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THE LIFELONG SOCIAL EXPERIENCE BY WHICH INDIVIDUALS DEVELOP THEIR HUMAN POTENTIAL AND LEARN PATTERNS OF THEIR CULTURE SOCIAL EXPERIENCES ALSO BUILD THE.

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Presentation on theme: "THE LIFELONG SOCIAL EXPERIENCE BY WHICH INDIVIDUALS DEVELOP THEIR HUMAN POTENTIAL AND LEARN PATTERNS OF THEIR CULTURE SOCIAL EXPERIENCES ALSO BUILD THE."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE LIFELONG SOCIAL EXPERIENCE BY WHICH INDIVIDUALS DEVELOP THEIR HUMAN POTENTIAL AND LEARN PATTERNS OF THEIR CULTURE SOCIAL EXPERIENCES ALSO BUILD THE FOUNDATION FOR –PERSONALITY –PERSONALITY: A PERSON’S FAIRLY CONSISTENT PATTERNS OF THINKING, FEELING, AND ACTING –COULD A PERSON’S PERSONALITY DEVELOP WITHOUT SOCIAL INTERACTION?

2 NATURE VS. NURTURE BEHAVIORISM –MOST OF WHO AND WHAT WE ARE AS A SPECIES IS LEARNED, OR SOCIAL IN NATURE IS IT SOCIOBIOLOGY OR BEHAVIORISM? SOCIOBIOLOGY –ELEMENTS OF SOCIETY HAVE A NATURALISTIC ROOT –IT’S A BIT OF BOTH, BUT FROM A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE, NURTURE IS EXTREMELY INFLUENTIAL

3 IMPACT ON NONHUMAN PRIMATES –HARLOWS’ EXPERIMENTS SIX MONTHS OF COMPLETE ISOLATION WAS ENOUGH TO DISTURB DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON CHILDREN –FERAL CHILDREN –ANNA AND ISABELLE YEARS OF ISOLATION LEFT BOTH CHILDREN DAMAGED AND ONLY CAPABLE OF APPROXIMATING A NORMAL LIFE –GENIE’S CASE SOMEWHAT LESS ISOLATED, BUT SUFFERED PERMANENT DISABILITIES

4 BASIC HUMAN NEEDS –EROS AND THANATOS AS OPPOSING FORCES DEVELOPING PERSONALITY –THE ID BASIC DRIVES- “immediate satisfaction” –THE EGO EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE BALANCE – “delayed gratification” –THE SUPEREGO CULTURE DEMANDS WITHIN- “needs of society” MANAGED CONFLICT –ID AND SUPEREGO ARE IN CONSTANT STATES OF CONFLICT, WITH THE EGO BALANCING THE TWO –REPRESSION SOCIETY’S CONTROLS OVER US –SUBLIMATION REDIRECTION OF BASIC DRIVES (sex-marriage, and, aggression- sports)

5 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT COGNITION (Piaget’s Theory) –HOW PEOPLE THINK AND UNDERSTAND STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT –SENSORIMOTOR STAGE SENSORY CONTACT UNDERSTANDING –PREOPERATIONAL STAGE USE OF LANGUAGE AND OTHER SYMBOLS –CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE PERCEPTION OF CAUSAL CONNECTIONS IN SURROUNDINGS –FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE ABSTRACT, CRITICAL THINKING Piaget attempted to link cognitive development to biological maturation; children learn more complex concepts and ideas as the brain develops

6 KOHLBERG’S IDEAS –MORAL DEVELOPMENT OCCURS IN STAGES PRECONVENTIONAL –WHATEVER SERVES THE PERSON’S NEEDS CONVENTIONAL –SHEDDING OF SOME SELFISHNESS; PLEASING PARENTS AND SOCIETY’S NORMS AS LEARNED POST-CONVENTIONAL –MOVING BEYOND SOCIETY’S NORMS TO CONSIDER ABSTRACT ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

7 THE SOCIAL SELF –SELF DEVELOPS FROM SOCIAL INTERACTION –FOCUSED ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INWARD THINKING PROCESSES THE DUALITY OF SELF –THE SELF AS SUBJECT (THE “I”) ALL THOUGHT AND ACTION ORIGINATES WITHIN THIS PART OF THE SELF –THE SELF AS OBJECT (THE “ME”) GUIDING THE ACTION BY TAKING ON “THE ROLE OF THE OTHER” (WIDER SOCIETY)

8 THE LOOKING-GLASS SELF CHARLES HORTON COOLEYCHARLES HORTON COOLEY –SELF-IMAGE IS MANIFESTED AS WE THINK OF HOW OTHERS WILL SEE US WHAT WE THINK OF OURSELVES DEPENDS ON LARGE PART ON WHAT WE PERCEIVE OTHERS ARE THINKING OF USWHAT WE THINK OF OURSELVES DEPENDS ON LARGE PART ON WHAT WE PERCEIVE OTHERS ARE THINKING OF US –REINFORCEMENT –MORTIFICATION –SELF-DOUBT CHARLES HORTON COOLEYCHARLES HORTON COOLEY –SELF-IMAGE IS MANIFESTED AS WE THINK OF HOW OTHERS WILL SEE US WHAT WE THINK OF OURSELVES DEPENDS ON LARGE PART ON WHAT WE PERCEIVE OTHERS ARE THINKING OF USWHAT WE THINK OF OURSELVES DEPENDS ON LARGE PART ON WHAT WE PERCEIVE OTHERS ARE THINKING OF US –REINFORCEMENT –MORTIFICATION –SELF-DOUBT

