3 Teepee TeachingGod stands in the center of creation and we stand on its edgesEach one of us can see only “one side’ of GodWe must relay on others who sit in different places in the circle of creation if we wish to come to know God more completely
4 The Church is a mystery Part of the world and tempted by sin Apart from the world and shaped by graceImages of the church attempt to explain how the Church is relevant to the world and at the same time separate from the world
5 Scripture Literally, the “writings” Refers to those books which have been determined by the Church to be the word of God and to be normative for faith and morals
6 One Church, Many Viewpoints Church as the “body of Christ” is central and most complete imageEvery other image must be understood in light of the primary image of the body of Christ.Different periods of history have different images to express Church’s mystery.
7 A Choice VineyardLumen Gentium, Vatican II document describes the Church as a “cultivated field.”When Israel was conquered and occupied, it was difficult to understand what it meant to be a chosen people.During Jesus’ lifetime, disagreement among Jews in Roman occupied Palestine wondered, What is the proper relationship between the chosen people and the rest of society?
8 Religious SyncretismAttempt to reconcile or blend the beliefs and practices of various religions into oneJews found it wholly unacceptable.Yahweh was one true GodIf they accepted the policy it would be the equivalent of denying their God altogether.Struggle within Judaism between pressures to adopt customs/culture of rest of empire and desire to remain faithful to Yahweh
9 3 Jewish sects during time of Jesus’ ministry SadduceesPhariseesEssenes
10 Ways Jewish sects understood faithfulness to God SadduceesIdentity as God’s chosen people dependent upon maintaining cultic purity of TemplePhariseesPrimary concern was to make Jewish faith relevant even under Roman ruleEssenesSeparated themselves completely from all who did not live as they lived
11 SadduceesReligiously conservative. Temple focal point of all Jewish life.Members of Jewish aristocracy. Rejected all religious teaching which was not from the Torah including belief in the resurrection from the deadWilling to accept many elements of Roman culture. Held positions of power under Roman rule
12 Pharisees Faith based on scripture and on Jewish oral tradition Believed faith should shape everyday lifeConcerned with making Judaism relevant under Roman ruleMade clear to Roman authorities that even though Jewish people not in power, still maintained identity and moral code different from those around them
13 Essenes Strictest of religious groups Lived celibately Interpreted every law in strictest possible waySeparated themselves from all who did not live as they didMost opposed to war, some were also Jewish zealots.
14 ZealotsBelieved God had chosen Israel to be a great and powerful political entity.It was God’s will that the Jewish people fight and overthrow the Roman oppressors.
15 Christianity as one more Jewish sect? Initially no one seems to have though of Christianity as a new or distinct religion.Christian and no-Christian Jews and gentiles all regarded Christianity as one more Jewish sect.Earliest Jewish Christians believed faith was fulfillment of JudaismKept Jewish Sabbath and added celebration of Resurrection Sunday
17 Reasons for split between Judaism and Christianity: Number of gentile converts to Christianity increased.Jewish nationalism increasedNon-Christian Jews viewed Christianity as heretical, something that could destroy essence of Judaism.
18 Grafted to the vine of Christ Image most clearly describes Church’s self-understanding in biblical periodProphet Isaiah spoke of Israel as the vineyard, would die to no more than a stump.From that stump, a new shoot would sprout and messianic age would be inNew shoot sprouted in Jesus, the true vine. Church new vineyard.
19 New vineyard unlike the old Never go wildGod himself, in person of Jesus Christ it root stock and main vineAll shoots (people) of vineyard drew life from JesusGentiles could become members of God’s chosen people without first becoming JewsGrafted to the vine of Christ
20 The dwelling place of God Image represented Church well in first three centuriesChristians shunned or persecuted in Roman empireWhy were Christians hated?What continued to attract new members despite this abhorrence?
21 Christians were despised for many reasons! 2 common beliefs:Christianity was anti-socialChristianity was barbaric and cannibalistic
22 Anti-socialChristians refused to participate in many social events because they involved worship of Roman gods.Would not go to the gymnasium or attend theatre.Refused to attend banquets or eat food purchased in market which first sacrificed to idols
23 Barbaric; cannibalistic Based on wild rumors!Christians gathered weekly to celebrate an agape or “love feast” to which only baptized were admitted.All Christians called all other Christians, even spouses, “brother’ and “sister”.From these 2 facts spread rumors that Christians met for regular orgies. And that they ate from a loaf of bread with the Christ child concealed inside.
