today. The Guardian of March 1, 1999 puts it this way: “Corruption is largely responsible for the seeming collapse of everything we hold dear”. Public offices are now seen as avenues for self-enrichment rather than service. Words like ‘Kola’, ‘upfront payment’, ‘brown envelope’, ‘settlement’, ‘roger’, ‘Nigerian factor’, etc., have been added to our infamous national vocabulary. Public officers now gleefully tell anyone who cares to listen that “na where man dey work na there him dey chop’. Important public institutions and parastatals like PHCN (defunct) NNPC, WAEC, JAMB, the Police, the Universities, etc., have all collapsed because of the pervasive nature of corruption in our public service. 85

86 Nigeria has gradually become a country where no service could be rendered without money exchanging hands. Thank God, they have not started demanding money for the air we breathe. The fact that a public officer is paid monthly to render services to the public does not make any impression on him/her. You will be told in no unmistakable language that “you either find something for the boys or look elsewhere for services’. Even when you summon enough courage to report such acts of indiscretion to a higher authority, you are likely to be advised, “for your own good and in order to save time, you had better comply with whatever request that is being made of you”. The effects of this complete breakdown of morality in the system on both the citizenry and the society at large are better imagined. For proponents of humanism and for those who pride themselves as custodians of the African culture, of being one’s brothers’ keeper, such themes have no place in the decadent Nigerian public service. 86

87 The system has brought out the bestial underpinnings of the human nature. There is a deliberate attempt by everybody to outdo the next person in corrupt practices. If you proclaim righteousness or holiness as a public officer, you stand a chance of becoming an endangered specie. The more daring and innovative you are in this vice, i.e. corruption, the more you earn public recognition through chieftaincy titles, honourary doctorate degrees while many women queue up to join your harem. The economic effect on the country is even more far-reaching. Nigerians the world over are regarded as dubious people and scam artists. Holders of the green – white –green passports are often and routinely humiliated at different airports of the world. Even respected people in our country are not exempted from the discriminatory search often conducted on our nationals at different capitals of the world. 87

88 Businessmen are afraid to bring funds to Nigeria because of the monstrous system we have created. This picture is vividly portrayed in the Guardian of March 18, 1999 in the following words: “visiting foreigners are openly asked for bribe in the nation’s ports”. Year after year, Nigeria is listed as one of the most corrupt nations in the world. Not too long ago, the former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, made the following pronouncement: Public offices are the shopping floors of government business. Regrettably, Nigerians have for too long been feeling shortchanged by the quality of service delivery by which decisions are not made without undue outside influence, and files do not move without being pushed with inducements. Our public offices have for too long been showcases for the combined evils of inefficiency and corruption, whilst being impediments to effective implementation of government policies. Nigerians deserve better. And we will ensure that they get what is better. (Part of an Address presented by Mr. President while inaugurating the National Assembly in June, 2003). 88

89 As explained elsewhere, different forms of corruption abound in Nigeria. The vice is widespread as to be categorized within the Nigerian context as Father Corruption, Mother Corruption, and Baby Corruption etc. As posited by the erstwhile Governor of Plateau State, Chief Joshua Dariye, the fight against corruption should start from our individual homes because, if the so many acts of “baby” corruption living with us can be eliminated, “mother” corruptions will fizzle out into oblivion. What then constitute baby corruption?  The driver who is in the habit of driving against traffic is committing ‘baby’ corruption.  The energy consumer who refuses to put off his lights in the daytime and thus wastes energy that should have been reserved for the evening is committing ‘baby’ corruption.  The recruitment officer who must see what is under the skirt before offering a job is committing ‘baby’ corruption.  The parent who arranges a special centre for his ward where the invigilator will not be able to exercise his statutory powers is committing ‘baby’ corruption.  The lecturer whose handout is the license for a pass mark is also in the web of ‘baby’ corruption.  The commissioner who must be “seen” before releasing cash-backing for staff salary cheque is equally in the net of baby corruption.  The list is endless. ‘Mother’ corruption is lack of patriotism and tribal disdain.  “Corruption must be eradicated for Nigeria to be purified for God’s blessing” (Maduabum, 2003:23) 89

