Presentation on theme: "By Ryan Terani and Natalia Molinatti. American businesses dominated Latin American politics before the war After the war, the gap between the rich and."— Presentation transcript:
By Ryan Terani and Natalia Molinatti
American businesses dominated Latin American politics before the war After the war, the gap between the rich and poor lead to the nations searching for help from US and USSR The communist and nationalist feeling of the nations brought uprisings and revolutionary movements— encouraged by the Soviets
USA helped the militaries and economies of anti- Communist dictators In Chile: Salvador Allende (Marxist) elected president 1973-USA used the CIA to overthrow Allende Replaced by Augusto Pinochet, who the US supported
Fidel Castro: lead the revolution against the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista. (1959) AT FIRST: many people respected Castro— -Health care -Economy -Education -Women in society BUT THEN………………………………………………………… People realized that he was a harsh dictator
CASTRO… suspended elections jailed/executed his opponents restricted press Nationalized economy Took power over US sugar mills Eisenhower… Ordered embargo on all trade with Cuba CASTRO… Turned to the Soviets for economic and military needs
1960 Trained anti-Castro Cubans to take out an invasion Kennedy approved the invasion that took place at the Bay of Pigs Castro defeated the invaders which was embarrassed the US
Krhrushchev- Soviet leader after Bay of Pigs He was convinced that The US would not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America He built 42 missile sites in Cuba
U-2 spy plane from US recognized the missiles They were around 40 miles from the US Kennedy declared that they were a threat He demanded the Soviets to remove them Kennedy also put a quarantine in place with Cuba Soviets could not install more missiles
“Cuba did not and does not intend to be in the middle of a conflict between the East and the West. Our problem is above all one of national sovereignty. Cuba does not mean to get involved in the Cold War.”
The US demand of the removal of Soviet missiles created tension US assembled in Florida, ready for war at all hours After the world was fearing a WW3 and nuclear disaster, Khrushchev removed the missiles
Castro was dependent on Soviet support Castro backed Communist revolutions in Latin America and Africa in exchange for the economic help 36,000 in Angolan War against colonialism in 1970’s Soviets could not aid Cuba when the Union broke up in 1991 They still suffer from economic problem, but they Castro remains adamant that the country does not need economic reforms or to give up power. US still will not lift the trade embargo with Cuba
United States supported Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza 1979: Communist rebels revolted against Somoza’s son. The US and Soviets gave support to the rebels (Sandinistas) and their leader, Daniel Ortega The Sandinistas were aided socialist rebels in El Salvador The US supported Nicaraguan anti-Communist rebel forces, named contrarevolucionarios The war lasted nearly 10 years and lead to a weakened economy 1990: President Ortega agreed to hold free-elections… Then was defeated by Violeta Chamorro 1996: Arnoldo Lacayo was elected president
Rebel troops opposed to Premier Fidel Castro landed before dawn yesterday on the swampy southern coast of Cuba in Las Villas Province. The attack, which was supported from the air, was announced by the rebels and confirmed by the Cuban Government. After fourteen hours of silence on the progress of the assault, the Government radio in Havana broadcast early today a terse communique signed by Premier Castro announcing only that "our armed forces are continuing to fight the enemy heroically." The announcement, made shortly before 1 A. M., said that within the next few hours details of "our successes" would be given. The communique came amid a wave of rebel assertions of victories, new landings and internal uprisings. The rebel spokesmen were acclaiming important progress in new landings in Oriente and Pinar del Rio Provinces, but none of these reports could be confirmed. Government Reports Battle The Government communique said a battle had been fought in the southeastern part of Las Villas Province, where yesterday morning's landings occurred. Although the communique was signed by Premier Castro, the Cuban leader has not spoken to his nation since the attack began. An earlier communique, issued yesterday, reported the rebel landings. In a communique issued last night, the Revolutionary Council, the top command of the rebel forces, said merely that military supplies and equipment were landed successfully on the marshy beachhead. The communique added that "some armed resistance" by supporters of Premier Castro had been overcome. Premier Castro was reported to have escaped injury in an early-morning