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THEOLOGY 101 Session Two: God – Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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1 THEOLOGY 101 Session Two: God – Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

2 God: Father, Son, Holy Spirit Nature, names and attributes of God Trinity Nature, offices, and states of Christ Work of the Holy Spirit

3 Imagining What God is Like As we grow, the images we have about God change. Add words to the “word bubbles” that express how you thought of God at the different stages in your life represented by the figures.

4 There is One God Deuteronomy 4:35,39, “The Lord is God, beside him there is no other” Deuteronomy 6:4, “the Lord is one” Isaiah 44:6, “apart from me there is no God”; 45:21,24 John 17:3, “the only true God” I Timothy 2:5, “one God”

5 The Attributes of God Incommunicable Attributes for which there is nothing analogous in the creation, such as: Aseity (independent) Simplicity Immensity Eternity Communicable Attributes to which the human spirit bears some analogy, such as: Power Goodness Mercy Righteousness

6 The Triune God in the Bible There is one God The Father, Son, Holy Spirit; each is God The Father, Son, Holy Spirit; each is a distinct person

7 The Father is God Malachi 2:10, “Have we not all one Father? Did not one God create us?” Matthew 6:1-9, “your Father in heaven” John 1:14,18, “who came from the Father” Romans 1:7, 15:6, “Grace and peace... from God our Father” I Corinthians 15:24, “hands over the kingdom to God the Father” Hebrews 1:1-6, “I will be his Father”

8 The Son is God Isaiah 9:6, “He will be called... Mighty God” John 1:1,18, “and the Word was God” John 20:28, “My Lord and My God” Romans 9:5, “Christ, who is God over all” Titus 2:13, “great God and Savior, Jesus Christ” Hebrews 1:8, “your throne, O God, will last forever” I John 5:20, “He (Jesus Christ) is the true God and eternal life”

9 The Holy Spirit is God Hebrews 9:14, “Christ, who through the eternal Spirit” Psalm 139:7, “where can I go from your Spirit” I Corinthians 2:10, “God has revealed it to us by his Spirit” I Corinthians 12:4-6, “same Spirit... Lord... God”

10 Trinity in the New Testament May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. 2 Cor. 13:14 As soon as Jesus was baptised, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. And a voice from heaven said “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.” Matthew 3:16-17

11 Relationships The Father is not begotten neither proceeds from any, but from eternity begets the Son and together with the Son from eternity breathes forth the Holy Spirit. The Son is eternally begotten of the Father and proceeds from none, but with the Father eternally breathes forth the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is not begotten, but eternally proceeds from the Father and the Son.

12 Relationships The Father is God, is not the Son, is not the Holy Spirit The Son is God, is not the Father, is not the Holy Spirit The Holy Spirit is God, is not the Father, is not the Son

13 The Nicene Creed – 325 AD I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible; And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made; who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried; and the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father; and he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and Giver of Life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spake by the Prophets. And I believe one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church; I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. AMEN.

14 Diagram of the Trinity

15 Analogies of the Trinity Most common analogies: Psychological Analogies Psychological Analogies – trying to relate how one is revealed in three (e.g., a person who is son, husband, and father at the same time) Sociological Analogies Sociological Analogies – trying to relate how three are essentially one (e.g., all the persons in this room are fully human, each uniquely, and there is still only one humanity present) Other examples: The Trinity is like water than can be experienced as vapor, ice and liquid. The Trinity is like the sun that can be experienced as light, heat and gas. The Trinity is like a three leaf clover. The Trinity is like an apple that can be core, skin and meat. Others?