24 Christianity rejected for being “intellectually wanting”. Some criticism rooted in class prejudice.Could not be profound it taught by so many without culture or education.Laughable nature of the Christian GodWhy did Christians seem afraid of anything connected with worship of Roman gods? Fear proves fragility of own God.Where is the logic in accepting martyrdom and leaving this life which was certain to go to another which was uncertain?
25 Laughable nature of the Christian God How can anyone take the resurrection of the body seriously?Christ’s death was proof that Christian God was hardly “all-powerful” as claimed.
26 Christian persecutions Some believed Roman gods were angered as more Roman citizens abandoned their old faith and became Christians.Many worst persecutions rooted in belief that Christianity was treason.Christians blamed for all of the misfortunes of empire (floods, epidemics, military invasions).
27 Persecution under Emperor Nero 64-68 A.D.Christians killed and tortured in wide variety of ways to provide entertainment for populace.
28 Persecution under Emperor Decius 248 ADBelieved Rome’s problems were punishments because people stopped worshipping old gods and they responded by abandoning RomeEnacted law that required everyone to offer sacrifices to gods of empireCertificate needed to prove sacrifice was offered
29 Christians and the military. End of third century, Church leaders began to teach that Christians should not be part of the military.AD 295, Christians killed for refusing to join or for attempting to leave the army.Christians considered threat to the army. All Christians expelled from Roman legions. Christians often forced to abandon faith or were executed.
30 Christianity under attack! AD 303, order issued:Christians removed from all positions of responsibilityAll Christian buildings and books should be destroyedChristians tortured and killed if refused to hand over copies of scriptures.Fire broke out in palace.Christians accused of setting it.Decree issued ordering arrest of all Church leaders.2nd decree issued ordering all Christians to offer sacrifice to Roman gods under pain of death
31 The appeal of being Christian The power of the Holy Spirit working through human beings.Church offered presence of a loving and caring God.God’s love given equally to all regardless of social standing.Cut across social boundaries.Women and slaves deserving of respectWomen as well as men have rights in marriage
32 The appeal of being Christian Christians noted for their charity toward those who were in need.Offered hope, love, and practical assistance in dealing with misfortune.
33 Process of becoming a Christian Long! Usually extended over a period of several years.Committed to:Living a life of generosity and lovePermanently avoiding sinBeing part of a community that was the dwelling place of god.
34 Galerius: Emperor of Rome Final and worst persecution of Christians occurred under GaleriusGalerius blamed Christians for all of the problems in the empireAD 311 He contracted painful disease, believed it was punishment from Christian God
35 Edicts issued by Galerius Christians allowed to practice their faithChristians required to pray to their God for well being of emperor and empire.
36 Constantine’s campaign to control Roman Empire Constantine ordered soldiers to place Chi-Rho (first two letters in the name Christ) symbol on their shieldsConstantine’s army defeated Maxentius and he became rule of the entire western half of the Empire.
37 Christianity becomes legal! From AD 313Positive and negative results
38 Religion and politics intermingle Constantine intervened in life of ChurchCalled ecumenical council at NicaeaConcern for those in need no longer dominated Christian thoughtClerical positions important political positionsClerical aristocracy developedAdoption of imperial protocol in liturgies
39 City of God Dominant image of Church at the time Focus on: Established order and hierarchyLaws and common codes of belief and behavior centralChurch place were society flourished
40 Positive and negative effects of legalized Christianity Christian leaders, values imbedded in public consciousnessMany people sought membership only for power and prestigeSocial stratification develops between rich and poor
41 ApostasyA total denial of Christ and a disavowal of the Christian faithSome Christians believed Church was falling into apostasy with Baptism no longer a commitment that might end in martyrdom but a stop on road to luxury.
