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6. mai 2015 Utenriksdepartementet The Vikings of The East Ambassador Jon Ramberg Baku History Club 24 January 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "6. mai 2015 Utenriksdepartementet The Vikings of The East Ambassador Jon Ramberg Baku History Club 24 January 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 6. mai 2015 Utenriksdepartementet The Vikings of The East Ambassador Jon Ramberg Baku History Club 24 January 2008

2 Utenriksdepartementet The Snake Stone” By Jason Goodwin “ The Snake Stone” By Jason Goodwin “ Exploded out of their fjords about 12 centuries ago. Ships carved like dragons. Primitive range of gods. Blood and thunder all summer: rape, murder and pillage. Long poems about it to keep them happy all winter. Tough wasn`t the word. They scuffed Europe into what we call the Dark Ages. Most notable product after widows: Russia.”

3 Utenriksdepartementet Settlements in Scandinavia ca. 800

4 Utenriksdepartementet Causes of Viking expansion Population explosion Technological breakthroughs Lure of wealth (trade/plunder)

5 Utenriksdepartementet The Oseberg Ship ca. 800

6 Utenriksdepartementet Key words RUS ”Rotsi” – ”they who row” - Finnish tribes’ name for Swedish merchants? From late 10th century used about population of the Slavic/Rus state centered upon Kiev VARJAG(i) Gardarike/Russia VARANGI/Constantinople ”Sworn-in men”

7 Utenriksdepartementet The whole of our “country is vast and rich, but there is no order. Come and rule over us!” Nestor Chronicle (1113-1118)

8 Utenriksdepartementet Expansion in The East HOLMGARD KIEV BYSANTS

9 Utenriksdepartementet The First Rus State Adleigjuborg/Staraya Ladoga Holmgard/Novgorod Rurik 862 Arabian/Abbasidic caliphate, Baghdad 750 Silver mines south of Aral Sea Hides and slaves


11 Utenriksdepartementet The Kiev State (880 -1240) RUS from the North Assimilation into Slav population 10th century, but......Old Norse spoken in Novgorod until 13th century

12 Utenriksdepartementet Oleg (Helge) 882 – 912 United Novgorod and Kiev 880 Fought the Khazars Attacked Constantinople Died during Caspian raid 912?

13 Utenriksdepartementet Igor (Ingvar) 913 - 945 Trade treaties with Constantinople Caspian plunder 913 and 944? Killed while collecting tribute 945

14 Utenriksdepartementet Olga (Helga) 945 - 962 First ”legal reform” in Eastern Europe, on tribute Converted to Christianity ca. 950

15 Utenriksdepartementet Olga

16 Utenriksdepartementet Sviatoslav 945 - 962 Beat Khazars and Bulgars

17 Utenriksdepartementet Yaropolk 972 - 980 Killed in ambush by two of brother Vladimir’s Varangians

18 Utenriksdepartementet Vladimir 980 - 1015 Fled 977 to King Haakon of Norway to recruit Vikings Baptised 988 after refusing Islam (”no gladness, no alcohol, no pork”); the Jewish faith (because of loss of Jerusalem) – and impressed by the splendour of Hagia Sofia Hosted Olav Tryggvason (King of Norway 995 – 1000)

19 Utenriksdepartementet Sviatopolk 1015 - 1019 Killed brothers Boris and Gleb Killed by brother Yaroslav’s Varangians

20 Utenriksdepartementet Yaroslav ”The Wise” 1019 - 1054 Relied on Scandinavian support against Bysants Sheltered King Olav Haraldsson (”The Holy”) before Battle of Stiklestad 1030, sent soldiers Married Swedish princess Married off daughter Elizaveta (Elisiv) to King Harald ”Hardråde” - two others to rulers of Hungary and France

21 Utenriksdepartementet BYSANTS

22 Utenriksdepartementet BYSANTS Varangians on both sides from early 10th century Personal bodyguard of the Emperor Harald ”Hardråde” – chief of guard after Battle of Stiklestad 1030 Return to Norway 1045 Fell at Stamford Bridge 1066 Anglo-Saxons and Danes leaving England – Anglo-Varangian Guard 1088

23 Utenriksdepartementet The Khazar State ( ca. 750-ca. 970 ) Turkish origin, Jewish faith Turkish origin, Jewish faith Middlemen between the Caliphate and RusMiddlemen between the Caliphate and Rus Crushed by King Sviatoslav 969Crushed by King Sviatoslav 969

24 Utenriksdepartementet This is the area which Snorre is pointing at -This is the area which Snorre is pointing at Thor Heyerdahl Azov, 2001

25 Utenriksdepartementet Snorre Sturlason (1178-1241)

26 Utenriksdepartementet Odin’s Journey according to Snorre and Heyerdahl

27 Utenriksdepartementet * ATTEMPTS AT SOME SWEEPING STATEMENTS The Vikings of The East were generally more peaceful than their colleagues who went West They were certainly brutal, but so were the times Romantic view of 19th century replaced by critical – today a balanced judgement Apart from advanced maritime skills – poetry and sagas Outer as well as inner expansion in Norway based on improved agricultural skills and trade Most important for Norway: inclusion in Europe Importance for contemporary relationship Norway – Azerbaijan?

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