16 Christ: Natures, Offices, States Natures: Truly Human – Truly God Offices: Prophet Priest King States: Humiliation – Exaltation

17 Nature of Christ: God - Human Fully human Fully God

18 Natures of Christ: Fully God Eternal Unchanging Omnipotent Omniscient Omnipresent Holy Just Faithful Benevolent Gracious As such, Jesus shares with the Father those attributes we ascribe to God:

19 Natures of Christ: Fully Human As such, Jesus shares with each of us those attributes that make us human: Fatigue Hunger Thirst Emotion Pleasure Pain Temptation

20 Fully God – Fully Human Fully Human He worshiped the Father (John 17). He was called man (Mark 15:39; John 19:5). He was called Son of Man (John 9:35-37) He prayed to the Father (John 17). He was tempted (Matt. 4:1). He grew in wisdom (Luke 2:52). He died (Rom. 5:8). He has a physical body of flesh and bones (Luke 24:39). Fully God He is worshiped (Matt.2:2,11; 14:33). He was called God (John 20:28; Heb. 1:8) He was called Son of God (Mark 1:1) He is prayed to (Acts 7:59). He is sinless (1 Pet. 2:22; Heb. 4:15). He knows all things (John 21:17). He rose from the dead (1 Cor. 15:3- 7) He gives eternal life (John 10:28). All the fullness of deity dwells in Him (Col. 2:9).

21 Fully God - Fully Human For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, That Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. 1 Cor. 15:3-7

22 Fully God - Fully Human In the beginning was the Word: the Word was with God and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things came into being, not one thing came into being except through him. What has come into being in him was life, life that was the light of men; and light shines in darkness, and darkness could not overpower it… The Word became flesh, he lived among us, and we saw his glory, the glory that he has from the Father as only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. (John 1:1-18)

23 Offices of Christ Prophet, Priest and King: “Now it is to be noted that the title ‘Christ’ pertains to these three offices: for we know that under the law prophets as well as priests and kings were anointed with holy oil.” Calvin, ICR, II,15,2

24 Offices: Prophet, Priest, King A Prophet reveals and speaks the voice of God in current situations and opens people’s eyes to a new vision of living that seeks justice and love. Jesus continued the tradition of the great prophets of old such as Isaiah and Amos, but took on the far more significant role of fulfilling messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. A Priest acts as a connection between God and humanity. The priest offers sacrifices to God in order to liberate the people from their separation from God. Jesus sacrificed himself in order to bring hope, forgiveness and new life to humanity. A King rules their lives of individuals as a physical presence to guide, protect and save them. Jesus reigns as King in heaven and on earth or the entire realm of God. At certain time, every knee will bow and every tongue confess Jesus as heavenly king (Romans 14:11).

25 Offices of Christ: Prophet The biblical idea of prophet is one who speaks on behalf of God: Ex. 4:15,16; 7:1, cf. Jer. 1:5,9. Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, s.v. “Prophet.” This involves forth-telling most definitely (2/3 of OT prophetic activity, per Walter Kaiser in above noted article) May involve fore-telling (1/3 of OT prophetic activity) ATTRIBUTED TO RUTILIO MANETTI Christ Disputing with the Elders, c BJU Art Gallery

26 Offices of Christ: Prophet The Messiah would be a prophet, Deut. 18:18,19; cf. Acts 3:22f Jesus was recognized as prophet, John 4:19,25,26; cf. John 1:21 As prophet, he definitively declares to us the will of God, Heb. 1:1. Other important Scriptures: Isaiah 9:6; 11:2- 4; 61:1-3 (Luke 4:21); John 1:18; 3:34; I Peter 1:10,11.

27 Offices of Christ: Priest As priest, he experiences our circumstances and redeems us from sin, offering himself a sacrifice for sins (Jesus is both sacrificer and sacrifice), Heb. 9:25,28; 10:5-14. Other important Scriptures: Heb. 4:15-6; 5:8; 7:25; I John 2:1

28 Offices of Christ: Priest Biblical idea of priest—one who intercedes to God on behalf of humankind: Hebrews 5:1-4; Deut. 18:5; Ex. 29:20; Joel 2:17; Lev. 10:9-11; Micah 3:11; Deut. 17:9-13 Melchizedek was a type of Christ: Gen. 14:18-20; Psalm 110:4; Heb. 7 Messiah would be a priest: Psalm 110:4; Heb. 5:5,6; Isa. 40:10,11; Zech. 6:9-15

