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U.S. History to Reconstruction

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1 U.S. History to Reconstruction
Unit 7 – The Federalist Era,

2 Starting the New Government
On April 16, 1789, George Washington was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College John Adams was selected as the Vice President Many thought his inaugural speech on April 30 was too reminiscent of the English monarchy speeches to Parliament Congress had to decide how to formally address Washington: “His Most Benign Highness,” and other kingly titles fortunately gave way to “Mr. President” Washington’s skilled use of symbols of power were key to his presidential success Successfully conveyed faith in the existence of a strong republic

3 Starting the New Government
Congress established three executive departments: Secretary of War – Henry Knox Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton Bill of Rights One of Congress’s first tasks was debate over the constitutional amendments that several states had made a condition of ratification Congress sent twelve perspective amendments to the states in September 1789 Ten were approved to become the national Bill of Rights in December 1791

4 Starting the New Government
Judiciary Act of 1789 Created the federal court system of 13 courts Purpose was to enforce national laws on a state level John Jay was selected as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Hamilton Tariff (1789) Created a 5% tariff on all imported goods Helped the manufacturing north but harmed agricultural south Count of the American Population Necessary for proper representation in the House Undertaken in 1790 Found the U.S. population to be just under 4 million

5 Washington’s Inauguration (April 30, 1789)

6 Rise of Political Parties
Development of political parties during this period Mainly due to the ambiguity of republican ideology Both believed in the future of the U.S. but different on how to transform the country from an agrarian society to an international power Federalists Later referred to as the Hamiltonians, included the likes of Alexander Hamilton and John Admas Called for the rapid integration into world economy Distrusted common man Strong national institutions

7 Rise of Political Parties
Republicans Included Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Jefferson Would later be referred to as the Jeffersonians Faith in white yeoman farmers With no government intrusion, they could retain virtue and resist crass materialism New dynamic public opinion Politicians focused on public opinion Average people no longer deferred to their social “betters” Period of increasing political debates, enflamed by growth of newspapers

8 Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury ( )

9 Hamilton’s Plans Two of Washington’s cabinet members would show the growing split taking place in the 1790s: Hamilton and Jefferson Hamilton caused the first disagreement Occurred when he submitted to Congress the first of several major policy statements in January 1790 Ardent proponent of U.S. economic development through domestic manufacturing and overseas trade Believed that competitive self-interest, whether that of an individual or nation, was the surest guide to behavior Hamilton’s politics were profoundly conservative in that he did not trust the people’s wisdom or their purposes

10 Hamilton’s Plans Main concern was over U.S. debt
Total debt of $54 million with additional state debt of $25 million 80% of debt held by speculators Hamiliton’s First Report on Public Credit (January 1790) Called for the U.S. government to assume the responsibility for the remaining state war debts All debts were to be repaid at face value Creditors were to exchange their badly depreciated securities at face value for new, interest-bearing government bonds

11 Hamilton’s Plans Hamilton hoped these measures would:
Stabilize government’s finances Establish its credit Build confidence in the new nation at home and abroad Tie business and commercial interests firmly to the new administration Funding securities at face value seemed to benefit speculators Mainly northern businessmen Hamilton believed the speculators who took the risks should reap the benefits

12 Hamilton’s Plans Those states who had paid their debts were opposed to federal assumption of them Included Pennsylvania and Virginia Other critics were fearful of growing federal power Included Jefferson and James Madison Did not want most of the country’s debt in hands of speculators Money people would look to the federal government for a return on investment and that would spur federal use of taxation powers Congress supported Hamilton’s measures Part of it due to southerners swapping support for a federal capitol in the south on the Potomac

13 Hamilton’s Plans Second Report on Public Credit (December 1790)
Called for the creation of a national bank It would be capable of handling the government’s financial affairs and pooling private investment capital Included making loans and issuing financial notes and currency Opposition came almost entirely from the South Critics said the Constitution did not support such an entity Felt the bank would serve the needs of the northern merchants far better than those of southern agrarians Also the belief that the bank might “perpetuate a large monied interest” to run the country