air raid yesterday near the beachhead. The Revolutionary Council's announcement spoke of action in Matanzas Province, indicating that the rebels might have crossed the provincial border from Las Villas. The border is about ten miles north of the presumed landing spot. The communique also said that "substantial amounts of food and ammunition" had reached the underground units in that region. The Government accused the United States of having organized the attack. Late last night unconfirmed reports from rebel leaders asserted that the attacking force had penetrated deep into Matanzas Province, reaching the central high way near the town of Colon. An insistent spate of reports said that numerous landings also had occurred in Oriente Province, in the eastern part of Cuba, in the vicinity of Santiago de Cuba. But a complete blackout of direct news from Cuba made it impossible to assess the situation accurately. In New York, the Revolutionary Council announced that "much of the militia in the countryside has already defected from Castro." The council predicted that "the principal battle" of the revolt would be fought along with a coordinated wave of sabotage before dawn. President Jose Miro Cardona of the council in an earlier statement had called for Western Hemisphere peoples to support the revolt "morally and materially." The council has announced its aim to set up a "government in arms" as soon as it can get territory in Cuba and then to ask for foreign recognition and help.
National Alert Declared The invaders, in undetermined numbers, are under the orders of the Revolutionary Council. In the words of its declaration, the Council seeks the overthrow of the Castro regime and the freeing of Cuba from "international communism's cruel oppression." Premier Castro declared shortly before noon a state of national alert and called all his militia forces to their posts. The Cuban official radio announced last night the arrest of Havana's Auxiliary Bishop, Msgr. Eduardo Roza Masvidal, on charges of hiding United States currency and medicine for anti-Castro rebels. The Government-controlled radio stations offered their normal music programs and soap operas. There were no further references to the landings. An occasional announcement spoke of foreign support for Cuba, including a mention of volunteers from Czechoslovakia seeking to enlist to fight in Cuba. According to official statements by both sides, the rebel forces went ashore during the night near the Bay of Cochinos as paratroop units were dropped farther inland to link up with underground fighters. It was believed that the rebels landed near Playa Larga, on the eastern bank of the Cochinos Bay, which means the Bay of Pigs. This bay is wedged into the vast swamp of the Cienega de Zepata. Report of Capture Unconfirmed Persistent reports in exile circles that Raul Castro, Fidel's brother and Minister of the Revolutionary armed forces, had been captured somewhere near Santiago could not be confirmed. One Cuban in close touch with Democratic Revolutionary Front activities here said the report was given credence by the fact that Dr. Castro had assumed the military role that for recent months he had turned over to his brother. Dr. Castro charged that the invaders were "mercenaries" in the service of United States "imperialism." He pledged the Cubans to fight until death for the preservation of their "democratic and Socialist revolution." The Revolutionary Council members were standing by, ready to move into Cuba and proclaim a "government in arms" as soon as the beachhead is firmly secured. It was not known early last night how many troops had participated in the Las Villas landing. Whether this was to be the principal thrust against the Castro forces or the first of several such attacks also was not known. The total strength of forces available to the rebels is estimated at somewhat over 5,000 men. Opposed to them is a military establishment of 400,000 of the regular army and the militia armed with the most modern Soviet bloc weapons. The rebel command is known to believe that one or more major landings would set off internal uprisings and many desertions by soldiers and the militia. Today it was too early to tell whether this optimism was justified. The use by the rebels yesterday of planes and gunboats covering the landing indicated that it was an operation of major scope and not just another guerrilla foray of the type that has been occurring in the past. It was believed here that the attacking forces came from the camps in Guatamala, where they have been trained for the last nine months. Some of the units may have come from a rebel camp in Louisiana.
Works Cited Szulc, Tad. "Anti-Castro Units Land in Cuba; Report Fighting at Beachhead; Rusk Says U.S. Won't Intervene." Digital History. The New York Times, Web. 10 May Beck, Roger B. Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, Print.