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The Roots of the Middle Eastern Conflict Why they hate us? Section 19.4.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roots of the Middle Eastern Conflict Why they hate us? Section 19.4."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roots of the Middle Eastern Conflict Why they hate us? Section 19.4

2 Abraham’s Genealogy Hagar Abraham Sarah IsaacIshmael Jacob Esau 12 Tribes Of Israel 12 Arabian Tribes People of Arabian Peninsula Not Muslim Muhammad Bin Abd al Wahhab & Muhammad bin Saud LATER

3 Palestine in Ancient Texts  “Old Testament” –Philistia was used to describe the area controlled by the Philistines  Philistines are thought to no longer exist as a distinct peoples since the Babylonian Captivity  Philistines were actually Greek Philistia--- 

4 Use of the Term “Palestine”  Palestine is a toponym – a word to describe locality, region, or some other part of Earth’s surface  Thought to be used for the 1 st time by Herodotus in the 5 th century BCE to describe the area between Egypt and Phoenica Palestine  According to Herodotus

5 So a Palestinian is…  Anyone: Arab, Christian, Jew, Muslim, anyone who lives in the area known as Palestine  There are Palestinian Jews Anyone who lives here is technically a Palestinian

6 Enter the Romans  Before the Romans, Judea was ruled by the monarchs of the Hasmoneans  The revolt in 63 BCE allowed the Romans to step in, quell the revolt…and take over Judea  Caesar was the one to end anger by bringing stability to the nation  Herod comes to power (dies in 4 BCE, Israel goes back to fighting)  66 CE – The Great Jewish Revolt  Vespasian was sent by Nero to put it down  70 CE – Temple of Solomon was destroyed and the capture of Jerusalem  2 nd Jewish Revolt lead by Bar Kokhba ( CE) lead to the destruction of all Judea and its inhabitants expelled  Only Jews in Galilee and Samaria were allowed to stay

7 Hadrian’s Punishment  Renames the area once occupied by the Israelites as Syria Palaestina to disassociate it with the Judeans  He was insulting the Jews by naming the territory after their enemies the Philistines  After this Hebrew as a spoken language is almost non-existent in the area

8 Coming of the Muslims  400 CE until 638 CE Christians held Jerusalem  In 638 CE Muslims conquer Jerusalem  Allow a few Jewish families settle  Arab Bedouins start to come into the area and settle in mass as soldiers of the Muslim forces  Starts the claim of Arab/Arab Palestinians for the land

9 Ottoman Period ( )  Ottoman’s generally treated Jews well  Allowed for them to settle during the Spanish expulsion of the Jews  25% of Palestine Jewish at this time

10 The Rise of Wahhabism  Puritanical form of Sunni Islam  Practiced in Saudi Arabia and Qatar  Derived from Muhammad bin Abd al Wahhab ( )  Sought to reverse the “moral decline” in his society  Wanted a return to the pure and orthodox practices of the Quran  Muhammad bin Saud to unify the tribes in the Arabian Peninsula  Founder of the Al Saud dynasty (in Saudi Arabia)

11 Zionism  Goals  The spiritual and political renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral homeland of Palestine  Freedom from Western anti- Semitism Theodore Herzl

12 Sayyid Qutb ( )  Intellectual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood (reestablished the Sunni Caliphate)  Spiritual leader and inspiration for Al Qaeda  His book Milestones says to fight against any law by Allah’s  Execution made him a martyr

13 The British Again…  Hussein-McMahon Letters  Between Sharif Hussein ibn Ali and Sir Henry McMahon (British High Commissioner in Egypt)  Britain recognizes the independence of  Balfour Declaration (1917)  The establishment of a Jewish homeland  Sir Arthur James Balfour – British Foreign Secretary

14 Jews and Arabs in Palestine, 1920  In 1920, there was one Jew to ever ten Arabs in Palestine  By 1947, the ratio was two Arabs for ever Jew  Arabs felt they were losing control of their “country”

15 Modern Saudi Arabia  Close relationship between the Saudi ruling family and the Wahhabi religious establishment  Difference between Wahhabism and Salafiyya  Wahhabism – the Saudi form of Salafiyya  Uses the Koran and the Kitab Al-Tawhib by Wahhab  Salafiyya – believe that the Quran and Prophet’s practices are the ultimate religious authority in Islam  Not a unified movement  Exists outside of Saudi Arabia and Qatar  Many scholars believe these groups did not become militant until the 1980s with the takeover of Afghanistan by the Russians

16 Aliyah bet : Illegal Jewish Immigration

17 U.N. Partition Plan of 1947

18 Israel Becomes a Nation  14 May 1948 David Ben-Gurion, 1 st Prime Minister Chaim Weizmann, 1 st President

19 Conflict Between Israel and Palestine “The Twins in the Sand”

20 War Begins First Arab-Israeli War  15 May 1948  Arab countries informed Arab Palestinians to flee so they would not be killed during the extermination of the Jews  Was the War of Independence for the Israeli state

21 Armistice Signed

22 Suez Canal Crisis  2 nd Arab/Israeli War

23  Arabs vow to never recognize Israel  Egypt leads Arab countries in new war  Begins blockade  Israel wins again  Gains Sinai, Golan Heights, and Palestine is annexed  3 rd Arab/Israeli War 6 Day War (1967)

24 Attack the US Economy  After Yom Kippur War (1973)  Put pressure on the US by cutting off their oil supply if they help Israel  Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

