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U.S. History to Reconstruction Unit 7 – The Federalist Era, 1789-1801.

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1 U.S. History to Reconstruction Unit 7 – The Federalist Era, 1789-1801

2 Starting the New Government  On April 16, 1789, George Washington was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College  John Adams was selected as the Vice President  Many thought his inaugural speech on April 30 was too reminiscent of the English monarchy speeches to Parliament  Congress had to decide how to formally address Washington:  “His Most Benign Highness,” and other kingly titles fortunately gave way to “Mr. President”  Washington’s skilled use of symbols of power were key to his presidential success  Successfully conveyed faith in the existence of a strong republic

3 Starting the New Government  Congress established three executive departments:  Secretary of War – Henry Knox  Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson  Secretary of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton  Bill of Rights  One of Congress’s first tasks was debate over the constitutional amendments that several states had made a condition of ratification  Congress sent twelve perspective amendments to the states in September 1789  Ten were approved to become the national Bill of Rights in December 1791

4 Starting the New Government  Judiciary Act of 1789  Created the federal court system of 13 courts  Purpose was to enforce national laws on a state level  John Jay was selected as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court  Hamilton Tariff (1789)  Created a 5% tariff on all imported goods  Helped the manufacturing north but harmed agricultural south  Count of the American Population  Necessary for proper representation in the House  Undertaken in 1790  Found the U.S. population to be just under 4 million

5  Washington’s Inauguration (April 30, 1789)

6 Rise of Political Parties  Development of political parties during this period  Mainly due to the ambiguity of republican ideology  Both believed in the future of the U.S. but different on how to transform the country from an agrarian society to an international power  Federalists  Later referred to as the Hamiltonians, included the likes of Alexander Hamilton and John Admas  Called for the rapid integration into world economy  Distrusted common man  Strong national institutions

7 Rise of Political Parties  Republicans  Included Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Jefferson  Would later be referred to as the Jeffersonians  Faith in white yeoman farmers  With no government intrusion, they could retain virtue and resist crass materialism  New dynamic public opinion  Politicians focused on public opinion  Average people no longer deferred to their social “betters”  Period of increasing political debates, enflamed by growth of newspapers

8  Alexander Hamilton  Secretary of the Treasury  (1789-1795)

9 Hamilton’s Plans  Two of Washington’s cabinet members would show the growing split taking place in the 1790s: Hamilton and Jefferson  Hamilton caused the first disagreement  Occurred when he submitted to Congress the first of several major policy statements in January 1790  Ardent proponent of U.S. economic development through domestic manufacturing and overseas trade  Believed that competitive self-interest, whether that of an individual or nation, was the surest guide to behavior  Hamilton’s politics were profoundly conservative in that he did not trust the people’s wisdom or their purposes

10 Hamilton’s Plans  Main concern was over U.S. debt  Total debt of $54 million with additional state debt of $25 million  80% of debt held by speculators  Hamiliton’s First Report on Public Credit (January 1790)  Called for the U.S. government to assume the responsibility for the remaining state war debts  All debts were to be repaid at face value  Creditors were to exchange their badly depreciated securities at face value for new, interest-bearing government bonds

11 Hamilton’s Plans  Hamilton hoped these measures would:  Stabilize government’s finances  Establish its credit  Build confidence in the new nation at home and abroad  Tie business and commercial interests firmly to the new administration  Funding securities at face value seemed to benefit speculators  Mainly northern businessmen  Hamilton believed the speculators who took the risks should reap the benefits

12 Hamilton’s Plans  Those states who had paid their debts were opposed to federal assumption of them  Included Pennsylvania and Virginia  Other critics were fearful of growing federal power  Included Jefferson and James Madison  Did not want most of the country’s debt in hands of speculators  Money people would look to the federal government for a return on investment and that would spur federal use of taxation powers  Congress supported Hamilton’s measures  Part of it due to southerners swapping support for a federal capitol in the south on the Potomac

13 Hamilton’s Plans  Second Report on Public Credit (December 1790)  Called for the creation of a national bank  It would be capable of handling the government’s financial affairs and pooling private investment capital  Included making loans and issuing financial notes and currency  Opposition came almost entirely from the South  Critics said the Constitution did not support such an entity  Felt the bank would serve the needs of the northern merchants far better than those of southern agrarians  Also the belief that the bank might “perpetuate a large monied interest” to run the country