14 Hamilton’s Plans Hamilton defended constitutionality through doctrine of “implied powers” Meant that the government had the authority to make any laws “necessary and proper” for exercising the powers specifically granted it by the Constitution In February 1791, the First Bank of the United States was created with a 20 year charter Washington signed the bill He followed Hamilton’s arguments regarding the “implied powers” of the Constitution over Jefferson’s strict reading of it

15 Hamilton’s Plans People were fearful that Hamilton was bringing corrupt British system to America Another recommendation in his Second Report was the creation of excise taxes It proposed a series of excise taxes, including one on the manufacture of distilled liquor (so-called “Whiskey Tax”) Signaled government desire to use taxing power to increase revenue Hamilton know that the power to tax and spend was the power to govern Whiskey Tax became law in March 1791

16 Hamilton’s Plans Report on Manufacturing (December1791) Opposition:
Called for tariffs on imported European goods in order to protect American industries Bounties to encourage the expansion of commercial agriculture A network of federally sponsored internal improvements which were intended to stimulate commerce and bind the nation together Opposition: Madison warned that program would strengthen federal government at state expense Jefferson warned that the rise of cities would destroy agriculture and agrarian civic virtue Southerners opposed to protective tariffs Congress refused to pass these recommendations

17 Hamilton’s Plans In October 1791, opponents of Hamilton in Congress establish a newspaper that vigorously attacked the administration’s policies Hamilton responded with a bunch of anonymous articles accusing Jefferson (inaccurately) of having opposed the Constitution and of fomenting opposition to the government Washington pleaded for restraint In northern towns, artisans and other working people turned out to support Hamilton’s ideas

18 First Bank of the United States

19 The Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion
Started by farmers in western Pennsylvania Upset at the federal government especially at the Whiskey Tax Their livelihood depended on the transport of surplus grain in the form of distilled alcohol This made it easier to ship over the Appalachians to eastern markets Fearful of losing control over local affairs They were being increasingly absorbed into the market economy and system of politics dominated by more populous, commercialized areas to the east

20 The Whiskey Rebellion Hamilton cared little about the farmers plight since the government needed the revenue In the summer of 1792, angry citizens began gathering at mass meetings across western Pennsylvania Denounced the tax and vowed to prevent its collection Washington issued a proclamation warning against such “unlawful” gatherings In July 1794, a federal marshal and a local excise inspector attempted to collect the tax 500 armed men cornered soldiers at the inspector’s home Soldiers surrendered after an exchange of fire and the home was burned Similar incidents occurred across the state

21 The Whiskey Rebellion Republican governor refused to act
Federalists interpreted as Republican conspiracy Washington called federal troops to restore order He was fearful of an extended rebellion First opportunity to exercise federal authority By late August, a federal force of 13,000 marched into western Pennsylvania As troops approached, “Whiskey Rebels” disappeared Twenty were captured and two sentenced to death though they were later pardoned Afterwards there were harsh criticisms about federal troops being used against American citizens

22 George Washington leading troops against the Whiskey Rebellion

23 Battle Over Foreign Affairs
Foreign policy generated extraordinary excitement during the 1790s French Revolution and European war that accompanied it threatened to draw the U.S. in Age of democratic revolution In Europe, Ireland, and the Caribbean, political insurgents were using the American Revolution as an inspiration for their own cause France’s revolution began in 1789 as an effort to reform the injustices of a weakened monarchy Soon exploded into a radical rebellion with the beheading of Louis XVI in 1793

24 Battle Over Foreign Affairs
For more than a decade the revolution dominated the stage in European politics Threatened American security Divided Americans deeply Created a huge diplomatic problem for the American government French Revolutionary Wars shaped U.S. political divisions Jeffersonian Republicans Favored France States’ rights Strict interpretation of the Constitution