25 Sadat Goes to Israel  1977 – Egyptian president Anwar Sadat traveled to Israel  First Arab leader EVER to travel to the Jewish state  Killed by Egyptian radicals in 1981  Mubarak (army general) takes over  Bans the Islamist Party (Muslim Brotherhood) for assassination

26 Camp David Accords  Egypt will recognize the state of Israel  Israel would leave the Sinai Peninsula  Israel would remove troops from the West Bank and Gaza Strip

27 After the Accords  Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) created to fight for a free Palestine and remove the Israeli state  Led by Yasser Arafat  The First Intifada – 1987  Rocks and bombs vs. Israeli military might

28 HOPE(ISH) IN THE ’90’S: THE OSLO ACCORDS  Israel gives some autonomy to the West Bank & Gaza Strip in return for PLO recognition of Israel’s right to exist  Rabin assassinated by Israeli nationalists  5 th PM of Israel

29 2001 – ROADMAP FOR PEACE New 2000 intifada & 9/11 convince West to try to fix this issue Calls for two states TRICKY ISSUES Right of Return Settlements

30 Death of Arafat & A Split in the Movement Mahmoud Abbas leader of PLO (Fatah) – willing to work with Israel Hamas – terror group elected: bent on eliminating Israel

31 Recent History  2006: War with Lebanon  Shiite Terror group Hezbollah, funded by Iran & Syria, launched missile attacks. 34 Day War  2007: Israel Attacks Syria  No one complained???  2009 – Israeli blockade of Hamas led Gaza Strip  Today: Potential Iran War

32 Iran and the US Why we’re having trouble with them as well…

33 Mohammad Mossadegh (1950s)  Democratically elected Prime Minster of Iran  Very popular with the people  Purges military corruption  Nationalizes foreign oil fields

34 Operation Ajax  CIA – sponsored coup of the popular, democratically- elected leader of Iran  US support strengths the Shah Shah of Iran Mossadegh on Trial

35 Dictatorship of Shah Reza Pahlavi  Lives lavishly  Establishes close ties to the West  Represses political dissidents  People live in poverty

36 The Iranian Revolution Shah flees to U.S. Ayatollah Khomenei Iranian Hostage Crisis

37 Iranian Hostage Situation  Originally 66 hostages  52 held for 444 days  Operation Canadian Caper – 6 diplomats evaded capture and were smuggled out of the country  Operation Eagle Claw – Carter sent in a special forces team to to free the hostages  Operation Credible Sport – using a C-130 Hercules airlifter modified with rocket engines

38 Enter Saddam Hussein  Major General Ahmed Hassan al- Bakr of the Ba’ath party becomes Iraq’s new president (bloodless coup)  1979 – Hussein becomes president of Iraq when Al-Bakr retired  Condemns 400 fellow Ba’athists to death  Living prove loyalty by shooting the 400  Kurds revolt

39 Iran-Iraq War (1980s)  Causes  Shiite vs. Sunni  Iran’s support of the Kurds  Territorial control of the Straits of Hormuz (from Persian Gulf)

40 Hussein Earns his Reputation  Used poison gas on whole separatist- leaning Kurdish towns  Children used to clear mine fields Dead Kurds at Halabja from poison gas

41 The US’s Involvement  In the war, US is pro- Iraq  Iran had taken US embassy workers in 1979 and was still holding them  Iraq secular  War ends in draw Donald Rumsfeld meeting with Saddam Hussein in the 1980’s

42 After the Iran-Iraq War  Kuwait had helped finance Iraq’s war  Ba’athists think Kuwait naturally theirs  Aug 1990 – Iraq occupies Kuwait  Sees US as an ally

43 The Middle East in the 1990s  People were angry  “Islam is the solution” to the poverty, injustice, cultural alienation, lack of respect for human rights, etc.  Worried about the end of the Cold War and the decline of USSR money  Other countries in this area were hurting economically  Democracy?

44 Operation Desert Storm  Feb 1991 – US led coalition frees Kuwait

45 Fallout from the Conflict  Iraqi Shiites are angry  Highway of Death  Media images of destroyed Iraqi retreat turn Western stomachs, prevent West from marching into Iraq

46 Meanwhile in Saudi Arabia  Saudi’s let US keep troops in the “Holy Land” during wars and asks US to stay for stability afterwards  Wahhabis and Bin Laden angry over infidel troops in land of Mohammed

47 The Norm in the wealthy oil kingdoms This Exists along side the Extreme Wealth… And Anger is Below the Surface in Much of the Middle East. WHY???

48 Trouble in the Oil Countries  High rates of poverty  Lack of education  Few political rights  Lack of economic opportunity  Terrible human rights  Gov’t seen as impotent against Israel  Women are not free

49 Back in Afghanistan… Taliban vs. Northern Alliance Ahmed Shah Massoud – the Lion of Panjir Taliban preach a Salafist Doctrine

50 Mullah Omar

51 The New Taliban Order  Public Executions  Beards & Burqas  Female Healthcare  Destroy non- Muslim history  Morality Police  “ Allah huaqbar ” at soccer games

52 Osama Bin Laden  Saudi born wealthy son of contractor  Anger over US troops in Saudi Arabia  Fought Soviets in Afghanistan  Issues Fatwa to declare war on US

53 Al Qaeda (The Base)  Activity in the Clinton Years  ’ 93 Trade Center Bombings  2 US Embassy Bombings in Africa 1998  USS Cole bombing in 2000


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