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Section A - Reading Question 3: Inference and Deduction Approaching and answering Question 3.

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1 Section A - Reading Question 3: Inference and Deduction Approaching and answering Question 3

2 Question 3: Inference and Deduction 8 marks 8 marks 10 minutes writing 10 minutes writing You need to briskly analyse the language of the text to answer the question You need to briskly analyse the language of the text to answer the question Discuss four or five points where the reader (i.e. you!) are able to ‘read between the lines’ Discuss four or five points where the reader (i.e. you!) are able to ‘read between the lines’

3 Describe the thoughts and feelings of the narrator in the blank boxes… Text Inference / Deduction “We were on a mission. As we turned into our road from the alleyway, a quiet buzzing sound drifted over us. We knew we were on our way.” “I jerked upright, the drifting aimless thoughts pushed away and replaced with a consuming anger at what had happened. I screamed at the wind. Swearing and yelling blind.” “I had had friends before but there was no one with whom I could speak with such honesty as I could with Amolak.” “I was already unhappy with what I was seeing. I'm causing this to happen, I kept thinking. This pig has been hand-fed for six months, fattened up - for me.” “I am being transported to that place, the vast place where the screams, voices, the bangs, the footsteps combine to make this painfully deafening confusing mush of sound. Although as we walk in the tears run down my face, nobody seems to notice my terror.”

4 Match-up. Develop and explain… Text Inference / Deduction “We were on a mission. As we turned into our road from the alleyway, a quiet buzzing sound drifted over us. We knew we were on our way.”Trust “I jerked upright, the drifting aimless thoughts pushed away and replaced with a consuming anger at what had happened. I screamed at the wind. Swearing and yelling blind.” Fear and apprehension “I had had friends before but there was no one with whom I could speak with such honesty as I could with Amolak.” Frustration and anger “I was already unhappy with what I was seeing. I'm causing this to happen, I kept thinking. This pig has been hand-fed for six months, fattened up - for me.”Excitement “I am being transported to that place, the vast place where the screams, voices, the bangs, the footsteps combine to make this painfully deafening confusing mush of sound. Although as we walk in the tears run down my face, nobody seems to notice my terror.”Guilt

5 1.1. Highlight the key words in the question. Usually, the question asks you to explain some thoughts and feelings of a first-person narrator. Be aware, however, that you may be asked to infer and deduce in a different way. PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO THE QUESTION. Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Claire Francis has during the storm. Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Christopher Ondaatje has about his experience of Lake Victoria. Explain which parts of Pete Boardman’s story of the return to Camp 6 you find tense and exciting. Explain which parts of Pete Boardman’s story of the return to Camp 6 you find tense and exciting.

6 2.2. IN GROUPS Actively read the text: You are looking for particular parts of the text which you’ve been asked to write about in the question. Next, go through the text, highlighting sections that will help you answer the question. You might like to annotate the article very briefly with ideas that will help you answer the question. e.g. see next slide Ferry Across the Lake: Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Christopher Ondaatje has about his experience of Lake Victoria.

7 FERRY ACROSS THE LAKE: On his journey to the source of the Nile, Christopher Ondaatje crosses part of Lake Victoria From a past paper from AQA Thinking about the past and connecting it to the present Admires this place

8 3.3. IN PAIRS Now you’re ready to write up your ideas, you need a clear introductory sentence introducing your response, as usual. Use the question to help you do this; turn it into a statement. You then need to talk about each section you’ve highlighted. The question will tell you what to write about; don’t stray from this! Pepper your points with short quotes that help you explain your response. Do not copy large chunks of the text. Writing up ideas

9 Connective The author / language in the text… The reader… (or ‘we’…) Firstly Secondly Thirdly As well as this Furthermore Moreover Finally Lastly Likewise Similarly Builds Connotes Contrasts Conveys Creates Demonstrates Describes Depicts Emphasises Evokes Exaggerates Expresses Gives the impression Gives a sense Highlights Informs Implies Indicates Narrates Realises Recognises Refers to Reflects Reveals Signifies Suggests Shows Tells Is made aware Is informed Is told Learns Discovers Realises 3.3. USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES

10 A sample response from Question 3 (Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Christopher Ondaatje has about his experience of Lake Victoria.) In this extract, Christopher Ondaatje describes his visit to Lake Victoria. He experiences various thoughts and feelings during his journey. Firstly, in the opening paragraph, the author gives us the impression that he is thinking about both the present and the past. He describes his location and what he can see before him, and reveals that Mwanza is a “vibrant African city” that is growing and busy. Implying that this place is a living city, he states that it “seemed to grow as we watched”. Furthermore, he shows an awareness of the lake being much older and having played a role in “the great explorations of the past”. This conveys to the reader the fact that Ondaatje has a sense of the lake’s history and its importance as a landmark for previous travellers. The second paragraph suggests to us that our narrator is overcome by the beauty of nature. He portrays where he is as an “idyllic spot” and then goes on to describe the sounds of the birds, the beauty of the sunrise and the sound of the lake. His senses are informing his feelings here; what he sees and hears are all conveyed very positively and he claims waking here would “be a good way to start every morning”. However, as Ondaatje describes the travellers’ wait to catch the ferry to cross the lake, the language he uses hints that he is no longer in control of the situation. Passengers have to rely on the local system, which is not very reliable, and there is doubt that they will even get on the ferry. The previous idyllic setting is now contrasted by the discomfort of the day getting “hotter and hotter”. The description of conditions on the ferry shows the passengers’ discomfort only gets worse, calling the setting “hot as hell – and getting hotter.” Moreover, worse than the discomfort he feels is his knowledge that a similar ferry sank or “went down” a year or so earlier with loss of life. Ondaatje’s anxiety is shown in that he realises there is no system of controlling the amount of weight taken on by the ferry and that it is also an old ferry which he depicts as “decrepit”. The thought of this past tragedy and the disorganisation he is witnessing causes him to worry and feel anxious. Lastly, in the the final paragraph, the writer describes the sound and movement of the ferry; again he is impressed by what he can see of nature but there is also a sense of disbelief that the heavily laden ferry is managing to move. When he sees the “teeming mass” of a crowd waiting to board on the other side of the lake he realises that this crossing is an everyday occurrence for the locals and that they are continuing to use it in spite of any concerns about safety; as he is viewing the safety aspect from the point of view of somebody used to a culture of stringent health and safety rules he is clearly feeling anxious and worried while the locals seem to take the situation in their stride. A*

11 A sample response from Question 3 (Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Christopher Ondaatje has about his experience of Lake Victoria.) In this extract, Christopher Ondaatje describes his visit to Lake Victoria. He experiences various thoughts and feelings during his journey. Firstly, in the opening paragraph, the author describes his location and what he can see before him, and reveals that Mwanza is a “vibrant African city”. This suggests that he likes and admires this busy place – he also describes it as “huge and beautiful”. The lake makes him think about the past and how the “mighty” lake was important to “past explorations”. Secondly, Ondaatje tells us that he finds the place an “idyllic spot” with a “spectacular sunrise” which implies that he finds the setting beautiful. He uses his senses when he describes the sounds of the birds and the scenery around him and he finds the setting peaceful and calming. He even says he would like to wake up in this place “every morning”. When Ondaatje describes the travellers’ wait to catch the ferry to cross the lake, we are made aware that he is uncomfortable and frustrated. The ferry is late and the weather is getting “hotter and hotter” which makes things worse. When he is on the actual ferry the author seems to become more uncomfortable when he describes it as “hot as hell – and getting hotter”. “Hell” has very negative connotations, so we can infer that he is not enjoying himself. Moreover, Ondaatje tells us that in the past a ferry “went down” which suggests to us that he is perhaps worried and anxious. Lastly, at the end of the text the writer describes the sound and movement of the ferry and he says that “somehow the craft stayed afloat” which reveals that he cannot believe that the boat has not sank. When he reaches the bay Ondaatje feels relieved as he claims the passengers “felt a bit of breeze at last”. C

12 Text 24: Explain which parts of Pete Boardman’s story of the return to camp 6 you find tense and exciting. IN PAIRS

13 Question 3: Inference and Deduction – Sample Mark Scheme


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