42 Christians flee to the desert. Take up the hermit lifeEmbrace povertyViewed Church as dwelling place of GodAll must act as Christ actedPoverty, charity no longer seen as Christian norms; those of a select few lived ideals in name of entire Church
43 Symbol of civilization, protector of order. From 5th-8th centuries Europe invaded by barbariansBarbarians wished to participate in benefits of civilizationTribal leaders adopted Christian faith as a sign and means of civilizationWhen leader converted, all those under him converted
44 Growing importance of the papacy: Protector of hope and order. AD 452 Attila the Hun invaded ItalyPope Leo the Great met with AttilahAttilah did not invade RomeThree years later, Vandals invadeStopped from burning city of Rome by Pope Leo’s negotiations6th century Lombards invade RomePope Gregory the Great negotiated peace
45 Church as sheepfoldAfter death of Gregory the Great Church lost effectiveness as moral leaderEmperors of East exert influence over western ChurchPopes puppets of stateChurch as sheepfold: place one was protected from “wolves” of evil and damnation
46 Roman civilization crumbled Europe in anarchyProtection and security priorityChurch provided protection and security for danger of this world and uncertainties of the next world
47 PurgatoryFinal purification of all who die in God’s grace and friendship but remain imperfectly purifiedFinal cleansing away of all sin and of all the consequences of sinPope Gregory the Great emphasized this Church teaching
48 Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne AD 800Charlemagne king of the FranksCrowned Emperor of the West at Christmas Day Mass
49 Charlemagne used church for own ends. Thought of Church as branch of his governmentPassed laws regarding life of churchUsed Church as means of subduing his enemiesBaptism or death!Appointed bishops as he did generals
50 Charlemagne’s mandates. Sunday is day of rest and worshipPreaching done in language of peopleTithing mandatory (tithes as a tax)Mandated monastic reform (must comply with Rule of Benedict)Reformed Church schools
51 Middle Ages: A time of fear. Bubonic plague struck in 14th centuryChurch offered comfort, peace and security to those who were afraidChurch helped people find way to trust, rely on and respond to God even in face of chaos.
52 A cultivated fieldThe good and the bad inextricably mixed within the ChurchThose within Church must listen carefully to hear the voice of God in the midst of all the confusionFaith assures us that God’s voice will always be present within the ChurchChurch of middle ages fits this image
53 FeudalismThe governing system which prevailed in Europe in the Middle Ages in which a superior or lord granted land to a vassal in return for the services (primarily military) of that vassal.The vassal did not own the land but he did receive its income as long as he remained faithful to the lord he served.
54 FeudalismUnder this system all land was owned by a few powerful peopleThe vast majority of the population worked the land in return for food, shelter and protection.Strict division among social classes, nobility, clergy, and serfs who farmed the land.
55 Papacy: A Prize to be fought over. Popes accused of various corruptionsChurch offices, Church property used to further ends of rich and powerfulAD 897 Pope Stephen VI presided over “cadaveric council”.Dead pope tried and found guilty of crimesBody mutilated, thrown into Tiber River
56 Cluny Monastery Founded in AD 909 Led by Berno, monk Center of large monastic reform movementReformed and reordered hundreds of monastic communities
57 Desire for Church Reform Primary goal: Free the Church from its obligations to kings and noblesEnd simony (buying and selling Church positions)Second goal: Enforce clerical celibacy so Church positions could not be hereditary, Church property could not be dissipated by heirsObedience within the Church (all faithful should be obedient to the Pope)
58 Weakness of Cluniac Reforms Attitude toward wealthInsisted on right of monastery and the Church to accumulate wealth for glory of God and to aid in service to the poorMeant that abbots and bishops were powerful feudal lordsSimony and Church involvement in politics unavoidable
59 Cistercian MovementLed by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
60 Papal Reform AD 1048 Bruno of Toul offered papacy by emperor Accept only if people and clergy elected himTraveled to Rome, barefootAcclaimed by clergy and the peopleTook name Leo IXReformsClerical celibacyEnd to simony
61 War and divisionAttitude that time was coming when non-Christians and Christian heretics from Christians in good standingPope Urban II announced first crusade in AD 1095Goal crusade: “Win heaven” by taking back Holy Land from the Moslems and by saving the Eastern Church from Moslem threat
62 The CrusadersSaw themselves as the army of God, army of the apocalypseJob was to begin final separation of wheat and weedsUnmerited killing of Jews and MoslemsA crusade against heresy followed1209 Southern France invaded northern France slaughtered Christian sect