29 Offices of Christ: King The biblical idea of king is one who reigns and exercises sovereign dominion: Gen 3:15; 17:5; 22:16,17; 49:9,10; I Peter 2:9; Rev. 1:5. Messiah would be a King, Gen. 49:9,10; Psalm 24:7-10, 89; Isa. 9:7 Judging as King, Sistine Chapel

30 Offices of Christ: King As King, he rules over us and over our enemies till all are brought into submission, I Cor. 15: Other important Scriptures: Matt. 28:18, “all authority is given to me in heaven and on earth.” Also, Acts 5:31; Rom. 8:28

31 Discussion: Offices of Christ How is Christ a Prophet in your life, in the life of the congregation and in the world? How is Christ Priest in the same areas? How is Christ King (or, to be more inclusive, the Ruler) in these same domains? Of these images — Prophet, Priest, King — which one most speaks to you? Why?

32 States: Humiliation He humbled himself (kenosis), see Phil. 2:7, 8: “He laid aside the divine majesty, the majesty of the sovereign Ruler of the universe, and assumed human nature in the form of a servant.” Berkhof, ST, 332.

33 States: Humiliation Incarnation (Gal. 4:4, Isa. 9:6, Heb. 2:14, Phil. 2:7) Made under the Law (Gal. 4;4, John 6:38, Heb. 5:8, Phil. 2:8) Sufferings and Death (Isa. 53) Wrath of God (II Cor. 5:21, Isa. 53:12, Ps. 40:12, Matt. 27:46) Death and Burial (Phil. 2:8, Isaiah 53:9) The descent into hell (1 Peter 3:18)

34 States: Exaltation Resurrection: John 2:19-21;10:18, 11:25; Acts 2:24, 32; 3:26, 5:30; Rom.6:4; I Cor. 15:20; Col. 1:18; Rev. 1:5 Ascension: Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50-53; John 6:62; 14:2,12; 16:5, 10, 17, 28; 17:5; 20:17; Acts 1:6-11; Eph. 1:20; 4:8-10; I Tim. 3:16; Heb. 1:4; 4:14; 9:24 Session at the Right Hand of God: Matt. 26:64; Acts 2:33- 36; 5:31; Eph.1:20-22; Heb. 10:12; I Peter 3:22; Rev. 3:21; 22:1; Rom. 14:9; I Cor. 15:24-28; Heb. 2:7,8; I John 2:1 Judging the World at the Last Day: John 5:22,27; Acts 10:42,17:31; Matt. 19:28; 25:31-34; Luke 3:17; Rom. 2:16; 14:9; I Cor. 3:13-15; II Cor. 5:10; II Tim. 4:1; James 5:9

35 Holy Spirit Work Gifts Fruit

36 Work of the Spirit (1) 1. In restraining evil. He who prevented the waters of the Red Sea from flowing without changing their nature, now hinders the working of natural corruption without mortifying it… Vile as the world is, we have abundant cause to adore and praise the Holy Spirit that it is not a thousand times worse. 2. In inciting to good actions. All the obedience of children to parents, all the true love between husbands and wives, is to be attributed unto the Holy Spirit. Whatever morality and honesty, unselfishness and kindness, submission to the powers that be and respect for law and order which is still to be found in the world, must be traced back to the gracious operations of the Spirit. 3. In convicting of sin. Few seem to understand that conscience in the natural man is inoperative unless stirred up by the Spirit. As a fallen creature, thoroughly in love with sin (John 3:19), man resists and disputes against any conviction of sin… Being "flesh," fallen man is perverse against the convictions of the Spirit (Acts 7:51), and remains so forever unless quickened and made "spirit" (John 3:6 - ‘that which is born of the spirit is spirit’). 4. In illuminating. Concerning Divine things, fallen man is not only devoid of light, but is "darkness" itself (Eph. 5:8)… They (believers) have been enlightened by the Holy Spirit (Heb. 6:4)… Just as the multitudes took pleasure in beholding the miracles of Christ, who could not endure His searching demands, so the light of the Spirit is pleasant to many to whom His convictions are grievous. Arthur Pink. The Holy Spirit

