Presentation on theme: "The Church is Mystery UNIT TWO. 2.2 Permanent and Unchanging."— Presentation transcript:
The Church is Mystery UNIT TWO
2.2 Permanent and Unchanging
Teepee Teaching God stands in the center of creation and we stand on its edges Each one of us can see only “one side’ of God We must relay on others who sit in different places in the circle of creation if we wish to come to know God more completely
The Church is a mystery Part of the world and tempted by sin Apart from the world and shaped by grace Images of the church attempt to explain how the Church is relevant to the world and at the same time separate from the world
Scripture Literally, the “writings” Refers to those books which have been determined by the Church to be the word of God and to be normative for faith and morals
One Church, Many Viewpoints Church as the “body of Christ” is central and most complete image Every other image must be understood in light of the primary image of the body of Christ. Different periods of history have different images to express Church’s mystery.
A Choice Vineyard Lumen Gentium, Vatican II document describes the Church as a “cultivated field.” When Israel was conquered and occupied, it was difficult to understand what it meant to be a chosen people. During Jesus’ lifetime, disagreement among Jews in Roman occupied Palestine wondered, What is the proper relationship between the chosen people and the rest of society?
Religious Syncretism Attempt to reconcile or blend the beliefs and practices of various religions into one Jews found it wholly unacceptable. Yahweh was one true God If they accepted the policy it would be the equivalent of denying their God altogether. Struggle within Judaism between pressures to adopt customs/culture of rest of empire and desire to remain faithful to Yahweh
3 Jewish sects during time of Jesus’ ministry Sadducees Pharisees Essenes
Ways Jewish sects understood faithfulness to God SadduceesIdentity as God’s chosen people dependent upon maintaining cultic purity of Temple PhariseesPrimary concern was to make Jewish faith relevant even under Roman rule EssenesSeparated themselves completely from all who did not live as they lived Faithfulness Sect
Sadducees Religiously conservative. Temple focal point of all Jewish life. Members of Jewish aristocracy. Rejected all religious teaching which was not from the Torah including belief in the resurrection from the dead Willing to accept many elements of Roman culture. Held positions of power under Roman rule
Pharisees Faith based on scripture and on Jewish oral tradition Believed faith should shape everyday life Concerned with making Judaism relevant under Roman rule Made clear to Roman authorities that even though Jewish people not in power, still maintained identity and moral code different from those around them
Essenes Strictest of religious groups Lived celibately Interpreted every law in strictest possible way Separated themselves from all who did not live as they did Most opposed to war, some were also Jewish zealots.
Zealots Believed God had chosen Israel to be a great and powerful political entity. It was God’s will that the Jewish people fight and overthrow the Roman oppressors.
Christianity as one more Jewish sect? Initially no one seems to have though of Christianity as a new or distinct religion. Christian and no-Christian Jews and gentiles all regarded Christianity as one more Jewish sect. Earliest Jewish Christians believed faith was fulfillment of Judaism Kept Jewish Sabbath and added celebration of Resurrection Sunday
Gentiles A term for non-Jews
Reasons for split between Judaism and Christianity: 1.Number of gentile converts to Christianity increased. 2.Jewish nationalism increased Non-Christian Jews viewed Christianity as heretical, something that could destroy essence of Judaism.
Grafted to the vine of Christ Image most clearly describes Church’s self-understanding in biblical period Prophet Isaiah spoke of Israel as the vineyard, would die to no more than a stump. From that stump, a new shoot would sprout and messianic age would be in New shoot sprouted in Jesus, the true vine. Church new vineyard.
New vineyard unlike the old Never go wild God himself, in person of Jesus Christ it root stock and main vine All shoots (people) of vineyard drew life from Jesus Gentiles could become members of God’s chosen people without first becoming Jews Grafted to the vine of Christ
The dwelling place of God Image represented Church well in first three centuries Christians shunned or persecuted in Roman empire Why were Christians hated? What continued to attract new members despite this abhorrence?