25 Battle Over Foreign Affairs
Hamiltonian Federalists Favored England Strong central government and economic planning Maintenance of order by federal troops The decision was made to remain neutral in the war By mid-1790s, American merchants were earning handsome profits from neutral trade with both England and France American shipbuilding was booming In 1800, American ships carried 92 percent of all commerce between U.S. and Europe

26 Battle Over Foreign Affairs
England and France wanted American goods but also wanted to prevent goods from reaching the other Stopped American ships and confiscated their cargoes Royal Navy also practiced impressment French Treaty of 1778 seemed to obligate U.S. to side with France British still occupied Ohio River Valley Discriminated against American trade Franco-British War broke out in 1793 England violated American sovereignty and neutrality on high seas Jefferson wanted to punish England by cutting off trade Hamilton wanted to appease England because too strong

27 Battle Over Foreign Affairs
The American public initially viewed French Revolution as an extension of their own struggle for liberty By the mid-1790s many Americans pulled back in alarm Federalists saw France as symbolizing anarchy and threatening European order Often seeking a way to bind the U.S. more closely to England Others, including Jefferson, condemned the excesses of the revolution but not the revolution itself Often saw England as a bastion of political privilege and oppression

28 Battle Over Foreign Affairs
Rebellions broke out throughout Europe Supported by invading armies from France and inspired by the doctrine of natural rights In 1791 a multi racial coalition rebelled against French rule in Saint-Dominque Conflict developed between white landowners, mixed-race mulattoes and black slaves Led to a decade of warfare against 30,000 French and British troops, 100,000 casualties and the devastation of the Haitian economy

29 Battle Over Foreign Affairs
In 1798, the black majority, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, seized control of the revolt Made abolition of slavery the primary goal Six years later established Haiti as the first black nation-state in the Americas For Americans, Haitian revolt demonstrated the universal relevance of U.S. struggle for liberty It struck a blow against European colonialism in the New World However, feared the effect of the rebellion on American slaves Also cast doubt on racial assumptions that blacks could not comprehend the true meaning of liberty U.S. did not recognize Haiti until the American Civil War

30 Toussaint Louverture ( )

31 Democrat-Republican Societies
Political clubs served as tools of democratic reform Provided safe havens for dissidents and intellectuals The Jacobin clubs in France were the most famous, but similar organizations appeared in the United States As early as 1792, “constitutional societies” were formed to oversee the rights of the people Some formed in opposition to Hamilton’s financial program The increase in these clubs was spurred in 1793 by the arrival of Citizen Edmund Genêt, French minister to the United States Genêt had instructions to court popular support and negotiate a commercial treaty

32 Democrat-Republican Societies
Genêt began commissioning American privateers to attack British shipping in the Caribbean Also enlisted Americans for attacks against Spanish Florida, which would break American neutrality When he urged Congress to reject Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation, Washington demanded he be recalled Genêt succeeded in fanning popular enthusiasm for France

33 Democrat-Republican Societies
Forty popular societies sprang up in the next few years Working people made up bulk of membership Included Irish fleeing from British repression at home Leaders were often doctors, tradesmen and lawyers Organized public celebrations, issued addresses and sent petitions critical of the administration West of Appalachians, societies agitated against English control of frontier forts and against Spain for closing the Mississippi Everywhere protested Excise Tax, opposed overtures to England, and called for a press free of Federalist control

34 Jay Treaty of 1974

35 Jay Treaty of 1794 Alarmed by sinking relations with England, President Washington dispatched Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794 Purpose was to negotiate a number of disagreements left over from the Revolutionary War Jay Treaty of 1794 British promised to withdraw from posts in the Great Lakes Provide selective access to British West Indian ports Provide compensation to U.S. ship owners U.S. received most favored nation trading status Guaranteed payment of debt to Britain

36 Jay Treaty of 1794 Public was incensed despite administration claims that this was the only way to avoid war with England Southerners were upset there was no compensation for their lost slaves Westerners complained British were not evacuating posts fast enough Merchants and sailors disliked Jay’s failure to stop impressment or open West Indian trade Republicans and the press criticized Washington Demand for clarification of executive privilege in national security affairs House demanded papers related to Jay’s mission Washington claimed right to withhold national security secrets

