Presentation on theme: "Session Two: God – Father, Son, and Holy Spirit"— Presentation transcript:
1Session Two: God – Father, Son, and Holy Spirit THEOLOGY 101Session Two: God –Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
2God: Father, Son, Holy Spirit Nature, names and attributes of GodTrinityNature, offices, and states of ChristWork of the Holy Spirit
3Imagining What God is Like As we grow, the images we have about God change. Add words to the “word bubbles” that express how you thought of God at the different stages in your life represented by the figures.
4There is One GodDeuteronomy 4:35,39, “The Lord is God, beside him there is no other”Deuteronomy 6:4, “the Lord is one”Isaiah 44:6, “apart from me there is no God”; 45:21,24John 17:3, “the only true God”I Timothy 2:5, “one God”
5The Attributes of God Incommunicable Communicable Attributes for which there is nothing analogous in the creation, such as:Aseity (independent)SimplicityImmensityEternityCommunicableAttributes to which the human spirit bears some analogy, such as:PowerGoodnessMercyRighteousness
6The Triune God in the Bible There is one GodThe Father, Son, Holy Spirit; each is GodThe Father, Son, Holy Spirit; each is a distinct person
7The Father is GodMalachi 2:10, “Have we not all one Father? Did not one God create us?”Matthew 6:1-9, “your Father in heaven”John 1:14,18, “who came from the Father”Romans 1:7, 15:6, “Grace and peace from God our Father”I Corinthians 15:24, “hands over the kingdom to God the Father”Hebrews 1:1-6, “I will be his Father”
8The Son is God Isaiah 9:6, “He will be called . . . Mighty God” John 1:1,18, “and the Word was God”John 20:28, “My Lord and My God”Romans 9:5, “Christ, who is God over all”Titus 2:13, “great God and Savior, Jesus Christ”Hebrews 1:8, “your throne, O God, will last forever”I John 5:20, “He (Jesus Christ) is the true God and eternal life”
9The Holy Spirit is GodHebrews 9:14, “Christ, who through the eternal Spirit”Psalm 139:7, “where can I go from your Spirit”I Corinthians 2:10, “God has revealed it to us by his Spirit”I Corinthians 12:4-6, “same Spirit Lord God”
10Trinity in the New Testament May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all Cor. 13:14As soon as Jesus was baptised, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. And a voice from heaven said “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.” Matthew 3:16-17
11RelationshipsThe Father is not begotten neither proceeds from any, but from eternity begets the Son and together with the Son from eternity breathes forth the Holy Spirit.The Son is eternally begotten of the Father and proceeds from none, but with the Father eternally breathes forth the Holy Spirit.The Holy Spirit is not begotten, but eternally proceeds from the Father and the Son.
12RelationshipsThe Father is God, is not the Son, is not the Holy SpiritThe Son is God, is not the Father, is not the Holy SpiritThe Holy Spirit is God, is not the Father, is not the Son
13The Nicene Creed – 325 ADI believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible;And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made; who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried; and the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father; and he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and Giver of Life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spake by the Prophets. And I believe one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church; I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.AMEN.
15Analogies of the Trinity Most common analogies:Psychological Analogies – trying to relate how one is revealed in three (e.g., a person who is son, husband, and father at the same time)Sociological Analogies – trying to relate how three are essentially one (e.g., all the persons in this room are fully human, each uniquely, and there is still only one humanity present)Other examples:The Trinity is like water than can be experienced as vapor, ice and liquid.The Trinity is like the sun that can be experienced as light, heat and gas.The Trinity is like a three leaf clover.The Trinity is like an apple that can be core, skin and meat.Others?
