2 Citizen Participation & Power Distribution In social studies we divide the different types of government intosystems of citizen participation &systems of power distribution.Citizen participation describes how much control citizens have over their government and the amount of individual freedoms in a country.Power distribution describes how power is shared (or not shared) by different levels in the government.
3 Systems of Citizen Participation Use the icons as visual references.
9 Democratic (democracy) a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections
10 More systems of Citizen Participation Each of these is some form of Autocratic, Oligarchic, or Democratic system. The icons will help you figure them out.
15 Dictatorshipa system of government in which the ruler has absolute power and is not restricted by laws or a constitution
16 Dictatorship notes Dictators usually take power by force. They maintain their power through violence and intimidation.Common examples of dictatorships include:CubaGermany under Hitler (WWII)Iraq under Saddam Hussein
21 absolute monarchy (or just monarchy) ruled by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
22 Absolute monarchy notes Title of the leader can be king, queen, prince, princess, emperor, duke, etc.Power comes from family.Very rare today. Most of them are in SW Asia, along Persian Gulf:Saudi Arabia
24 Constitutional Monarchy a government ruled by a King or a Queen whose power is determined by the nation’s constitution and laws
25 Constitutional monarchy notes Monarch’s job is mainly ceremonialGreet visiting leaders, have their face on the money, etc.Traditions help hold society together.Important symbol of the countryEx: Great Britain, Canada, Australia
26 constitutional monarch as a national symbol Queen Elizabeth II on British currency
27 God save the QueenGod save our gracious Queen Long live our noble Queen God save the Queen Send her victorious Happy and glorious Long to reign over us God save the Queen2. O Lord our God arise Scatter her enemies And make them fall Confound their politics Frustrate their knavish tricks On Thee our hopes we fix God save us all
28 constitutional monarch as a protector of stability Thai King Rama IX intervenes to end violence in 1992
30 presidential democracy Leader of Govt / PresidentLegislature/Congresspresidential democracy
31 Presidential Democracy a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature
32 Presidential: short definition System where the president is chosen in a separate election from the legislature.
33 parliamentary democracy Leader of Govt / Prime MinisterLegislature/Parliamentparliamentary democracy
34 Parliamentary Democracy a system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature.
35 Parliamentary: short definition System where the legislature has all the power and the leader of the legislature (parliament) is the leader of the country.
36 Systems of Power Distribution How the government is organized.
38 Unitary (alternate definition) government in which power is held by one central authority
39 Unitary notes / characteristics All authority is held at one level, the national government.All laws are national laws.Unitary is NOT the same as autocratic.This is about how the government is organized, not how citizens participate. Lots of democratic countries are unitary, like England.Unitary systems are easy to set up, because there is only the one level of government, but usually doesn’t work well with large countries.Most common type of power distribution.
41 Confederationvoluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation
42 Confederation notes / characteristics Confederations are fairly uncommon.All the authority is held by regional / state governments.The connection between the different governments are fairly weak.The European Union (EU) would be considered a confederationOther groups that are like confederations include (though, none of these are actually considered governments)OPECUnited NationsNATO – North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationThe U.S. was a confederation during the Revolutionary War, but this system did not work well.
44 Federalcharacterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities
45 Federal notes / characteristics The United States uses a federal system.There is usually a strong central (national) government that shares authority with state / regional governmentsAuthority is shared or distributedIn the U.S. most laws come from the state level.This can be good because different states often have different issues to deal with.Because the different levels in a federal system can get complicated, it usually doesn’t work well for a small country.