90 Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, table 8, p. 76 indicates that for over 11 years (1996-2006), Nigeria was adjudged the most corrupt nation on earth thrice, 1996, 1997 and 2000; and was ranked last but one, four times, in 1999, 2001, 2002, and 2003. There is hardly any other country that has such a dismal showing so consistently. There is no doubt that corruption (and fraud) is a huge incremental or unbudgeted cost of doing business in Nigeria. Because it imposes an ethical (moral) dilemma on the investor, this in itself is a disincentive to business and development, it poses a culture shock to many foreign investors (Okojie, 2008). The latest ranking (2013) however puts Nigeria at 144 th out of 175 countries which ofcourse is an improvement, at least Nigeria has been able to overtake about 30 countries. 90

91 10.0 CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, The various studies undertaken and reported in this lecture point-up the following: The ubiquitousness of public administration to the lives of the citizens of a nation state. The inevitability of public administration in governance such as an instrument for delivering the welfare or developmental packages from the government to the citizens as well as measuring government’s fulfillment of its commitments to the citizens. In addition to economic indices, development equally encompasses improved welfare of the citizens (Greatest Happiness of the greatest number of people). 91

92 Specifically the field survey of 2010 revealed that the populace is concentrated more at the community level and, development is meaningless unless it is addressed at that level. An inverted pyramid in the area of importance and concomitant distribution of wealth (resources particularly financial resources required for infrastructural development) is indicated below: LEVEL LEVEL OF OF IMPORTANCE IMPORTANCE 92 FEDERAL STATE LOCAL GOVERNMENT COMMUNIT Y LOCAL GOVERNMENT STATE FEDERAL Current Situation Adequate Situation for a meaningful development

93 Establishment of a fourth (4) level of government – the community government as a structure that will address majority of the citizens in terms of development generally and infrastructural development in particular thereby discouraging Rural-Urban migration. The inverted Pyramid will also make the centre (Federal) less attractive thereby saving Nigerians the ugly consequences of struggle for power at the centre. The Public Service must not only be acknowledged but recognized as a pivotal agent of transformation of society. This is because whatever vision that is evolved by the political class can only be fully realized if and when the public service as an agent translates and implements such a vision. A dire need for a vigorous Reform of public service to transform it to a cutting-edge fully modernized organ. This cannot happen unless it becomes a knowledge-driven, skill-propelling and positive attitude-oriented public service. 93

94 11.0 CONCLUSION Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, distinguished ladies and gentlemen, permit me to submit here that, the political will to confront these challenges head-on is a desideratum if any progress will be made in this direction. The question is, how can we do this? What with the pervasiveness and ubiquitousness of the recasitrant, cantankerous, cacophonic, unrepentant political bosses who require immense psychological study to understand how to deal with them lest one is caught-up in the web of “if you can’t beat them, you join them”. Resisting the temptation of doing a journal Article titled: “Dilemma of the Chief Executive” is equally highly challenging to me due to my closeness with various chief executives I had the providence to work with at one time or the other. If we take the education sector for instance, where leaders of yesterday, today and tomorrow are moulded, the main drivers of the school system continuously receive batterings and ill treatments of all sorts, such that PNC Okigbo (1992) once stated that: “the disdain, with which the society treats the teachers, reduces teachers at all levels to self pity”. 94

95 When a renowned Professor at the University of Nigeria Nsukka, offered me Banana and Groundnut as lunch after travelling all the way from Badagry, Lagos, to meet him at Nsukka for an official assignment, I needed no other suit-sayer to convince me that this categoric group of supposedly top class Nigerians are, indeed, very poor. What is more, the Professor was proudly announcing to his bewildered visitor that what I met him eating was his normal lunch and in the office too. And, of course, his rickety 504 peogueot saloon car was parked outside the office at an age when even 505 peogueot saloon car was no longer in vogue. After all, didn’t Professor Attahiru Jega, then ASUU President, of the “September 3, 1992 Agreement” fame prove to the whole world after an academically sound comparative analysis that the University Professor or Lecturer in Nigeria was the least paid in the world? We must not forget that while a professor is having a lunch of banana and groundnut in his office, a legislator who probably was his student at the undergraduate class or even secondary school is equally having his lunch of a three-course meal at the Transcorp Hilton hotel Abuja or an equivalent 5 – star Hotel within a state capital. Little wonder that some “fortunate” Professors just like their Civil Servant counterparts run hither and thither at the ‘beck and call’ of the politicians and congratulate themselves for picking the crumbs that fall from the Politician’s table. Oh, what a country?. 95

