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P. K. Bhartia, Omar Torres, Nickolay Krotkov, Richard McPeters, Joanna Joiner NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland, USA Measurement of.

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Presentation on theme: "P. K. Bhartia, Omar Torres, Nickolay Krotkov, Richard McPeters, Joanna Joiner NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland, USA Measurement of."— Presentation transcript:

1 P. K. Bhartia, Omar Torres, Nickolay Krotkov, Richard McPeters, Joanna Joiner NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland, USA Measurement of Atmospheric Constituents from Space: History & State-of-Art

2 Satellite Techniques Nadir-Viewing Instruments Back-scatter UV/VIS/SWIR Thermal IR (TIR) Limb-viewing Instruments Occultation (solar, lunar, stellar) –UV, VIS, TIR Limb Emission –TIR, Microwave Limb Scattering –UV, VIS, SWIR

3

4 Merged Total Ozone Time Series (Frith et al., JGR 2014) 60S-60N 30S-30N

5 Fit to Eqv. Effect. Strat. Cl (EESC)

6 Diurnal Variation of Ozone (MLO MWR)

7 3 hPa Ozone Time Series 60S-60N 30S-30N

8 SCIAMACHY

9 Profile Shape Error in TOMS Total O 3 Nadir View, March (sza≈lat) 85˚ sza 75˚ sza Estimated using ozonesonde climatology (mean & covariance)

10 Comparison of Tropospheric Column Ozone Derived by Combining MLS and OMI JJA average Data Assimilation Trajectory Method Direct retrieval- no MLSModel

11 Assessment of Space-based O 3 Measurements Total O 3 –Quality of data from BUV instruments is now roughly comparable to that from Double Brewers, which are considered the “gold standard”. Strat O 3 Profile –Limb/occultation instruments provide high quality data above 20 km in tropics, 15 km elsewhere. Trop O 3 Profile –Good quality trop O 3 column, but profile information is limited.

12 Volcanic SO 2 Record

13 Operational Products O 3 Vertical Profiles (cloud top to 60 km) –7000/day, 84S-84N, daylight only –~1.8 km vert res, 1 km sampling –Number density vs alt profiles are primary –Mixing Ratio vs p produced using assimilated GPH and temp data from NASA GMAO, which compares well with Aura/MLS –Aerosol scattering inde at 350, 510 & 650 nm Aerosol Profiles (cloud top to 35 km) –Extinction at 750 and 500 nm & size info

14 Decrease in SO 2 over the Eastern US The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data confirm a substantial reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) values around the largest US coal power plants as a result of the implementation of SO 2 pollution control measures. The figure shows average SO 2 values measured by OMI on the NASA Aura spacecraft for the periods and over the Eastern US where the majority of large SO 2 sources are located. Scientists use this information to identify anthropogenic sources of SO 2 and to estimate their emission rates. The greatest values are in violet; the lowest in green. Yellow to violet colors correspond to statistically significant enhancements in SO 2 pollution in the vicinity of largest SO 2 emitting coal-burning power plants indicated by the black dots. Previous use of space-based SO 2 retrievals has been limited to monitoring plumes from volcanic eruptions and detecting anthropogenic emissions from large source regions as in China. A new spatial filtration technique allows detection of individual pollution sources in Canada and US. Mean SO 2 values for Mean SO 2 values for Fioletov, V., et al., (2011), Geophysical Research Letters,

15 Increase over India Lu, Zifeng, David G. Streets, Benjamin de Foy, and Nickolay A. Krotkov, Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-Fired Power Plants during 2005−2012, Environmental Science and Technology, 2013

16   There has been a rapid decrease in NO 2 pollution in the US. Rate of decrease in the past decade is - 4%/year.

17  Chinese NOx emissions and NO 2 pollution is growing almost at a pace similar to the nation’s GDP: +7%/year NO 2 pollution over India is also increasing +2%/year.

18 SNPP/Ozone Mapping & profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir profiler nadir mapper limb profiler Launched Oct 28, 2011 on Suomi NPP

19 Limb Scattering Technique Line of sight Tangent point Tangent height Diffuse upwelling radiation Solar Radiation

20 Comparison with Aura MLS- Center slit % difference (LP- MLS) The current LP algorithm doesn’t have an explicit correction for strat aerosols

21 Comparison with ACE-FTS __LP, __ACE

22 % Difference (LP-FTS) Diurnal effect: negative differences above ~45 km, positive near 40 km.

23 Std Dev of difference (%)

24 Comparison with High Trop Ozonesondes 35N, 87W 21S, 56E LP has ~ 1.8 km vertical and ~200 km horizontal res

25 Comparison with Payerne (47N, 7E) Ozonesondes

26 Comparison with Antarctic Ozonesondes 71S, 8W 69S, 40E

27 Aerosol Extinction Profiles- March 2013 Log Scale Linear Scale

28 Planned Instruments with BUV capability Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCVR): Launch early 2015 –Located at 1 st Lagrange Point (1.5 million km from Earth along the sun-earth line) to provide hourly global coverage- useful for erythemal UVB Sentinel 5P/TropOMI (~2016) –OMI-like products with 7 km horizontal resolution Geostationary Instruments ( ) –TEMPO (US), GEMS (S. Korea), Sentinel 4 ( ESA)

29 Comparison of Satellite Total O 3 Record (30S-30N) OMI GOME/SCIA SBUV GOME/SCIA-SBUV OMI-SBUV OMI/SBUV Differences are due to use of different O 3 abs x-section

30 High Latitude Comparison (55N-60N) GOME/SCIA-SBUVOMI-SBUV Key Conclusion Quality of total O 3 record from satellite BUV sensors is becoming comparable of that from best quality ground station

31 Altitude vs. Distance Along LOS 1.5 km 196 km Tangent Ht. x z IFOV x


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