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The Search for Revolutionary Urbanism.  11.4 million (2004 est.)  0.34% growth rate (est.)  -1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 people  51% mulatto, 37% white,

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Presentation on theme: "The Search for Revolutionary Urbanism.  11.4 million (2004 est.)  0.34% growth rate (est.)  -1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 people  51% mulatto, 37% white,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Search for Revolutionary Urbanism

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3  11.4 million (2004 est.)  0.34% growth rate (est.)  -1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 people  51% mulatto, 37% white, 17% black, 1% Chinese

4 1516: founded in as a Spanish military outpost. 1553: Office of the governor transferred from eastern Cuba (Santiago) to Havana. Havana: First Center of Spanish Imperialism

5  18 th Century  Larger than Boston and NYC  Fortifications erected after seizure by Royal Navy (Great Britain)  Havana’s Shipyard  19 th Century  Increased Trade  Growing middle class  Centers for arts  Residential housing

6  Insurgency develops in second half of nineteenth century  U.S. sympathy for insurgents  Spanish-American War  Remember the Maine!”  War lasts less than a year  U. S. occupies Cuba before granting conditional independence  Platt Amendment gives US great influence January 25, 1898 -- The U.S.S. Maine enters Havana harbor, about three weeks before it was blown up

7  U.S. investment - engine of Cuban modernization  Sugar refineries – produced “white Gold” of Cuba  United Fruit  Hershey chocolate Havana. City Beautiful movement in the tropics (1900 – 1930)

8  Cuban tourism became popular with Americans in the 1920s.  Exotic  Tropical  Spanish heritage  Escape from puritanical constraints of U.S. culture

9  Havana reinforced as primate city  Cuban presidents strongly influenced by sugar interests in the United States  Depression (1929-32) has political consequences:  Unease over U.S. influence in Cuban economy  President Gerardo Machado threatens U.S. economic interests  Cuban armed forces overthrew President Machado and install figurehead as president (Manuel de Cespedes).

10  Social revolution leads to power and influence for groups from the interior  Sergeant Fulgencio Batista  Peasant background  Empowered enlisted ranks of the army  Coordination with middle class elements from Havana  Middle sectors led by Grau San Martin  1940 U.S. style constitution adopted  Failure of U.S. style democracy leads to military coup of 1952

11  Initially popular  Loss of support leads to human rights violations  Became symbol of U.S. imperialism  Ties with organized crime  Havana achieved unprecedented primacy

12  Born August 13, 1926  Attended Catholic School  Law Degree from University of Havana

13  Tied to Santiago de Cuba – the second city  Ortodoxo student leader  1953 (July 26): launched a failed attack on the Moncada army barracks  Imprisoned for two years  1956 (November 26): Landed in Cuba from Mexican exile  January 1, 1959 – topples Batista government

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15  Havana neglected – viewed by Fidel as a center of imperialist exploitation  “minimum of urbanism and a maximum of ruralism”  Built schools, housing, hospitals in provincial cities  Exception: Habana del Este – middle class development given to working class (1959-60)

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17  U. S. style local government institutions abolished  Committees for the Defense of the Revolution: Participation or control?  Community Councils

18  Havana became even more stressed economically  Fidel forced to search for other viable economic alternatives.  Solution: a new political economy for Havana  starting in the early 1990’s called The Special Period in a Time of Peace.  Promoted entrepreneurship and changes in governance in Havana.  Similarities to emphasis on tourism under Batista

19  Selective gentrification of Havana,  Employed 1982 UN Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization  Old Havana declared a World Heritage Site.

20  Legalization of the dollar and certain jobs in the private sector in 1993.  Habaguanex the first state corporation to promote the tourist industry, and urban redevelopment in Havana was created in 1994.  http://www.habaguanex.com/http://www.habaguanex.com/  Decree 143, passed in 1994, made Old Havana an economic free zone.  Law 77, passed in 1995 to promote programs of direct foreign investment.  Decree 165, passed in 1996 created economic free trade zones to help with importation and exportation

21  Special Privileges - Bypass Customs Regulations - Only Cuban Entity with Complete Control Over Operations - Access to hard currency

22  By 2002 two million people each year were traveling to Cuba  Habaguanex is acquiring power to shape Havana, but in theory still operates under the control of the communist party  150,000 new jobs in the private sector  The state is able to generate funds from taxes and business licensing fees.

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24  Hotel Parque Central

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26  Households receive meat rations monthly  Milk not always available  Prices of produce and other farm products too high for most  Work long hours to keep up with prices

27  Castro is reversing the policy of refusing to invest in city or maintain the physical infrastructure  100,000 of the dwellings remain uninhabitable  Government tolerates private-sector jineteros and cuentapropista  Jineteros earn their living working the black-market  Cuentapropistas are entrepreneurs

28  $32.13 billion GDP (2003 est.) – mainly in services  2.6% GDP growth rate (est.)  $2,900 Per-capita Personal Product  4.58 mil labor force  78% state sector, 22% non-state sector (est.)  Recent reforms in Cuban economy modeled on China’s capitalistic communism

29  Privitizing Havana economy undermines socialist ideologies that legitimate Castro regime.  Communist Party leaders fear loss of economic influence  Tourism highlights that foreigners live better  Cuban government (Ex. Havana) holds 60 % of the city’s public housing stock

30  Police are paid more than most professionals (physicians, university professors, engineers/architects)  High profile dissidents imprisoned or relocated for reeducation  Highest officials expected to tow the line: Perez Roque 2009

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