16Christ: Natures, Offices, States Natures: Truly Human – Truly GodOffices:ProphetPriestKingStates: Humiliation – Exaltation
17Nature of Christ: God - Human Fully humanFully God
18Natures of Christ: Fully God As such, Jesus shares with the Father those attributes we ascribe to God:• Eternal• Unchanging• Omnipotent• Omniscient• Omnipresent• Holy• Just• Faithful• Benevolent• Gracious
19Natures of Christ: Fully Human As such, Jesus shares with each of us those attributes that make us human:FatigueHungerThirstEmotionPleasurePainTemptation
20Fully God – Fully Human Fully God Fully Human He is worshiped (Matt.2:2,11; 14:33).He was called God (John 20:28; Heb. 1:8)He was called Son of God (Mark 1:1)He is prayed to (Acts 7:59).He is sinless (1 Pet. 2:22; Heb. 4:15). He knows all things (John 21:17).He rose from the dead (1 Cor. 15:3-7)He gives eternal life (John 10:28). All the fullness of deity dwells in Him (Col. 2:9).Fully HumanHe worshiped the Father (John 17).He was called man (Mark 15:39; John 19:5).He was called Son of Man (John 9:35-37)He prayed to the Father (John 17).He was tempted (Matt. 4:1).He grew in wisdom (Luke 2:52).He died (Rom. 5:8).He has a physical body of flesh and bones (Luke 24:39).
21Fully God - Fully HumanFor I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, That Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. 1 Cor. 15:3-7
22Fully God - Fully HumanIn the beginning was the Word: the Word was with God and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things came into being, not one thing came into being except through him. What has come into being in him was life, life that was the light of men; and light shines in darkness, and darkness could not overpower it… The Word became flesh, he lived among us, and we saw his glory, the glory that he has from the Father as only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. (John 1:1-18)
23Offices of Christ Prophet, Priest and King: “Now it is to be noted that the title ‘Christ’ pertains to these three offices: for we know that under the law prophets as well as priests and kings were anointed with holy oil.” Calvin, ICR, II,15,2
24Offices: Prophet, Priest, King A Prophet reveals and speaks the voice of God in current situations and opens people’s eyes to a new vision of living that seeks justice and love. Jesus continued the tradition of the great prophets of old such as Isaiah and Amos, but took on the far more significant role of fulfilling messianic prophecies of the Old Testament.A Priest acts as a connection between God and humanity. The priest offers sacrifices to God in order to liberate the people from their separation from God. Jesus sacrificed himself in order to bring hope, forgiveness and new life to humanity.A King rules their lives of individuals as a physical presence to guide, protect and save them. Jesus reigns as King in heaven and on earth or the entire realm of God. At certain time, every knee will bow and every tongue confess Jesus as heavenly king (Romans 14:11).
25Offices of Christ: Prophet The biblical idea of prophet is one who speaks on behalf of God: Ex. 4:15,16; 7:1, cf. Jer. 1:5,9. Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, s.v. “Prophet.”This involves forth-telling most definitely (2/3 of OT prophetic activity, per Walter Kaiser in above noted article)May involve fore-telling (1/3 of OT prophetic activity)ATTRIBUTED TO RUTILIO MANETTI Christ Disputing with the Elders, c BJU Art Gallery
26Offices of Christ: Prophet The Messiah would be a prophet, Deut. 18:18,19; cf. Acts 3:22fJesus was recognized as prophet, John 4:19,25,26; cf. John 1:21As prophet, he definitively declares to us the will of God, Heb. 1:1.Other important Scriptures: Isaiah 9:6; 11:2-4; 61:1-3 (Luke 4:21); John 1:18; 3:34; I Peter 1:10,11.
