11.4 million (2004 est.) 0.34% growth rate (est.) -1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 people 51% mulatto, 37% white, 17% black, 1% Chinese
1516: founded in as a Spanish military outpost. 1553: Office of the governor transferred from eastern Cuba (Santiago) to Havana. Havana: First Center of Spanish Imperialism
18 th Century Larger than Boston and NYC Fortifications erected after seizure by Royal Navy (Great Britain) Havana’s Shipyard 19 th Century Increased Trade Growing middle class Centers for arts Residential housing
Insurgency develops in second half of nineteenth century U.S. sympathy for insurgents Spanish-American War Remember the Maine!” War lasts less than a year U. S. occupies Cuba before granting conditional independence Platt Amendment gives US great influence January 25, 1898 -- The U.S.S. Maine enters Havana harbor, about three weeks before it was blown up
U.S. investment - engine of Cuban modernization Sugar refineries – produced “white Gold” of Cuba United Fruit Hershey chocolate Havana. City Beautiful movement in the tropics (1900 – 1930)
Cuban tourism became popular with Americans in the 1920s. Exotic Tropical Spanish heritage Escape from puritanical constraints of U.S. culture
Havana reinforced as primate city Cuban presidents strongly influenced by sugar interests in the United States Depression (1929-32) has political consequences: Unease over U.S. influence in Cuban economy President Gerardo Machado threatens U.S. economic interests Cuban armed forces overthrew President Machado and install figurehead as president (Manuel de Cespedes).
Social revolution leads to power and influence for groups from the interior Sergeant Fulgencio Batista Peasant background Empowered enlisted ranks of the army Coordination with middle class elements from Havana Middle sectors led by Grau San Martin 1940 U.S. style constitution adopted Failure of U.S. style democracy leads to military coup of 1952
Initially popular Loss of support leads to human rights violations Became symbol of U.S. imperialism Ties with organized crime Havana achieved unprecedented primacy
Born August 13, 1926 Attended Catholic School Law Degree from University of Havana
Tied to Santiago de Cuba – the second city Ortodoxo student leader 1953 (July 26): launched a failed attack on the Moncada army barracks Imprisoned for two years 1956 (November 26): Landed in Cuba from Mexican exile January 1, 1959 – topples Batista government
Havana neglected – viewed by Fidel as a center of imperialist exploitation “minimum of urbanism and a maximum of ruralism” Built schools, housing, hospitals in provincial cities Exception: Habana del Este – middle class development given to working class (1959-60)
U. S. style local government institutions abolished Committees for the Defense of the Revolution: Participation or control? Community Councils
Havana became even more stressed economically Fidel forced to search for other viable economic alternatives. Solution: a new political economy for Havana starting in the early 1990’s called The Special Period in a Time of Peace. Promoted entrepreneurship and changes in governance in Havana. Similarities to emphasis on tourism under Batista
Selective gentrification of Havana, Employed 1982 UN Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Old Havana declared a World Heritage Site.
Legalization of the dollar and certain jobs in the private sector in 1993. Habaguanex the first state corporation to promote the tourist industry, and urban redevelopment in Havana was created in 1994. http://www.habaguanex.com/http://www.habaguanex.com/ Decree 143, passed in 1994, made Old Havana an economic free zone. Law 77, passed in 1995 to promote programs of direct foreign investment. Decree 165, passed in 1996 created economic free trade zones to help with importation and exportation
Special Privileges - Bypass Customs Regulations - Only Cuban Entity with Complete Control Over Operations - Access to hard currency
By 2002 two million people each year were traveling to Cuba Habaguanex is acquiring power to shape Havana, but in theory still operates under the control of the communist party 150,000 new jobs in the private sector The state is able to generate funds from taxes and business licensing fees.
Households receive meat rations monthly Milk not always available Prices of produce and other farm products too high for most Work long hours to keep up with prices
Castro is reversing the policy of refusing to invest in city or maintain the physical infrastructure 100,000 of the dwellings remain uninhabitable Government tolerates private-sector jineteros and cuentapropista Jineteros earn their living working the black-market Cuentapropistas are entrepreneurs
$32.13 billion GDP (2003 est.) – mainly in services 2.6% GDP growth rate (est.) $2,900 Per-capita Personal Product 4.58 mil labor force 78% state sector, 22% non-state sector (est.) Recent reforms in Cuban economy modeled on China’s capitalistic communism
Privitizing Havana economy undermines socialist ideologies that legitimate Castro regime. Communist Party leaders fear loss of economic influence Tourism highlights that foreigners live better Cuban government (Ex. Havana) holds 60 % of the city’s public housing stock
Police are paid more than most professionals (physicians, university professors, engineers/architects) High profile dissidents imprisoned or relocated for reeducation Highest officials expected to tow the line: Perez Roque 2009