Presentation on theme: "What do you know about the Vietnam War?"— Presentation transcript:
1What do you know about the Vietnam War? Focus QuestionWhat do you know about the Vietnam War?
2Vietnam and Moving Toward Conflict In 1965, America’s fight against communism has spread to Southeast Asia, where the U.S. is becoming increasingly involved in another country’s civil war. Unable to claim victory, U.S. generals call for an increase in the number of combat troops. Facing a shortage of volunteers, the president implements a draft.
3Are you smarter than a 5th grader? What is the fastest bird on foot?OstrichWhat planet is closest to the sun?MercuryWhat is the largest South American country by area?BrazilWhat animal classification is a turtle?Reptile
4TrumanFrance re-established itself as colonial power over Vietnam after WWIITruman pumps nearly $1 Billion into France’s effort to defeat the Vietminh and Ho Chi Minh (Communist sympathizers)French lose!Geneva Conference (1954)-divides country (17th parallel) into North and South with hopes of having a unified election in 1956
5Eisenhower Continued supplying aid to the French Supplied Ngo Dinh Diem who refused to hold a national election in 1956Diem’s regime was brutal and corruptU.S. supplied training and military aid to his government
6KennedyIn order to look like Democrats were tough on communism, JFK decides to stick with DiemIncreased aid to Diem’s regime and sent thousands of military advisers (16,000 U.S. troops) to help train South Vietnamese troopsJFK begins to think about U.S. involvement in Vietnam1963, Diem is assassinated
7JohnsonConvinced Congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution giving the president broad military powers in VietnamUnleashed bombing campaign,000 U.S. combat troops are sent to battle the Vietcong and NVA
9What does it mean to have “home field advantage” in sports? Focus QuestionWhat does it mean to have “home field advantage” in sports?
10Major Players in Vietnam Conflict Lyndon B. Johnson-Made decision to escalate war after re-electionRobert McNamara-Advised Johnson on escalation (Sec of Defense)Dean Rusk-Advised Johnson on escalation (Sec of State)William Westmoreland-General in charge of Vietnam that asked for more soldiersU.S. Congress-Approved Johnson’s policy (Tonkin Gulf Resolution) allowing him to escalate warAmerican public opinion-Approved of Johnson’s policy in the beginning
11U.S. military strategies result in bloody stalemate Military advantages Americans had over Vietcong?Superior weaponryMilitary advantages Vietcong had over Americans?Knowledge of terrainAbility to blend in with civiliansWillingness to pay any price for victory (fighting for existence)
12U.S. military strategies result in bloody stalemate Military strategies Americans used against Vietcong?BombingsWar of attritionPreventing Vietcong support by South Vietnam’s rural populationUse of Napalm/Agent OrangeSearch and Destroy missionMilitary strategies Vietcong used against Americans?Hit and run ambushesBooby traps and land minesSurprise attacksGuerrilla warfare
13Public support for the war begins to waiver as a “credibility gap” grows U.S. Economy-Cost of war led to an increase in inflation and taxes as well as a reduction in funding “Great Society” programsT.V.-Brought the war into U.S. living rooms and contradicting the Johnson administration optimismFulbright Hearings-Senator who questioned Johnson’s war. This contributed to the average American’s growing ambivalence about the war
15Focus QuestionHow would you feel if student privileges at BGHS (best classes, schedules, parking) were awarded according to wealth or prominence of the student’s family
16Avoiding the War Doctors gave medical deferment Looked for Lenient draft boardsJoined the National GuardEnrolled in College (only wealthy could afford)80% of U.S. soldiers came from low economic status
17Opposing War Known as Doves or people who thought the war was immoral New “Left” OrganizationsStudents for a Democratic Society (SDS)Free Speech Movement (FSM)Mostly young college students (Johnson revoked college deferments for those not in good academic standard)Held antiwar demonstrations, burned draft cards, and fled to Canada
18Defending War Known as Hawks or people who supported U.S. involvement Felt that Johnson should escalate the war
19Tet Offensive Causes Effects The Vietnam War Vietcong’s push to capture cities in the South of VietnamA military defeat for the Vietcong BUT a moral victory for North VietnamA dramatic fall in the popularity of the war
20Johnson’s poor showing in the N.H. primary CausesEffectsTet Offensive and unpopular Vietnam policyGrowing movement of antiwar message across the countryRobert Kennedy’s decision to run for presidentJohnson decides not to run for reelection
21Assassination of MLK and Robert Kennedy CausesEffectsAtmosphere of violence that was growing in the U.S.Racism toward MLKFeelings of anger, despair and hopelessnessViolent riots in 100 cities because of MLK assassination
22Disorder of the Democratic Convention in Chicago CausesEffectsDisagreements among democrats over Vietnam10,000 antiwar protestors in the city of ChicagoMayor Daley’s handling of the situation by using violence to put down protestorsNegative image of democratic partyRepublican victory (Nixon)
23Richard Nixon election CausesEffectsNegative image of democratsThe publics desire for peace and law and order that Nixon promisedPromise to end Vietnam WarEntry of Wallace (Dem) into raceEventually decrease U.S. troop levels in VietnamContinue to bomb North VietnamHave controversial presidency which will lead to scandal and his resignation
25Focus QuestionWhy are political leaders unable to keep promises they make? Do we as a public hold political leaders responsible for what they promise?
26Nixon adopts a policy of Vietnamization My Lai massacre shocks nation LegacyNixon adopts a policy of VietnamizationMy Lai massacre shocks nationTo replace U.S. troops with South Vietnamese troops (Vietnamization)Establish peace with honor200 innocent Vietnamese murdered by U.S. soldiersWent public and shocked U.S.
27Nixon orders invasion of Cambodia LegacyNixon orders invasion of CambodiaKent State incidentTo remove Vietnamese and Vietcong supply centers from CambodiaStudent protests reignited in the United States in protest of the invasion into CambodiaNational Guard fire upon student protestors (killing 4)
28LegacyCongress repeals the Tonkin Gulf ResolutionThe “Christmas Bombings” startTo protest Nixon’s bombings and invasion of Cambodia without notifying CongressTo gain greater Congressional control over U.S. policy in VietnamTo force a negotiated peace settlement
29LegacySouth Vietnam surrenders to North VietnamVietnam Veterans receive a cold homecomingNorth Vietnam full scale invasion of South Vietnam and the capture of SaigonNo U.S. troops there to prevent the North’s victoryU.S. starts a more realistic approach to dealing with the spread of communismAmericans very torn and bitter about the war
30Cambodia erupts in civil war Congress passes the War Powers Act LegacyCambodia erupts in civil warCongress passes the War Powers ActThe U.S. invasion of Cambodia lead to a brutal communist regime under Pol PotOver 1 million Cambodians will be executedTo curb the president’s war-making powersIf the President of the United States sends troops into a foreign country he/she has 48 hours to tell Congress
31Americans loose faith in their government LegacyThe draft is abolishedAmericans loose faith in their governmentThe extremely unpopular draft is ended in 1973The Pentagon Papers, which revealed that the Johnson administration was lying, about the warThe people respond by protestingWatergate scandal