14 Hamilton’s Plans  Hamilton defended constitutionality through doctrine of “implied powers”  Meant that the government had the authority to make any laws “necessary and proper” for exercising the powers specifically granted it by the Constitution  In February 1791, the First Bank of the United States was created with a 20 year charter  Washington signed the bill  He followed Hamilton’s arguments regarding the “implied powers” of the Constitution over Jefferson’s strict reading of it

15 Hamilton’s Plans  People were fearful that Hamilton was bringing corrupt British system to America  Another recommendation in his Second Report was the creation of excise taxes  It proposed a series of excise taxes, including one on the manufacture of distilled liquor (so-called “Whiskey Tax”)  Signaled government desire to use taxing power to increase revenue  Hamilton know that the power to tax and spend was the power to govern  Whiskey Tax became law in March 1791

16 Hamilton’s Plans  Report on Manufacturing (December1791)  Called for tariffs on imported European goods in order to protect American industries  Bounties to encourage the expansion of commercial agriculture  A network of federally sponsored internal improvements which were intended to stimulate commerce and bind the nation together  Opposition:  Madison warned that program would strengthen federal government at state expense  Jefferson warned that the rise of cities would destroy agriculture and agrarian civic virtue  Southerners opposed to protective tariffs  Congress refused to pass these recommendations

17 Hamilton’s Plans  In October 1791, opponents of Hamilton in Congress establish a newspaper that vigorously attacked the administration’s policies  Hamilton responded with a bunch of anonymous articles accusing Jefferson (inaccurately) of having opposed the Constitution and of fomenting opposition to the government  Washington pleaded for restraint  In northern towns, artisans and other working people turned out to support Hamilton’s ideas

18  First Bank of the United States

19 The Whiskey Rebellion  Whiskey Rebellion  Started by farmers in western Pennsylvania  Upset at the federal government especially at the Whiskey Tax  Their livelihood depended on the transport of surplus grain in the form of distilled alcohol  This made it easier to ship over the Appalachians to eastern markets  Fearful of losing control over local affairs  They were being increasingly absorbed into the market economy and system of politics dominated by more populous, commercialized areas to the east

20 The Whiskey Rebellion  Hamilton cared little about the farmers plight since the government needed the revenue  In the summer of 1792, angry citizens began gathering at mass meetings across western Pennsylvania  Denounced the tax and vowed to prevent its collection  Washington issued a proclamation warning against such “unlawful” gatherings  In July 1794, a federal marshal and a local excise inspector attempted to collect the tax  500 armed men cornered soldiers at the inspector’s home  Soldiers surrendered after an exchange of fire and the home was burned  Similar incidents occurred across the state

21 The Whiskey Rebellion  Republican governor refused to act  Federalists interpreted as Republican conspiracy  Washington called federal troops to restore order  He was fearful of an extended rebellion  First opportunity to exercise federal authority  By late August, a federal force of 13,000 marched into western Pennsylvania  As troops approached, “Whiskey Rebels” disappeared  Twenty were captured and two sentenced to death though they were later pardoned  Afterwards there were harsh criticisms about federal troops being used against American citizens

22  George Washington leading troops against the Whiskey Rebellion

23 Battle Over Foreign Affairs  Foreign policy generated extraordinary excitement during the 1790s  French Revolution and European war that accompanied it threatened to draw the U.S. in  Age of democratic revolution  In Europe, Ireland, and the Caribbean, political insurgents were using the American Revolution as an inspiration for their own cause  France’s revolution began in 1789 as an effort to reform the injustices of a weakened monarchy  Soon exploded into a radical rebellion with the beheading of Louis XVI in 1793

24 Battle Over Foreign Affairs  For more than a decade the revolution dominated the stage in European politics  Threatened American security  Divided Americans deeply  Created a huge diplomatic problem for the American government  French Revolutionary Wars shaped U.S. political divisions  Jeffersonian Republicans  Favored France  States’ rights  Strict interpretation of the Constitution