9 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT THIS PROCESS SEES THE SELF DEVELOP FROM A STAGE WHERE NO SELF IS IN EXISTENCE, TO ONE WHERE THE SELF HAS LEARNED CULTURE’S NORMS AND VALUES. THIS KNOWLEDGE IS THEN USED AS REFERENCE POINTS FOR SELF- EVALUATION.

10 PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS THAT PLAY IMPORTANT ROLES OR HAVE SPECIAL MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE IN THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS. LET’S EXAMINE A FEW, SHALL WE?

11 THE FAMILY MOST IMPORTANT AGENT –CENTER OF A CHILD’S LIFE PARENTAL ATTENTION IS VERY IMPORTANT –BONDING AND ENCOURAGEMENT SOCIAL POSITION IS ACQUIRED –RACE, CLASS, RELIGION (ascribed status) CULTURE (Social) CAPITAL –CHILDHOOD INHERITENCE

12 CONFRONT DIVERSITY –RACIAL CLUSTERING EARLY ON? HIDDEN CURRICULUM –INFORMAL, COVERT LESSONS INDIVIDUAL EVALUATION –RECORDKEEPING STARTS GENDER SOCIALIZATION BEGINS –FROM GRADE SCHOOL THROUGH COLLEGE, GENDER-LINKED ACTIVITIES ARE ENCOUNTERED

13 DEVELOPING SENSE OF SELF THAT GOES BEYOND THE FAMILY YOUNG AND OLD ATTITUDES AND THE “GENERATION GAP” PEERS OFTEN GOVERN SHORT-TERM GOALS WHILE PARENTS MAINTAIN INFLUENCE OVER LONG-TERM PLANS ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION –PRACTICE AT WORKING TOWARD GAINING DESIRED POSITIONS

14 IMPERSONAL COMMUNICATION DIRECTED AT A VAST AUDIENCE TELEVISIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. –2/3rds OF HOUSEHOLDS SUBSCRIBE TO CABLE TELEVISION –IN 1999, 98% OF HOUSEHOLDS HAD AT LEAST ONE HOW MUCH T.V. IN THE 2000s? –ON AVERAGE, 7 HOURS PER DAY, OR ONE-HALF OF THEIR FREE TIME IS SPENT IN FRONT OF THE TELEVSION CONCERNS ABOUT CREATING IMAGES –VIOLENCE AND THE MASS MEDIA –DISABLING STEREOTYPE REINFORCEMENT –CLAIMS OF LIBERALISM IN THE MEDIA

15 THE LIFE COURSE CHILDHOOD (AGE 1 THROUGH 12) –THE “HURRIED CHILD” ADOLESCENCE (THE TEENAGE YEARS) –A FOOT IN BOTH WORLDS (MARGINALITY) ADULTHOOD –EARLY: 20 TO 40, CONFLICTING PRIORITIES –MIDDLE: 40 TO 60, MIDLIFE CRISIS OLD AGE (MID-60s AND OLDER) –GRAYING BABY BOOMERS –LESS ANTI-ELDERLY BIAS –ROLE EXITING CAN BE DIFFICULT

16 85% OF AMERICANS DIE AFTER AGE 5585% OF AMERICANS DIE AFTER AGE 55 STAGES OF DYINGSTAGES OF DYING –DENIAL –ANGER –NEGOTIATION –RESIGNATION –ACCEPTANCE

17 TOTAL INSTITUTIONS A SETTING IN WHICH PEOPLE ARE: –ISOLATED FROM SOCIETY –CONTROLLED BY STAFF CHARACTERISTICS: –SUPERVISION OF ALL SPHERES OF A PERSON’S LIFE –STANDARDIZED, RIGID SYSTEM UNDERWHICH ALL LIVE –FORMAL RULES AND DAILY SCHEDULES FOR ALL

18 THE PROCESS –ERODE THE INDIVIDUAL’S OLD “SELF” SURRENDER POSSESSIONS AND ANY ITEM THAT SUGGESTS INDIVIDUALITY ‘MORITIFICATION OF SELF’ PROCESSES –SYSTEMATICALLY BUILD UP A DIFFERENT SELF WITHIN THE PERSON BY WAY OF SYSTEMS OF REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS INSTITUTIONALIZED PERSONALITY –IMPACT ON SOME PERSONS WHO HAVE LIVED FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME WITHIN AN ENVIRONMENT SUCH AS THAT FOUND WITHIN TOTAL INSTITUTIONS RADICAL ALTERATION OF A PERSON’S PERSONALITY

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