Presentation on theme: "Focus Question What do you know about the Vietnam War?"— Presentation transcript:
Focus Question What do you know about the Vietnam War?
Vietnam and Moving Toward Conflict In 1965, America’s fight against communism has spread to Southeast Asia, where the U.S. is becoming increasingly involved in another country’s civil war. Unable to claim victory, U.S. generals call for an increase in the number of combat troops. Facing a shortage of volunteers, the president implements a draft.
Are you smarter than a 5 th grader? What is the fastest bird on foot? – Ostrich What planet is closest to the sun? – Mercury What is the largest South American country by area? – Brazil What animal classification is a turtle? – Reptile
Truman France re-established itself as colonial power over Vietnam after WWII Truman pumps nearly $1 Billion into France’s effort to defeat the Vietminh and Ho Chi Minh (Communist sympathizers) French lose! Geneva Conference (1954)- divides country (17 th parallel) into North and South with hopes of having a unified election in 1956
Eisenhower Continued supplying aid to the French Supplied Ngo Dinh Diem who refused to hold a national election in 1956 Diem’s regime was brutal and corrupt U.S. supplied training and military aid to his government
Kennedy In order to look like Democrats were tough on communism, JFK decides to stick with Diem Increased aid to Diem’s regime and sent thousands of military advisers (16,000 U.S. troops) to help train South Vietnamese troops JFK begins to think about U.S. involvement in Vietnam 1963, Diem is assassinated
Johnson Convinced Congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution giving the president broad military powers in Vietnam Unleashed bombing campaign ,000 U.S. combat troops are sent to battle the Vietcong and NVA
U.S. Involvement and Escalation Ch 30 Sec 2
Focus Question What does it mean to have “home field advantage” in sports?
Major Players in Vietnam Conflict Lyndon B. Johnson-Made decision to escalate war after re-election Robert McNamara-Advised Johnson on escalation (Sec of Defense) Dean Rusk-Advised Johnson on escalation (Sec of State) William Westmoreland-General in charge of Vietnam that asked for more soldiers U.S. Congress-Approved Johnson’s policy (Tonkin Gulf Resolution) allowing him to escalate war American public opinion-Approved of Johnson’s policy in the beginning
U.S. military strategies result in bloody stalemate Military advantages Americans had over Vietcong? Superior weaponry Military advantages Vietcong had over Americans? Knowledge of terrain Ability to blend in with civilians Willingness to pay any price for victory (fighting for existence)
U.S. military strategies result in bloody stalemate Military strategies Americans used against Vietcong? Bombings War of attrition Preventing Vietcong support by South Vietnam’s rural population Use of Napalm/Agent Orange Search and Destroy mission Military strategies Vietcong used against Americans? Hit and run ambushes Booby traps and land mines Surprise attacks Guerrilla warfare
Public support for the war begins to waiver as a “credibility gap” grows U.S. Economy-Cost of war led to an increase in inflation and taxes as well as a reduction in funding “Great Society” programs T.V.-Brought the war into U.S. living rooms and contradicting the Johnson administration optimism Fulbright Hearings-Senator who questioned Johnson’s war. This contributed to the average American’s growing ambivalence about the war
1968-A Tumultuous Year Ch 30 Sec 3-4
Focus Question How would you feel if student privileges at BGHS (best classes, schedules, parking) were awarded according to wealth or prominence of the student’s family
Avoiding the War Doctors gave medical deferment Looked for Lenient draft boards Joined the National Guard Enrolled in College (only wealthy could afford) 80% of U.S. soldiers came from low economic status
Opposing War Known as Doves or people who thought the war was immoral New “Left” Organizations – Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) – Free Speech Movement (FSM) Mostly young college students (Johnson revoked college deferments for those not in good academic standard) Held antiwar demonstrations, burned draft cards, and fled to Canada
Defending War Known as Hawks or people who supported U.S. involvement Felt that Johnson should escalate the war
Tet Offensive Causes The Vietnam War Vietcong’s push to capture cities in the South of Vietnam Effects A military defeat for the Vietcong BUT a moral victory for North Vietnam A dramatic fall in the popularity of the war
Johnson’s poor showing in the N.H. primary Causes Tet Offensive and unpopular Vietnam policy Growing movement of antiwar message across the country Effects Robert Kennedy’s decision to run for president Johnson decides not to run for reelection
Assassination of MLK and Robert Kennedy Causes Atmosphere of violence that was growing in the U.S. Racism toward MLK Effects Feelings of anger, despair and hopelessness Violent riots in 100 cities because of MLK assassination
Disorder of the Democratic Convention in Chicago Causes Disagreements among democrats over Vietnam 10,000 antiwar protestors in the city of Chicago Mayor Daley’s handling of the situation by using violence to put down protestors Effects Negative image of democratic party Republican victory (Nixon)
Richard Nixon election Causes Negative image of democrats The publics desire for peace and law and order that Nixon promised Promise to end Vietnam War Entry of Wallace (Dem) into race Effects Eventually decrease U.S. troop levels in Vietnam Continue to bomb North Vietnam Have controversial presidency which will lead to scandal and his resignation
The End of the War and Its Legacy Ch 30 Sec 5
Focus Question Why are political leaders unable to keep promises they make? Do we as a public hold political leaders responsible for what they promise?
Legacy Nixon adopts a policy of Vietnamization To replace U.S. troops with South Vietnamese troops (Vietnamization) Establish peace with honor My Lai massacre shocks nation 200 innocent Vietnamese murdered by U.S. soldiers Went public and shocked U.S.
Legacy Nixon orders invasion of Cambodia To remove Vietnamese and Vietcong supply centers from Cambodia Kent State incident Student protests reignited in the United States in protest of the invasion into Cambodia National Guard fire upon student protestors (killing 4)
Legacy Congress repeals the Tonkin Gulf Resolution To protest Nixon’s bombings and invasion of Cambodia without notifying Congress To gain greater Congressional control over U.S. policy in Vietnam The “Christmas Bombings” start To force a negotiated peace settlement
Legacy South Vietnam surrenders to North Vietnam North Vietnam full scale invasion of South Vietnam and the capture of Saigon No U.S. troops there to prevent the North’s victory U.S. starts a more realistic approach to dealing with the spread of communism Vietnam Veterans receive a cold homecoming Americans very torn and bitter about the war
Legacy Cambodia erupts in civil war The U.S. invasion of Cambodia lead to a brutal communist regime under Pol Pot Over 1 million Cambodians will be executed Congress passes the War Powers Act To curb the president’s war- making powers If the President of the United States sends troops into a foreign country he/she has 48 hours to tell Congress
Legacy The draft is abolished The extremely unpopular draft is ended in 1973 Americans loose faith in their government The Pentagon Papers, which revealed that the Johnson administration was lying, about the war The people respond by protesting Watergate scandal