96 Some say a no-nonsense leader in the mould of Murtala Ramat Mohammed, non-laughing Buhari- Idiagbon, Sanni Abacha and his “Enough is Enough” Syndrome and to a large extent Olusegun Obasanjo of “it is no longer Business as Usual” may deliver the already captured and embridled nation. Some even canvass a revolution – sighting the successes of Jerry Rawlings style of revolution in Ghana. Wait a minute, the speed with which Ghana overtook Nigeria in development may be an eloquent testimony to the effect that the ‘Jerry Rawlings’ model of revolution really worked for Ghana. Yet, our leaders at whatever level troop to advanced countries year in and year out to manage “Estacode” or siphon ill-gotten money while pretending to study best practices in an environment that is asymmetrical to the Nigerian environment. If a comparison is necessary, Ghana has a more similar environment with Nigeria than Britain, France, U. S.A., China and the like. Wouldn’t the Ghana revolution be a more likely, “best practice” that Nigeria and Nigerians, both leaders and the led, old and young, rich and poor need to study carefully and apply? Is Nigeria not among the blessed countries in the world? What with the endowment of rich human and material resources. We must recall that the then President, Chief Obasanjo was so convinced about the wealth of this Nation that he referred to the Nation as a land flowing with “milk and honey”. A student of any of the management science disciplines will easily address his mind to a comparison between adequate utilization, inadequate utilization or mal-utilization of resources, albeit, managing or damaging of resources. 96

97 Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, are we still asking the question what has Public Administration got to do with it? Put differently, does Public Administration really got anything to do with it? Just like Professor Chinue Achebe in his usual “Epilogue” I leave the answer to this highly respectable Audience. 97

98 12.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All honour and glory go to God Almighty for sustaining us thereby, making it possible for us to see this day. On a more personal note, I make bold to state that Divine providence granted me the privilege of coming across individuals and institutions through whom, God in his infinite mercies impacted immensely on my career life. These individuals and institutions are too many to mention. The limitation inspired by space-constraint would only permit me to mention just a few of them as follows: (i) Professor Vincent Ado Tenebe the current Vice-Chancellor of NOUN who threw up the challenge to all Professors in NOUN to fulfill the Academic obligation of delivering an Inaugural Lecture. Perhaps, but for that challenge I probably couldn’t have been on the hot seat at this moment. 98

99 (ii) Professor Sheikh Abdullah (OON) the then Director-General of ASCON and former Honourable Minister of Agriculture as well as an astute Professor of Public Finance. From those capacities emerged purposeful leadership and learning experiences that posed immense challenges for the pursuit of greater heights in my chosen career, the result of which is my current status. It must be recalled that as Chief Executive of ASCON, Professor Abdullah nominated me for the Productivity Merit Award of the Federal Government – the only ASCON staff in history to be so recognized. 99

100 (iii) Professor Ali D. Yahaya (OFR), former Director-General of ASCON, and later Political Adviser to the then Vice-President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Professor Yahaya saw to my steady but meritorious career progression in ASCON during which there was, indeed, an explosion in the acquisition of knowledge, skills and experience. These provided the foundation for my current height. 100

101 (iv) Professor Oluwole S. Olugbemi, (now late) was my academic father. An outstanding Professor of Public Administration, he was completely responsible for nurturing me academically when it mattered most, from master’s through doctoral degree programmes and beyond. Whatever knowledge I acquired academically is attributable mostly to late Professor Olugbemi. His memory remains evergreen in my mind. (iv) My late father, Chief (Hon) P. O. Maduabum. He was a “bundle of wisdom”; little wonder he foresaw, early enough, the benefit of education while in an environment in which education was minimally emphasized. He thus invested a lot in seeing me through early formative education, thereby providing the basic foundation upon which my current academic and, by implication, career height, is attained. 101