25 Battle Over Foreign Affairs  Hamiltonian Federalists  Favored England  Strong central government and economic planning  Maintenance of order by federal troops  The decision was made to remain neutral in the war  By mid-1790s, American merchants were earning handsome profits from neutral trade with both England and France  American shipbuilding was booming  In 1800, American ships carried 92 percent of all commerce between U.S. and Europe

26 Battle Over Foreign Affairs  England and France wanted American goods but also wanted to prevent goods from reaching the other  Stopped American ships and confiscated their cargoes  Royal Navy also practiced impressment  French Treaty of 1778 seemed to obligate U.S. to side with France  British still occupied Ohio River Valley  Discriminated against American trade  Franco-British War broke out in 1793  England violated American sovereignty and neutrality on high seas  Jefferson wanted to punish England by cutting off trade  Hamilton wanted to appease England because too strong

27 Battle Over Foreign Affairs  The American public initially viewed French Revolution as an extension of their own struggle for liberty  By the mid-1790s many Americans pulled back in alarm  Federalists saw France as symbolizing anarchy and threatening European order  Often seeking a way to bind the U.S. more closely to England  Others, including Jefferson, condemned the excesses of the revolution but not the revolution itself  Often saw England as a bastion of political privilege and oppression

28 Battle Over Foreign Affairs  Rebellions broke out throughout Europe  Supported by invading armies from France and inspired by the doctrine of natural rights  In 1791 a multi racial coalition rebelled against French rule in Saint-Dominque  Conflict developed between white landowners, mixed-race mulattoes and black slaves  Led to a decade of warfare against 30,000 French and British troops, 100,000 casualties and the devastation of the Haitian economy

29 Battle Over Foreign Affairs  In 1798, the black majority, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, seized control of the revolt  Made abolition of slavery the primary goal  Six years later established Haiti as the first black nation-state in the Americas  For Americans, Haitian revolt demonstrated the universal relevance of U.S. struggle for liberty  It struck a blow against European colonialism in the New World  However, feared the effect of the rebellion on American slaves  Also cast doubt on racial assumptions that blacks could not comprehend the true meaning of liberty  U.S. did not recognize Haiti until the American Civil War

30  Toussaint Louverture  (1743-1803)

31 Democrat-Republican Societies  Political clubs served as tools of democratic reform  Provided safe havens for dissidents and intellectuals  The Jacobin clubs in France were the most famous, but similar organizations appeared in the United States  As early as 1792, “constitutional societies” were formed to oversee the rights of the people  Some formed in opposition to Hamilton’s financial program  The increase in these clubs was spurred in 1793 by the arrival of Citizen Edmund Genêt, French minister to the United States  Genêt had instructions to court popular support and negotiate a commercial treaty

32 Democrat-Republican Societies  Genêt began commissioning American privateers to attack British shipping in the Caribbean  Also enlisted Americans for attacks against Spanish Florida, which would break American neutrality  When he urged Congress to reject Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation, Washington demanded he be recalled  Genêt succeeded in fanning popular enthusiasm for France

33 Democrat-Republican Societies  Forty popular societies sprang up in the next few years  Working people made up bulk of membership  Included Irish fleeing from British repression at home  Leaders were often doctors, tradesmen and lawyers  Organized public celebrations, issued addresses and sent petitions critical of the administration  West of Appalachians, societies agitated against English control of frontier forts and against Spain for closing the Mississippi  Everywhere protested Excise Tax, opposed overtures to England, and called for a press free of Federalist control

34  Jay Treaty of 1974

35 Jay Treaty of 1794  Alarmed by sinking relations with England, President Washington dispatched Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794  Purpose was to negotiate a number of disagreements left over from the Revolutionary War  Jay Treaty of 1794  British promised to withdraw from posts in the Great Lakes  Provide selective access to British West Indian ports  Provide compensation to U.S. ship owners  U.S. received most favored nation trading status  Guaranteed payment of debt to Britain

