2 Gold, Silver, & Boomtowns gold found at Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies. By ,000 prospects had flocked to ColoradoBoom or Bust1859 prospectors find one of the world’s richest deposits of silver near Nevada’s Carson RiverGold strikes created boomtowns (overnight)Boomtowns were lively & lawless; many people carried guns and a lot of cash.Few police or prisons so vigilantes punished criminals“Booms” were followed by “busts” & boomtowns became ghost towns once G/S ran out
3 Gold, Silver, & Boomtowns B) The U.S. Expands WestAs mining areas developed & populated – states formed. Between , CO-ND-SD-WA-MO-WY & ID all become states.
4 Railroads Connect East & West *The need to ship resources east & west quickly, leads to transcontinental RRGovernment & the Railroads1) RR’s were funded by subsidies ($ & land) from gov’ta) RR’ would benefit entire nationb) Fed. Gov’t granted more that 130 million acres of land2) RR’s sold additional land for development of towns3) Towns competed for RR’s
5 C. The Transcontinental Railway 1) May 10, 1896 – Completed a) Promontory Summit – Utah b) Gov. of CA drives in golden spike to join two RR’sD.) Effects of the Railroads1) Economic Effects:a) 1,000s of workers come Westb) Products (goods) could be shipped from coast to coast2) Towns spring up around RR’sa) Some grow into large cities3) Change how time was kepta) Each city had kept their own timeb) Divide U.S. into four time zonesc) To avoid collisions of trainsd) Congress makes it official in 19184) New technology (air brakes etc.) & united Americans in different regions
6 Ranchers & Farmers A.) Railroads & Cow Towns Cattle on the Plains *Hispanic origins- Spanish brought the horse to the America’s & introduced domestic cattle to the region- LonghornsA.) Railroads & Cow Towns1.) Supply and Demand lead to Cattle Drivesa.) After Civil War, Texas was over run with Cattleb.) RR made it easy to ship cattle to the North & East where it was high demand (Chicago, New York, New England)- A cow that was worth $3 in Texas would sell for $40 or $50 in the (East)
7 B. The Long Drive 1) The Problem: Texas had no RR’s 2) Nearest RR were in Kansasa) This led to the “Long Drive”-TX cattle KS RR’sb) Ranching replaces cattle drives because they could produce hardier, plumper cattle.c) Eventually cattle flooded the market and prices fell, brining an end to the “Cattle Kingdom”
11 Farmers Settle the Plains 1870’s & 1880”s many farmers came to the GPMany were recruited by RR to fill large Gov’t Land GrantsHomestead Act of 18621) Settle could get 160 acres by doing the following:a) Settler had to live on the land for 5 yearsb) Settler had to break sod, build fences etc.c) Settler had to pay $10 filing fee to cover cost ofpaperwork2) New Group of Settlersa) Thousands of African Americans migrated from the South to Kansas in the late 1870’sb) Called themselves “Exodusters”, the biblical book of Exodus
12 *Drought, Insect, pests & grasshoppers B) Challenges of Farming the Frontier*Drought, Insect, pests & grasshoppersC) New Farming Methods1) Dry Farming- plant seeds deep to find moisture in ground2) New lightweight steel plows- wooden plows couldn’t penetrate soil3) Windmills- helped pump water from wells4) Barbed wire fencing to preserve wood5) Houses- made out of sodD) Oklahoma Land Rush1) Last state settled was OK- April 22, 1889a) 10,000 people lined up to stake their claimb) Some slipped in early- known as “Sooners”c) Those who campaigned for the opening of land were called “Boomers”
13 Native American Struggles Following the Buffalo* GP was home to many Native Americans for thousands of years* Plains Indians lived nomadic life…followed & lived off of buffalo* After the Civil War – RR’s hired hunters to slaughter the buffaloa) Used to feed RR workersb) Keep them from blocking trainsConflictReservation Life1) Large reservations in OK, & Dakota Territory2) Whites used trickery to get them there, gave poor land, and never kept their promises3) Native Am. accepted it at first, but tired of it quickly – sets stage for conflict
14 Lakota Sioux Medicine Man / Chief - Had a vision that the Sioux would defeat the Americans at the Battle of Little Big Horn. This inspired his people and they defeated General Custer & the 7th Cavalry.-U.S. feared Sitting Bull would support the Ghost Dance so they sent soldiers to arrest him.-During his arrest Sitting Bulls followers protested and Sitting Bull is shot and killed by reservation police.