102 ( vi) Dr. I. B. Mmuobosi, (now late) provided the mentoring needed in ASCON when it mattered most. (vii) My No. 1 constituency – the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON), small as it appears provides the platform for a serious minded person to progress in whatever desired direction. What with its library acknowledged as the biggest and best management library in Africa. Interactions in that institution brought me closer to Professor Adele Jinadu the then Director-General, whom I had earlier met in Unilag during my student days,; Deacon A. A. Peters, the current Director-General, a friend and my mate at ASCON, my other Ogas – late Mike Durodola, Mr. B. O. Oshionebo, Dr. M. J. Balogun (former Director-General), then contemporaries Dr. Jimmy Chijioke, Alhaji Ahmed Musa etc. Prominent among my products at ASCON is Major General A. A. Martins. 102

103 (viii) The University of Lagos (another constituency) through the Department of Political Science invited me soon after earning a Ph.D degree in Public Administration in 1990 to assist it run the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programme. I had served in the capacity of Adjunct Academic Staff ever since and rose to the position of Adjunct Professor. During this period, I interacted with Professors Oye Oyediran, Muyibi Amoda (Cosmorgenic Demurje), S. O. Olugbemi (late), Remi Anifowose, Tunde Babawale (erstwhile CEBAAC Director-General) Tomori, Solomon Akinboye (current HOD, Political Science Department and my Boss), Makanju former Dean, Social Science Faculty; Assc. Profs. Browne Onuoha and Derin Ologbenla, my Ph.D classmates – Professor Iyabo Olojede, Dr. Jide Oluwajuitan, Dr. M. M Fadakinte etc. My products at the same institution include Dr. Augustine Eneanya, Dr. (Mrs.) Omolara Quadri, Dr. Biodun Akinwanle, Dr. Felix Awosika, Dr. Isuwa B. Dogo etc. then of course my current MPA students of Unilag as well as my NOUN students – all impacted positively on my career life. (ix) My spiritual family – the Knights of St. Mulumba (FESTAC Subcouncil); Archbishop of Lagos Archdiocese (His Lordship, Dr. Adewale Martins; Rev. Fathers Jude Onyeka, Greg Anosike, Tobia’s etc. 103

104 11.1 THE TRUMPET Mr. Vice-Chancellor, Sir, please permit me to blow a little trumpet. I was fortunate to run into Professor Olugbemiro Jegede, the immediate past Vice- Chancellor of NOUN at the recently concluded Pan Commonwealth Forum (PCF 7) at Abuja. Infact, I was meeting him for the first time since he left NOUN. He demonstrated his passion and concerns about the growth of the institution (NOUN) which he pioneered from birth. I never knew he will recognize me because as I was joining NOUN, he was leaving and we met only once before he left. After a brief exchange of pleasantries he stated and I quote – “I learnt that you have turned around the School of Business, keep it up”. Mr. Vice- Chancellor Sir, if there was any turn-around of that school, it was collectively done by the staff of School of Management Sciences (SMS) whom I regard as my immediate family in NOUN. One or two evidence will suffice. 104

105 (i) Establishment of a functional School’s Library to among others aid the writing of course materials, setting TMAs and Exam questions, research and publications etc. In the last two years, we have been receiving commendations some of which came from the University Librarian Mr. Igwe Ukoha; the then DVC (Academic) Professor Mba Okoronkwo (OON); some members of the NUC Accreditation Team and lately requests from University of Lagos, Lagos State University and Covenant University through the External examiners from those institutions – Professor Akinboye, Professor Bello, Professor Ogundele to the effect that their graduate students be allowed to make use of the SMS Library. The man at the helm of affairs in that Library who also doubles as the Head of the team on Research Projects is Dr. Timothy Ishola. (ii) Restructuring of the entire school and rationalization of the programmes such that the non-viable ones were dropped and the more viable ones introduced. In addition, from an initial inherited 158 unwritten course materials in the last two and the half years to a zero No. of such category. 105