36 Jay Treaty of 1794  Public was incensed despite administration claims that this was the only way to avoid war with England  Southerners were upset there was no compensation for their lost slaves  Westerners complained British were not evacuating posts fast enough  Merchants and sailors disliked Jay’s failure to stop impressment or open West Indian trade  Republicans and the press criticized Washington  Demand for clarification of executive privilege in national security affairs  House demanded papers related to Jay’s mission  Washington claimed right to withhold national security secrets

37 Jay Treaty of 1794  Washington’s prestige muted criticism, but bitter partisan division already entrenched  Senate ratified treaty by a narrow margin  British encouraged Indians to attack settlers as they withdrew  Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794)  U.S. army defeated alliance of Indian nations in Ohio  Treaty of Greenville (1794)  Forced Indian removal from Ohio  British withdrew support from Indians, pulled back into Canada

38 Jay Treaty of 1794  Spain interpreted Jay’s Treaty as Anglo-American alliance against Spain  Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795)  Negotiated by Thomas Pinckney  Spain recognized the U.S. boundaries under the peace treaty 1783 and gave up all claims to U.S. territory  Gave free navigation of Mississippi and right to unload goods for transshipment at New Orleans for three years  Settled disputed border between Florida and U.S.  Spanish ceased inciting Indians against settlers  By 1796 Jefferson quit as secretary of state and went into open opposition

39  Thomas Pinckney  (1750-1828)

40 Election of 1796  Washington’s Farewell Address (September 1796)  Deplored deepening political divisions  Warned against entangling alliances with foreign nations  Announced he would not accept a third term  Announcement timed to prevent Republican organization of presidential campaign  Presidential election of 1796 was narrowed to Thomas Jefferson or John Adams  Two very different men who had a great deal of shared experiences in the Revolution and the creation of the government

41 Election of 1796  Adams was a committed Federalist  Believed in a vigorous national government  Was appalled by the French Revolution  Feared “excessive democracy”  Jefferson supported the Constitution but:  Was alarmed by Hamilton’s financial program  Viewed France’s revolution as a logical extension of America’s struggle for freedom  Hoped to expand democracy at home  Bitterly divisive election

42 Election of 1796  The Federalists were divided  Hamilton tried to push Pinckney over Adams  Adams won the election by only three votes  Jefferson was to serve as his Vice President  Adams was forced to accept people in his cabinet that were not supportive  Federalist Department heads more loyal to Hamilton than Adams

43  Electoral College votes of 1796

44 War Crisis With France  Adam’s first trial as president was caused by French interference with American shipping in the Caribbean  Jay’s Treaty prompted France to treat U.S. as unfriendly nation  Quasi-war developed with the French seizing U.S. ships  XYZ Affair  An American delegation was sent to Paris  French administrators (termed “X, Y, Z”) made it clear that the success of the American mission depended on a loan to the French government and a huge bribe for themselves  Two of the commissioners sailed for home and one stayed under threat by Talleyrand of war if all three left

45 War Crisis With France  Adams reported the “XYZ Affair” to Congress  Federalist congressmen saw this as an insult to American honor  Secretary of State Pickering urged a declaration of war  Provoked anti-French outrage in U.S.  Federalists attempted to crush Republicans by branding as pro-French  In May 1798, Congress called for a naval force capable of defending the American coast against French attack  In July, it repealed the treaty of 1778  Also called for the formation of 10,000 man army

46 War Crisis With France  Federalists began building up the army  Ostensible purpose: repel French invasion  Actual intention: stifle internal opposition  Jeffersonians worried the army would be used against them  Adams was also worried when Hamilton was placed in charge of the army  He issued only a few officer commissions thereby preventing the army’s mobilization (the army can’t move without officers)  Hamilton sought declaration of war against France to begin operations against dissent  Adams created navy, but refused to ask Congress for war

47  Text of the Alien Friends Act (1798)

48 Alien and Sedition Acts  Congress also sought to curb the flow of aliens into the U.S.  Fearful of foreign subversion and aware that the many immigrants were active in the Jeffersonian opposition  Passed a series of laws in 1798 known as the Alien and Sedition Acts  Purpose to silence Republicans  First civil liberties crisis  Naturalization Act 1798  Raised residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years  Many immigrants supported the Republican party