Christians were despised for many reasons! 2 common beliefs: Christianity was anti-social Christianity was barbaric and cannibalistic
Anti-social Christians refused to participate in many social events because they involved worship of Roman gods. Would not go to the gymnasium or attend theatre. Refused to attend banquets or eat food purchased in market which first sacrificed to idols
Barbaric; cannibalistic Based on wild rumors! Christians gathered weekly to celebrate an agape or “love feast” to which only baptized were admitted. All Christians called all other Christians, even spouses, “brother’ and “sister”. From these 2 facts spread rumors that Christians met for regular orgies. And that they ate from a loaf of bread with the Christ child concealed inside.
Christianity rejected for being “intellectually wanting”. Some criticism rooted in class prejudice. Could not be profound it taught by so many without culture or education. Laughable nature of the Christian God Why did Christians seem afraid of anything connected with worship of Roman gods? Fear proves fragility of own God. Where is the logic in accepting martyrdom and leaving this life which was certain to go to another which was uncertain?
Laughable nature of the Christian God How can anyone take the resurrection of the body seriously? Christ’s death was proof that Christian God was hardly “all-powerful” as claimed.
Christian persecutions Some believed Roman gods were angered as more Roman citizens abandoned their old faith and became Christians. Many worst persecutions rooted in belief that Christianity was treason. Christians blamed for all of the misfortunes of empire (floods, epidemics, military invasions).
Persecution under Emperor Nero A.D. Christians killed and tortured in wide variety of ways to provide entertainment for populace.
Persecution under Emperor Decius 248 AD Believed Rome’s problems were punishments because people stopped worshipping old gods and they responded by abandoning Rome Enacted law that required everyone to offer sacrifices to gods of empire Certificate needed to prove sacrifice was offered
Christians and the military. End of third century, Church leaders began to teach that Christians should not be part of the military. AD 295, Christians killed for refusing to join or for attempting to leave the army. Christians considered threat to the army. All Christians expelled from Roman legions. Christians often forced to abandon faith or were executed.
Christianity under attack! AD 303, order issued: Christians removed from all positions of responsibility All Christian buildings and books should be destroyed Christians tortured and killed if refused to hand over copies of scriptures. Fire broke out in palace. Christians accused of setting it. Decree issued ordering arrest of all Church leaders. 2 nd decree issued ordering all Christians to offer sacrifice to Roman gods under pain of death
The appeal of being Christian The power of the Holy Spirit working through human beings. Church offered presence of a loving and caring God. God’s love given equally to all regardless of social standing. Cut across social boundaries. Women and slaves deserving of respect Women as well as men have rights in marriage
The appeal of being Christian Christians noted for their charity toward those who were in need. Offered hope, love, and practical assistance in dealing with misfortune.
Process of becoming a Christian Long! Usually extended over a period of several years. Committed to: Living a life of generosity and love Permanently avoiding sin Being part of a community that was the dwelling place of god.
Galerius: Emperor of Rome Final and worst persecution of Christians occurred under Galerius Galerius blamed Christians for all of the problems in the empire AD 311 He contracted painful disease, believed it was punishment from Christian God
Edicts issued by Galerius Christians allowed to practice their faith Christians required to pray to their God for well being of emperor and empire.
Constantine’s campaign to control Roman Empire Constantine ordered soldiers to place Chi- Rho (first two letters in the name Christ) symbol on their shields Constantine’s army defeated Maxentius and he became rule of the entire western half of the Empire.
Christianity becomes legal! From AD 313 Positive and negative results
Religion and politics intermingle Constantine intervened in life of Church Called ecumenical council at Nicaea Concern for those in need no longer dominated Christian thought Clerical positions important political positions Clerical aristocracy developed Adoption of imperial protocol in liturgies
City of God Dominant image of Church at the time Focus on: Established order and hierarchy Laws and common codes of belief and behavior central Church place were society flourished
Positive and negative effects of legalized Christianity PositiveNegative Christian leaders, values imbedded in public consciousness Many people sought membership only for power and prestige Social stratification develops between rich and poor
Apostasy A total denial of Christ and a disavowal of the Christian faith Some Christians believed Church was falling into apostasy with Baptism no longer a commitment that might end in martyrdom but a stop on road to luxury.