27Offices of Christ: Priest As priest, he experiences our circumstances and redeems us from sin, offering himself a sacrifice for sins (Jesus is both sacrificer and sacrifice), Heb. 9:25,28; 10:5-14.Other important Scriptures: Heb. 4:15-6; 5:8; 7:25; I John 2:1
28Offices of Christ: Priest Biblical idea of priest—one who intercedes to God on behalf of humankind: Hebrews 5:1-4; Deut. 18:5; Ex. 29:20; Joel 2:17; Lev. 10:9-11; Micah 3:11; Deut. 17:9-13Melchizedek was a type of Christ: Gen. 14:18-20; Psalm 110:4; Heb. 7 Messiah would be a priest: Psalm 110:4; Heb. 5:5,6; Isa. 40:10,11; Zech. 6:9-15
29Offices of Christ: King Judging as King, Sistine ChapelThe biblical idea of king is one who reigns and exercises sovereign dominion: Gen 3:15; 17:5; 22:16,17; 49:9,10; I Peter 2:9; Rev. 1:5.Messiah would be a King, Gen. 49:9,10; Psalm 24:7-10, 89; Isa. 9:7
30Offices of Christ: King As King, he rules over us and over our enemies till all are brought into submission, I Cor. 15:24-28.Other important Scriptures: Matt. 28:18, “all authority is given to me in heaven and on earth.” Also, Acts 5:31; Rom. 8:28
31Discussion: Offices of Christ How is Christ a Prophet in your life, in the life of the congregation and in the world?How is Christ Priest in the same areas?How is Christ King (or, to be more inclusive, the Ruler) in these same domains?Of these images — Prophet, Priest, King — which one most speaks to you? Why?
32States: HumiliationHe humbled himself (kenosis), see Phil. 2:7, 8: “He laid aside the divine majesty, the majesty of the sovereign Ruler of the universe, and assumed human nature in the form of a servant.” Berkhof, ST, 332.
33States: HumiliationIncarnation (Gal. 4:4, Isa. 9:6, Heb. 2:14, Phil. 2:7)Made under the Law (Gal. 4;4, John 6:38, Heb. 5:8, Phil. 2:8)Sufferings and Death (Isa. 53)Wrath of God (II Cor. 5:21, Isa. 53:12, Ps. 40:12, Matt. 27:46)Death and Burial (Phil. 2:8, Isaiah 53:9)The descent into hell (1 Peter 3:18)
34States: ExaltationResurrection: John 2:19-21;10:18, 11:25; Acts 2:24, 32; 3:26, 5:30; Rom.6:4; I Cor. 15:20; Col. 1:18; Rev. 1:5Ascension: Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50-53; John 6:62; 14:2,12; 16:5, 10, 17, 28; 17:5; 20:17; Acts 1:6-11; Eph. 1:20; 4:8-10; I Tim. 3:16; Heb. 1:4; 4:14; 9:24Session at the Right Hand of God: Matt. 26:64; Acts 2:33-36; 5:31; Eph.1:20-22; Heb. 10:12; I Peter 3:22; Rev. 3:21; 22:1; Rom. 14:9; I Cor. 15:24-28; Heb. 2:7,8; I John 2:1Judging the World at the Last Day: John 5:22,27; Acts 10:42,17:31; Matt. 19:28; 25:31-34; Luke 3:17; Rom. 2:16; 14:9; I Cor. 3:13-15; II Cor. 5:10; II Tim. 4:1; James 5:9
36Work of the Spirit (1)1. In restraining evil. He who prevented the waters of the Red Sea from flowing without changing their nature, now hinders the working of natural corruption without mortifying it… Vile as the world is, we have abundant cause to adore and praise the Holy Spirit that it is not a thousand times worse.2. In inciting to good actions. All the obedience of children to parents, all the true love between husbands and wives, is to be attributed unto the Holy Spirit. Whatever morality and honesty, unselfishness and kindness, submission to the powers that be and respect for law and order which is still to be found in the world, must be traced back to the gracious operations of the Spirit.3. In convicting of sin. Few seem to understand that conscience in the natural man is inoperative unless stirred up by the Spirit. As a fallen creature, thoroughly in love with sin (John 3:19), man resists and disputes against any conviction of sin… Being "flesh," fallen man is perverse against the convictions of the Spirit (Acts 7:51), and remains so forever unless quickened and made "spirit" (John 3:6 - ‘that which is born of the spirit is spirit’).4. In illuminating. Concerning Divine things, fallen man is not only devoid of light, but is "darkness" itself (Eph. 5:8)… They (believers) have been enlightened by the Holy Spirit (Heb. 6:4)… Just as the multitudes took pleasure in beholding the miracles of Christ, who could not endure His searching demands, so the light of the Spirit is pleasant to many to whom His convictions are grievous Arthur Pink. The Holy Spirit