63 Fourth Lateran Council AD 1215Established the InquisitionEvery bishop was responsible for looking into any potential heresy within his diocese and destroying it
64 2 dangers in viewing Church as cultivated field (sin, grace intermingled) We will become indifferent to the presence of sin and may do nothing to challenge itWe may begin to think of ourselves as harvesters whose job it is to identify and destroy both sin and sinners
65 Protestant Reformation An effort to reform the Catholic church in the 16th century which led to the separation of large numbers of Christians from communion with Rome and with each other
66 Council of Trent16th century ecumenical council held in response to the challenges of the Protestant reformationClearly outlined Catholic doctrine on such matters as authority, sin and justification, and the role of Mary and the saintsConvened by Pope Paul II in AD 1545
67 Our MotherChurch as Mother, offering care and protection to her flock
68 Issues raised by the protesters: The role of the Bible in determining orthodox theologyThe cause and nature of sin and justification or redemptionThe number and nature of the sacramentsHow liturgy is celebratedThe theology of the EucharistThe authority of the hierarchy
69 Issues raised by the protesters: The proper relationship between the Church and the stateThe role of Mary and the other saintsThe existence of free will
70 Impact of the Council of Trent. Linked orthodoxy with uniformityRequired Catholics everywhere to do and say the same things with respect to faithBelief that both ordained ministry and the hierarchical structure of the Church had been established by God and were absolutely necessary
71 Impact of the Council of Trent. Rejected Martin Luther’s belief that only scripture is necessary.Scripture and Tradition must both be considered for a proper understanding of theologyScripture cannot be separated from Tradition, because scripture was part of the Tradition of the Church before it was scriptureChurch decided what would be considered scripture
72 Tradition of the Church Refers to the faith which was handed by Christ to his apostles and by those apostles to their successorsWord of God must be interpreted by the Church, and more explicitly by the bishops of the Church in order that it might be properly understood and applied in each generation
73 Vulgate Latin translation of the Bible Authoritative version of the BibleThe translation used by the Church for 1,000 years, part of the Tradition
74 More teachings of Council of Trent Importance of the hierarchy in the administration of the sacramentsThere are 7 sacramentsDifference between power of ordination and specific role as leader of a ChurchOrdination confers special powers on man ordainedDistinction between “priesthood of all believers” and the ordained priesthood
75 Ordination changes person’s character. Priest able to stand in the person of Christ and celebrate EucharisPower to speak words which change bread and wine into body and blood of ChristPower to offer one, true sacrifice of JesusPower to stand in the person f Christ, speak words of forgiveness and healing
76 Council of Trent outlined way Catholics must live, faith they must profess. Marriages between Catholics and non-Catholics declared invalidList of forbidden books establishedGuidelines for education and training of clergy established to take place in seminaries.
77 Church as Mother Main image emerged from Council of Trent Leaders of Church feed, educate and protect peopleFeed them bread of lifeTeach them truth about God, human nature and salvationRescue them when fall into sinOffer protection from hell and damnation
78 One Body, Many Parts.Pope John XXIII, 1959, called ecumenical council, Vatican IIChurch needed “updated” so it could respond more effectively to the modern world
79 Changes affected by Vatican II Importance of full participation of both clergy and laity in liturgy. Liturgy to be said in language of the people, not LatinImage of Church as People of God, lay religious and clergy, all members of Church, bear responsibility for missionRestoration of Christian unity. Church does not reject truth and holiness found in other religions
80 In Conclusion Church is a mystery Nature never be graspedEssence never be capturedImages used to convey something of truth of ChurchChoice Vineyard Dwelling place of GodCity of God SheepfoldCultivated field Our MotherBody of Christ
81 In ConclusionChoice Vineyard: Grown from rootstock of Christ. Church has no life or purpose apart from ChristDwelling place of God: To be a member of Church is to accept responsibility for making God’s presence visibleCity of God: Laws of God made known. City in which people love and serve God in diverse ways.
82 In ConclusionSheepfold: Offers shelter from evil that threatens us. Christ is the gateCultivated field: Both good and bad found in Church. Seeds of kingdom in the Church, weeds of sin. Church perfected at time of harvestOur Mother: Watches over us, protects us from harmful influences, teaches us things we need to know.Body of Christ: Each of us has responsibility for Church.