15 Oglala Lakota Sioux Chief Crazy Horse Took up arms against the U.S. Government for encroachment on Sioux land in the Dakota’s.Led a war party that defeated the Americans at the Battle of Little Big HornFour months after surrendering to General Crook in May, 1877, Crazy Horse was fatally wounded by a military guard using a bayonet.
16 Chiricahua Apache- Geronimo -Mother, wife, and three kids killed by Mexicans during the Apache Wars.-Continued to hate Mexicans for the rest of his life.-Surrendered to U.S. forces in 1886Sent to Florida, then later to Ft. Sill, OK-Fought against Spain and Texas for their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars
17 1) Multiple battles occur between Native Americans & U.S. B) Conflict Begins1) Multiple battles occur between Native Americans & U.S.Military during the 1860’sC) Little Bighorn1) Conflict over U.S. encroachment into the Black Hills inthe Dakotas (Black Hills were sacred to the Sioux)2) Gold discovered in the Black Hills brought whites to the area and broke a treaty that whites wouldn’t settle there3) Sitting Bull has a vision that the Sioux will defeat the 7th Cavalry. This inspires his people and they kill almost all of General Custer’s forces at the Battle of Little Big Horn (Custer’s Last Stand)4) U.S. Army eventually puts down Sioux rebellion and Sitting Bull flees to Canada
18 1) Many factors change Native American Culture D) A Changing Culture1) Many factors change Native American Culture* Slaughter of Buffalo, Army wars, Reservations2) Congress passes Dawes Acta) Try to make Native Am. Farmers & Ranchersb) Give them plots of land and acculturate them into the white/civilized cultureE) Wounded Knee1) Lakota Sioux gather at Wounded Knee Creek – remembering Sitting Bull2) U.S. Army goes to disarm them and 200 Sioux end up getting killed3) Wounded Knee is last armed conflict between U.S. Gov’t & Nat. Am.
19 Farmers In PROTEST The National Grange The Farmers Organize*Farming grows after Civil WAR* Supply grows faster than Demand- Causes prices to fall* Farmers blame three groups:a) Railroad—high price to shipb) Eastern Manufactures– high pricesc) Bankers– high interest ratesThe National Grange1) Local organization of new farmers2) Offered:a) Education for new farmersb) Social gatheringsc) Fellowship & Supportd) Encouraged economic self sufficiency3) Set up Cooperatives (Co-Ops)a) Charged lower prices bet failed due to shortages of cash by farmers
20 B) The Farmers Alliance 1) Also meant to help protect the farmer 2) Offered some federal protection3) Failed due to regional differenceA Party for the People* Formed the Peoples Party– also known as the Populist Party* Populism – appeal to the peopleA) Populist Party1) Claimed that gov’t, not private companies should own RR’s2) Wanted to change money system to silver coins3) Supported Political Reforms:a) Single term for Pres. & VPb) Direct elections of Senatorsc) Secret ballotsd) Shorten work days5) Failed because voting restriction on Af. Am. In the South and Southern whites wouldn’t support because they sided with African Americans
21 CH.18 Vocabulary Vigilante- Ordinary people who carry out the law Subsidy- Financial aid and land grants from the governmentTranscontinental RR- Spans the continent and connect the Atlantic to the Pacific OceanExtracting- removingSum- amount of money
22 Vigilante Extracting Sum Subsidy Transcontinental Railroad