37Work of the Holy Spirit (2) To testify of Christ (John 15:26)To teach and guide us into the truth as taught by Christ (John 14:26; 16:13)To convict the world concerning sin, righteousness and judgment (John 16:7, 8)To empower believers to testify about the truth of the Gospel of Christ (Acts 1:8 4:33)To bring new birth (John 3:6, 7)To empower believers to overcome sin (Romans 8:13)To carry the true children of God along from death to life; and ultimately to glory (Romans 8:11-14)To intercede through and for believers (Romans 8:26, 27)
38Work of the Holy Spirit (3) Regeneration, John 3:5; Titus 3:5Assurance, Rom. 8:16 Justification, I Cor. 6:11Adoption, Gal. 4:4-6; Rom. 8:15Sanctification, II Thess. 2:13; Rom. 15:16; I Peter 1:2ConversionRepentance: Acts 11:15, 18Faith: I Cor. 2:9, 12; 12:3Good works, Gal. 5:22-23Perseverance, Eph. 4:30; 1:13-14; II Cor. 1:22; 5:5.
39Gifts of the Spirit (1)The Holy Spirit gives gifts to each believer. Some receive more gifts than others, but everyone receives something. Christians need to discover what their gifts are, so that they may serve God effectively. (1 Corinthians 12-14, Romans 12, Ephesians 4, 1 Peter 3)God gives us gifts not for our own glory but for the glory of God. (1 Corinthians 12:4–7)Each gift is important. Like a human body, every part plays an important role. Each part must serve the whole. In God’s plan there are no lone wolves or superstars. No one is gifted enough, wise enough or strong enough to live apart from others and their gifts. (1 Corinthians 12:14–26)
40Gifts of the Spirit (2)Although gifts widely differ from each other, they all originate with the same Spirit. (1 Corinthians 12:8)The greatest gift is love. The Spirit offers it to all and it is one that all should seek. Other gifts are useless without it. (1 Corinthians 13:1)Gifts are recognized and confirmed by the community of faith. (1 Corinthians 12:27–31a)
42Fruit of the SpiritLove — an unconquerable compassion which always seeks the best for anotherJoy — a well-being that is based in knowing GodPeace — a tranquility of heart knowing that all is in God’s handsPatience — a grace that could avenge itself, but does notKindness — a goodness that is considerate of the otherGenerosity — a heart for sharing and sacrificing for othersFaithfulness — a trustworthiness, one who is reliableGentleness — a teachable spirit, a willingness to submitSelf-control — an ability to remain disciplined, self-mastery
43The Holy Spirit and YouWhat experiences have you had with the Holy Spirit?What questions do you have about the Spirit?What conclusions are you reaching about the Holy Spirit?
44Descriptions of God - Activity The following are a number of descriptions for God. Choose two you most like and two you most dislike based on what you now know about God. Discuss why.God is a puppeteerGod is like the windGod is a soft place to landGod is unchangingGod is loveGod is day and nightGod is graceGod is like a grandmotherGod does not listenGod is like an eagleGod is stabilityGod is peaceGod is mysteryGod is like my favorite carGod is cruelGod is lifeGod is like a rainbowGod is a warm embraceGod is almighty
45Next Session: Humankind – Sin, Salvation, Service Created as image bearersSinSalvationServiceCovenantPriesthood of believersHeidelberg Catechism: structure and themes