37 Jay Treaty of 1794 Washington’s prestige muted criticism, but bitter partisan division already entrenched Senate ratified treaty by a narrow margin British encouraged Indians to attack settlers as they withdrew Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) U.S. army defeated alliance of Indian nations in Ohio Treaty of Greenville (1794) Forced Indian removal from Ohio British withdrew support from Indians, pulled back into Canada

38 Jay Treaty of 1794 Spain interpreted Jay’s Treaty as Anglo-American alliance against Spain Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795) Negotiated by Thomas Pinckney Spain recognized the U.S. boundaries under the peace treaty and gave up all claims to U.S. territory Gave free navigation of Mississippi and right to unload goods for transshipment at New Orleans for three years Settled disputed border between Florida and U.S. Spanish ceased inciting Indians against settlers By 1796 Jefferson quit as secretary of state and went into open opposition

39 Thomas Pinckney ( )

40 Election of 1796 Washington’s Farewell Address (September 1796)
Deplored deepening political divisions Warned against entangling alliances with foreign nations Announced he would not accept a third term Announcement timed to prevent Republican organization of presidential campaign Presidential election of 1796 was narrowed to Thomas Jefferson or John Adams Two very different men who had a great deal of shared experiences in the Revolution and the creation of the government

41 Election of 1796 Adams was a committed Federalist
Believed in a vigorous national government Was appalled by the French Revolution Feared “excessive democracy” Jefferson supported the Constitution but: Was alarmed by Hamilton’s financial program Viewed France’s revolution as a logical extension of America’s struggle for freedom Hoped to expand democracy at home Bitterly divisive election

42 Election of 1796 The Federalists were divided
Hamilton tried to push Pinckney over Adams Adams won the election by only three votes Jefferson was to serve as his Vice President Adams was forced to accept people in his cabinet that were not supportive Federalist Department heads more loyal to Hamilton than Adams

43 Electoral College votes of 1796

44 War Crisis With France Adam’s first trial as president was caused by French interference with American shipping in the Caribbean Jay’s Treaty prompted France to treat U.S. as unfriendly nation Quasi-war developed with the French seizing U.S. ships XYZ Affair An American delegation was sent to Paris French administrators (termed “X, Y, Z”) made it clear that the success of the American mission depended on a loan to the French government and a huge bribe for themselves Two of the commissioners sailed for home and one stayed under threat by Talleyrand of war if all three left

45 War Crisis With France Adams reported the “XYZ Affair” to Congress
Federalist congressmen saw this as an insult to American honor Secretary of State Pickering urged a declaration of war Provoked anti-French outrage in U.S. Federalists attempted to crush Republicans by branding as pro-French In May 1798, Congress called for a naval force capable of defending the American coast against French attack In July, it repealed the treaty of 1778 Also called for the formation of 10,000 man army

46 War Crisis With France Federalists began building up the army
Ostensible purpose: repel French invasion Actual intention: stifle internal opposition Jeffersonians worried the army would be used against them Adams was also worried when Hamilton was placed in charge of the army He issued only a few officer commissions thereby preventing the army’s mobilization (the army can’t move without officers) Hamilton sought declaration of war against France to begin operations against dissent Adams created navy, but refused to ask Congress for war

47 Text of the Alien Friends Act (1798)

48 Alien and Sedition Acts
Congress also sought to curb the flow of aliens into the U.S. Fearful of foreign subversion and aware that the many immigrants were active in the Jeffersonian opposition Passed a series of laws in 1798 known as the Alien and Sedition Acts Purpose to silence Republicans First civil liberties crisis Naturalization Act 1798 Raised residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years Many immigrants supported the Republican party