49 Alien and Sedition Acts  Alien Friends Act  Authorized the president to expel aliens whom he judged “dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States”  Investigations were launched that were intended to force foreigners to register with the government  Large numbers of foreigners left the country  Alien Enemies Act  Gave the president the right to imprison or deport any aliens from hostile nations during times of war without any charges or appeals

50 Alien and Sedition Acts  The Sedition Act  Made it punishable by fine and imprisonment for anyone to:  Conspire in opposition to the government or aided insurrections  Write, print, utter or publish “any false, scandalous and malicious writings…”against the government, Congress or the president  25 people were arrested under this act and 15 were indicted  Federalist appointees in federal courts enforced Sedition Act in absurd ways  Republican Congressman Mathew Lyon arrested, won re- election from jail

51 Alien and Sedition Acts  Luther Baldwin  While drunk, commented that he did not care if the cannons in Newark firing to celebrate Adams presence, “fired thro’ his ass”  He was charged and convicted of sedition, was fined and sent to jail until both fines and court fees were paid  Jeffersonian Republicans made a field day of the Baldwin trial  David Brown set up a liberty pole in Dedham, MA  The words “No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of America…” were placed on it  Convicted of sedition and forced to serve 18 months in jail

52 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  With little redress in the Federalist-dominated Congress, Jeffersonians turned to the states for redress  Saw Alien and Sedition Acts as dire threat to liberty  Believed the states should have final say in determining constitutionality of federal law  Kentucky Resolutions (November 16, 1798)  Kentucky Assembly passed a resolution declaring the federal government had violated the Bill of Rights  Each state had the right to judge infractions and decide on the appropriate redress  Nullification (declaring a federal law invalid within a state’s borders) was the remedy for unconstitutional laws

53 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  Virginia Resolutions  Written by Madison, they were passed by the Virginia assembly the next month  Asserted that when the central government threatened the people’s liberties, states were bound to prevent it  Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions received little support outside of those two states  Alien and Sedition Acts were not enforced in the South  It illustrated popular opposition to the Federalist program  Purpose of resolutions: clarify differences between Republicans and Federalists, not justify secession

54 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  By 1799 country seemed on the brink of war between the Federalists and the Opposition  In Virginia, the Assembly called for a reorganization of the militia  In Philadelphia, Federalist patrols walked the streets to protect government officials from angry crowds  President Adams smuggled arms into the White House as a precaution  Things calmed down when Adams broke with Hamilton  Word from France came that Talleyrand was willing to negotiate  Adams sent a new team to negotiate with France

55 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  Adams cabinet was enraged  Peace would undercut the Federalist war program which depended on the crisis for legitimacy  When Secretary of State Pickering refused to send the commissioners, Adams dismissed him and sent them anyway  Treaty of Mortefontaine (1800)  No compensation for seized American ships  1778 treaties null and void  French restrictions on U.S. commerce removed  Created climate of trust between France and U.S.

56  Signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine

57 “Revolution of 1800”  As presidential election approached, the Federalists were in disarray  Going into the election they were charged with exercising federal power unconstitutionally, suppressing political dissent, and threatening to use a federal army against American citizens  Plotted Adams defeat when he announced effort to be re- elected  Federalists lost, but Republicans Jefferson and Burr tied  Both Republicans, each had 75 votes  Adams had only 65 votes

58 “Revolution of 1800”  The election was thrown into the House of Representatives  Hamilton and Federalists decided Jefferson better than Burr  Jefferson was elected 10 states to 4 states on the 36th ballot  12 th Amendment  Designed to prevent a recurrence of such a crisis  Provided for separate ballots for president and vice president  In Congress, the Federalists lost their majorities in both the House and the Senate  The election revealed the strong sectional divisions in the country’s politics

59 “Revolution of 1800”  Federalists  Dominated New England because of regional loyalty to Adams, area’s commercial ties with England, and fears that their opponents intended to import social revolution from France  Support was strongest among merchants, manufacturers and commercial farmers situated within easy reach of the coast  From Maryland south the Jeffersonians dominated  The election was more evenly contested in the middle states  Election of 1800 one of the most important  Transfer of power from Federalists to Republicans achieved peacefully  Nation averted ideological civil war

60  Electoral College votes in 1800

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