106 (iii) The initiation and eventual appointment by the Vice-Chancellor of Adjunct Professors and Lecturers the completion of unwritten course materials particularly in such technical areas as Hotel and Catering, Tourism and Cooperative Management. (iv) In 2012, the SMS presented its four (4) programmes for NUC’s Accreditation Exercise and secured full Accreditation in three (3) and interim Accredition in one. For the records, of the 31 programmes presented by NOUN, only four (4) had full Accreditation and SMS alone accounted for 3 out of the 4. The Chairperson of the Accreditation Committee of SMS was Dr. (Mrs.) A. O. Fagbemi. The Coordinators of the three (3) programmes were (i) Mrs. Carol Aturu-Aghedo, for Entrepreneurial and Business Management; (ii) Dr. Timothy Ishola for Cooperative Management; and (iii) Mr. Stowell Israel-Cookey for Hotel and Catering Management. Few months later, SMS was again called upon to present its MBA and MPA programmes for an accreditation exercise. The only School in NOUN that (i) faced NUC accreditation team twice in one year; and (ii) presented its post-graduate programmes for NUC’s accreditation exercise. We secured full Accreditation in MPA with 91.5% - one of the highest, if not the highest to be so earned by any programme in any Nigerian University. For MBA, it was interim Accreditation. The man who headed the Accreditation Committee in SMS then was Dr. Clement I. Okeke and the Coordinator of the MPA programme that brought such a pride to SMS was Mrs. Martha Oruku. (v) My experience during the two (2) Accreditation exercises which I fully participated in shows that Study Centres played significant role in whatever grades earned by programmes being accredited. To this end, I must acknowledge the following Study Centres that made significant contributions to our earning a full accreditation status in our programmes. 106

107 (a) Enugu Study Centre headed then by Professor Patrick Eya made such a contribution with regards to full accreditation in two of our programmes namely: Entrepreneurial and Business Management; and Cooperative Management; (b) Kaduna Study Centre headed by Dr. Garba Nuhu and the beautifully laid out and excellently maintained campus under the leadership of Dr. (Mrs.) Saratu B. Dikko-Audu made similar contribution with regards to Hotel and Catering Management. Professor Israel Adu represented the Vice-Chancellor and, by implication, the NOUN headquarters at that centre. His role then is equally highly acknowledged. (c) Abuja Study Centre headed then by Dr. Akale Matt. similarly contributed to our earning full accreditation in Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree programme. 107

108 (vi) Institutionalization of a journal named: “NOUN Journal of Management and International Development” in 2012. The second edition of that Journal is currently in circulation. The presence of this Journal, on the bookshelves among others, earned NOUN some points during the NUC’s Resource Assessment Exercise at the Enugu Study Centre in June, 2013. The Editor of the Journal is Dr. (Mrs.) A. O. Fagbemi and the Secretary is the indefatigable Mr. Julius Enyanuku. (vii) Other staff that must be mentioned are Professor Kayode Oguntuashe who is in charge of Adjunct Staff; Dr. Ibrahim Idrisu, in-charge of Undergraduate Programmes; Dr. Mande Samaila who operates at CLL but assists in overseeing CEMBA/CEMPA Programmes; Mrs. Dayo Akinbowale, who was in charge of the Administrative organ of the school; and Mrs. Carolyn Ajon the School’s Confidential Secretary who had the singular task of typing the initial Draft of this entire lecture. Infact, this inaugural lecture is dedicated to the entire staff of the School of Management Sciences. 108

109 11.2(i)The Entire staff of NOUN among whom are friends, “my persons”, and “my personal persons” – They know themselves and the category to which they belong: (ii) My respect goes to the Principal Officers of NOUN on the one hand and in particular Professors Israel Adu, Femi Peters, Femi Ogunlale etc. on the other. 109

110 11.3Finally, a towering figure who I refer to as my “Precious Marble of Inestimable Value” (Chief Obafemi Awolowo) – A certain Mrs. Ijeoma Carol Maduabum currently a Comptroller of Nigeria Immigration Services; 110

111 My first son Chuka, of Price-Water House and Coopers (PWC); His junior brother Nnamdi-in quest of advanced academic degree in far away USA; and Adamma – the baby of the family who is also the “Apple of my Eyes”. My beloved son Kanayo is equally fondly remembered. 111


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