49 Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien Friends Act Authorized the president to expel aliens whom he judged “dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States” Investigations were launched that were intended to force foreigners to register with the government Large numbers of foreigners left the country Alien Enemies Act Gave the president the right to imprison or deport any aliens from hostile nations during times of war without any charges or appeals

50 Alien and Sedition Acts
The Sedition Act Made it punishable by fine and imprisonment for anyone to: Conspire in opposition to the government or aided insurrections Write, print, utter or publish “any false, scandalous and malicious writings…”against the government, Congress or the president 25 people were arrested under this act and 15 were indicted Federalist appointees in federal courts enforced Sedition Act in absurd ways Republican Congressman Mathew Lyon arrested, won re- election from jail

51 Alien and Sedition Acts
Luther Baldwin While drunk, commented that he did not care if the cannons in Newark firing to celebrate Adams presence, “fired thro’ his ass” He was charged and convicted of sedition, was fined and sent to jail until both fines and court fees were paid Jeffersonian Republicans made a field day of the Baldwin trial David Brown set up a liberty pole in Dedham, MA The words “No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of America…” were placed on it Convicted of sedition and forced to serve 18 months in jail

52 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
With little redress in the Federalist-dominated Congress, Jeffersonians turned to the states for redress Saw Alien and Sedition Acts as dire threat to liberty Believed the states should have final say in determining constitutionality of federal law Kentucky Resolutions (November 16, 1798) Kentucky Assembly passed a resolution declaring the federal government had violated the Bill of Rights Each state had the right to judge infractions and decide on the appropriate redress Nullification (declaring a federal law invalid within a state’s borders) was the remedy for unconstitutional laws

53 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Virginia Resolutions Written by Madison, they were passed by the Virginia assembly the next month Asserted that when the central government threatened the people’s liberties, states were bound to prevent it Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions received little support outside of those two states Alien and Sedition Acts were not enforced in the South It illustrated popular opposition to the Federalist program Purpose of resolutions: clarify differences between Republicans and Federalists, not justify secession

54 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
By 1799 country seemed on the brink of war between the Federalists and the Opposition In Virginia, the Assembly called for a reorganization of the militia In Philadelphia, Federalist patrols walked the streets to protect government officials from angry crowds President Adams smuggled arms into the White House as a precaution Things calmed down when Adams broke with Hamilton Word from France came that Talleyrand was willing to negotiate Adams sent a new team to negotiate with France

55 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Adams cabinet was enraged Peace would undercut the Federalist war program which depended on the crisis for legitimacy When Secretary of State Pickering refused to send the commissioners, Adams dismissed him and sent them anyway Treaty of Mortefontaine (1800) No compensation for seized American ships 1778 treaties null and void French restrictions on U.S. commerce removed Created climate of trust between France and U.S.

56 Signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine

57 “Revolution of 1800” As presidential election approached, the Federalists were in disarray Going into the election they were charged with exercising federal power unconstitutionally, suppressing political dissent, and threatening to use a federal army against American citizens Plotted Adams defeat when he announced effort to be re- elected Federalists lost, but Republicans Jefferson and Burr tied Both Republicans, each had 75 votes Adams had only 65 votes

58 “Revolution of 1800” The election was thrown into the House of Representatives Hamilton and Federalists decided Jefferson better than Burr Jefferson was elected 10 states to 4 states on the 36th ballot 12th Amendment Designed to prevent a recurrence of such a crisis Provided for separate ballots for president and vice president In Congress, the Federalists lost their majorities in both the House and the Senate The election revealed the strong sectional divisions in the country’s politics

59 “Revolution of 1800” Federalists
Dominated New England because of regional loyalty to Adams, area’s commercial ties with England, and fears that their opponents intended to import social revolution from France Support was strongest among merchants, manufacturers and commercial farmers situated within easy reach of the coast From Maryland south the Jeffersonians dominated The election was more evenly contested in the middle states Election of 1800 one of the most important Transfer of power from Federalists to Republicans achieved peacefully Nation averted ideological civil war

60 Electoral College votes in 1800

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