Christians flee to the desert. Take up the hermit life Embrace poverty Viewed Church as dwelling place of God All must act as Christ acted Poverty, charity no longer seen as Christian norms; those of a select few lived ideals in name of entire Church
Symbol of civilization, protector of order. From 5 th -8 th centuries Europe invaded by barbarians Barbarians wished to participate in benefits of civilization Tribal leaders adopted Christian faith as a sign and means of civilization When leader converted, all those under him converted
Growing importance of the papacy: Protector of hope and order. AD 452 Attila the Hun invaded Italy Pope Leo the Great met with Attilah Attilah did not invade Rome Three years later, Vandals invade Stopped from burning city of Rome by Pope Leo’s negotiations 6 th century Lombards invade Rome Pope Gregory the Great negotiated peace
Church as sheepfold After death of Gregory the Great Church lost effectiveness as moral leader Emperors of East exert influence over western Church Popes puppets of state Church as sheepfold: place one was protected from “wolves” of evil and damnation
Roman civilization crumbled Europe in anarchy Protection and security priority Church provided protection and security for danger of this world and uncertainties of the next world
Purgatory Final purification of all who die in God’s grace and friendship but remain imperfectly purified Final cleansing away of all sin and of all the consequences of sin Pope Gregory the Great emphasized this Church teaching
Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne AD 800 Charlemagne king of the Franks Crowned Emperor of the West at Christmas Day Mass
Charlemagne used church for own ends. Thought of Church as branch of his government Passed laws regarding life of church Used Church as means of subduing his enemies Baptism or death! Appointed bishops as he did generals
Charlemagne’s mandates. Sunday is day of rest and worship Preaching done in language of people Tithing mandatory (tithes as a tax) Mandated monastic reform (must comply with Rule of Benedict) Reformed Church schools
Middle Ages: A time of fear. Bubonic plague struck in 14 th century Church offered comfort, peace and security to those who were afraid Church helped people find way to trust, rely on and respond to God even in face of chaos.
A cultivated field The good and the bad inextricably mixed within the Church Those within Church must listen carefully to hear the voice of God in the midst of all the confusion Faith assures us that God’s voice will always be present within the Church Church of middle ages fits this image
Feudalism The governing system which prevailed in Europe in the Middle Ages in which a superior or lord granted land to a vassal in return for the services (primarily military) of that vassal. The vassal did not own the land but he did receive its income as long as he remained faithful to the lord he served.
Feudalism Under this system all land was owned by a few powerful people The vast majority of the population worked the land in return for food, shelter and protection. Strict division among social classes, nobility, clergy, and serfs who farmed the land.
Papacy: A Prize to be fought over. Popes accused of various corruptions Church offices, Church property used to further ends of rich and powerful AD 897 Pope Stephen VI presided over “cadaveric council”. Dead pope tried and found guilty of crimes Body mutilated, thrown into Tiber River
Cluny Monastery Founded in AD 909 Led by Berno, monk Center of large monastic reform movement Reformed and reordered hundreds of monastic communities
Desire for Church Reform Primary goal: Free the Church from its obligations to kings and nobles End simony (buying and selling Church positions) Second goal: Enforce clerical celibacy so Church positions could not be hereditary, Church property could not be dissipated by heirs Obedience within the Church (all faithful should be obedient to the Pope)
Weakness of Cluniac Reforms Attitude toward wealth Insisted on right of monastery and the Church to accumulate wealth for glory of God and to aid in service to the poor Meant that abbots and bishops were powerful feudal lords Simony and Church involvement in politics unavoidable
Cistercian Movement Led by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
Papal Reform AD 1048 Bruno of Toul offered papacy by emperor Accept only if people and clergy elected him Traveled to Rome, barefoot Acclaimed by clergy and the people Took name Leo IX Reforms Clerical celibacy End to simony
War and division Attitude that time was coming when non- Christians and Christian heretics from Christians in good standing Pope Urban II announced first crusade in AD 1095 Goal crusade: “Win heaven” by taking back Holy Land from the Moslems and by saving the Eastern Church from Moslem threat
The Crusaders Saw themselves as the army of God, army of the apocalypse Job was to begin final separation of wheat and weeds Unmerited killing of Jews and Moslems A crusade against heresy followed 1209 Southern France invaded northern France slaughtered Christian sect