37 Work of the Holy Spirit (2) To testify of Christ (John 15:26) To teach and guide us into the truth as taught by Christ (John 14:26; 16:13) To convict the world concerning sin, righteousness and judgment (John 16:7, 8) To empower believers to testify about the truth of the Gospel of Christ (Acts 1:8 4:33) To bring new birth (John 3:6, 7) To empower believers to overcome sin (Romans 8:13) To carry the true children of God along from death to life; and ultimately to glory (Romans 8:11-14) To intercede through and for believers (Romans 8:26, 27)

38 Work of the Holy Spirit (3) Regeneration, John 3:5; Titus 3:5 Assurance, Rom. 8:16 Justification, I Cor. 6:11 Adoption, Gal. 4:4-6; Rom. 8:15 Sanctification, II Thess. 2:13; Rom. 15:16; I Peter 1:2 Conversion Repentance: Acts 11:15, 18 Faith: I Cor. 2:9, 12; 12:3 Good works, Gal. 5:22-23 Perseverance, Eph. 4:30; 1:13-14; II Cor. 1:22; 5:5.

39 Gifts of the Spirit (1) The Holy Spirit gives gifts to each believer. Some receive more gifts than others, but everyone receives something. Christians need to discover what their gifts are, so that they may serve God effectively. (1 Corinthians 12-14, Romans 12, Ephesians 4, 1 Peter 3) God gives us gifts not for our own glory but for the glory of God. (1 Corinthians 12:4–7) Each gift is important. Like a human body, every part plays an important role. Each part must serve the whole. In God’s plan there are no lone wolves or superstars. No one is gifted enough, wise enough or strong enough to live apart from others and their gifts. (1 Corinthians 12:14–26)

40 Gifts of the Spirit (2) Although gifts widely differ from each other, they all originate with the same Spirit. (1 Corinthians 12:8) The greatest gift is love. The Spirit offers it to all and it is one that all should seek. Other gifts are useless without it. (1 Corinthians 13:1) Gifts are recognized and confirmed by the community of faith. (1 Corinthians 12:27–31a)

41 Gifts of the Spirit (3) 1 Corinthians 12Romans 12Ephesians 4 Wisdom Discernment EncouragementEvangelist Knowledge Tongues Giving Prophet Faith (vision) Interpretation Mercy Apostle Healing ApostleProphesying Pastor-teacher Miracles Teacher Teacher Prophecy HelpsService Administration Leadership

42 Fruit of the Spirit Love — an unconquerable compassion which always seeks the best for another Joy — a well-being that is based in knowing God Peace — a tranquility of heart knowing that all is in God’s hands Patience — a grace that could avenge itself, but does not Kindness — a goodness that is considerate of the other Generosity — a heart for sharing and sacrificing for others Faithfulness — a trustworthiness, one who is reliable Gentleness — a teachable spirit, a willingness to submit Self-control — an ability to remain disciplined, self- mastery

43 The Holy Spirit and You What experiences have you had with the Holy Spirit? What questions do you have about the Spirit? What conclusions are you reaching about the Holy Spirit?

44 Descriptions of God - Activity God is a puppeteer God is like the wind God is a soft place to land God is unchanging God is love God is day and night God is grace God is like a grandmother God does not listen God is like an eagle God is stability God is peace God is mystery God is like my favorite car God is cruel God is life God is like a rainbow God is a warm embrace God is almighty The following are a number of descriptions for God. Choose two you most like and two you most dislike based on what you now know about God. Discuss why.

45 Next Session: Humankind – Sin, Salvation, Service Created as image bearers Sin Salvation Service Covenant Priesthood of believers Heidelberg Catechism: structure and themes


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