Fourth Lateran Council AD 1215 Established the Inquisition Every bishop was responsible for looking into any potential heresy within his diocese and destroying it
2 dangers in viewing Church as cultivated field (sin, grace intermingled) We will become indifferent to the presence of sin and may do nothing to challenge it We may begin to think of ourselves as harvesters whose job it is to identify and destroy both sin and sinners
Protestant Reformation An effort to reform the Catholic church in the 16 th century which led to the separation of large numbers of Christians from communion with Rome and with each other
Council of Trent 16 th century ecumenical council held in response to the challenges of the Protestant reformation Clearly outlined Catholic doctrine on such matters as authority, sin and justification, and the role of Mary and the saints Convened by Pope Paul II in AD 1545
Our Mother Church as Mother, offering care and protection to her flock
Issues raised by the protesters: The role of the Bible in determining orthodox theology The cause and nature of sin and justification or redemption The number and nature of the sacraments How liturgy is celebrated The theology of the Eucharist The authority of the hierarchy
Issues raised by the protesters: The proper relationship between the Church and the state The role of Mary and the other saints The existence of free will
Impact of the Council of Trent. Linked orthodoxy with uniformity Required Catholics everywhere to do and say the same things with respect to faith Belief that both ordained ministry and the hierarchical structure of the Church had been established by God and were absolutely necessary
Impact of the Council of Trent. Rejected Martin Luther’s belief that only scripture is necessary. Scripture and Tradition must both be considered for a proper understanding of theology Scripture cannot be separated from Tradition, because scripture was part of the Tradition of the Church before it was scripture Church decided what would be considered scripture
Tradition of the Church Refers to the faith which was handed by Christ to his apostles and by those apostles to their successors Word of God must be interpreted by the Church, and more explicitly by the bishops of the Church in order that it might be properly understood and applied in each generation
Vulgate Latin translation of the Bible Authoritative version of the Bible The translation used by the Church for 1,000 years, part of the Tradition
More teachings of Council of Trent Importance of the hierarchy in the administration of the sacraments There are 7 sacraments Difference between power of ordination and specific role as leader of a Church Ordination confers special powers on man ordained Distinction between “priesthood of all believers” and the ordained priesthood
Ordination changes person’s character. Priest able to stand in the person of Christ and celebrate Eucharis Power to speak words which change bread and wine into body and blood of Christ Power to offer one, true sacrifice of Jesus Power to stand in the person f Christ, speak words of forgiveness and healing
Council of Trent outlined way Catholics must live, faith they must profess. Marriages between Catholics and non- Catholics declared invalid List of forbidden books established Guidelines for education and training of clergy established to take place in seminaries.
Church as Mother Main image emerged from Council of Trent Leaders of Church feed, educate and protect people Feed them bread of life Teach them truth about God, human nature and salvation Rescue them when fall into sin Offer protection from hell and damnation
One Body, Many Parts. Pope John XXIII, 1959, called ecumenical council, Vatican II Church needed “updated” so it could respond more effectively to the modern world
Changes affected by Vatican II Importance of full participation of both clergy and laity in liturgy. Liturgy to be said in language of the people, not Latin Image of Church as People of God, lay religious and clergy, all members of Church, bear responsibility for mission Restoration of Christian unity. Church does not reject truth and holiness found in other religions
In Conclusion Church is a mystery Nature never be grasped Essence never be captured Images used to convey something of truth of Church Choice VineyardDwelling place of God City of GodSheepfold Cultivated fieldOur Mother Body of Christ
In Conclusion Choice Vineyard: Grown from rootstock of Christ. Church has no life or purpose apart from Christ Dwelling place of God: To be a member of Church is to accept responsibility for making God’s presence visible City of God: Laws of God made known. City in which people love and serve God in diverse ways.
In Conclusion Sheepfold: Offers shelter from evil that threatens us. Christ is the gate Cultivated field: Both good and bad found in Church. Seeds of kingdom in the Church, weeds of sin. Church perfected at time of harvest Our Mother: Watches over us, protects us from harmful influences, teaches us things we need to know. Body of Christ: Each of us has responsibility for Church.