Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 20 2 3 Economic Problems: 1. Unemployment 2. Cost of living doubled during WWI 3. Weak demand for farm products American public divided over."— Presentation transcript:
3 Economic Problems: 1. Unemployment 2. Cost of living doubled during WWI 3. Weak demand for farm products American public divided over U.S. joining League of Nations: 1. Isolationism rose 2. Nativism rose
4 Isolationism pulling away from involvement in world affairs. Nativism Fear / distrust of foreigners
5 Could communists overthrow the U.S. gov’t. as they had done in Russia? The Red Scare of 1919 1. Atty. Genl. Mitchell A. Palmer authorized the “Palmer Raids”
9 Paved roads, traffic lights, motels, billboards Home design (garages, driveways) Gas stations, repair shops, shopping centers Freedom for rural families Independence for women and young people Cities like Detroit, Flint, Akron grew By 1920… 80% of world’s vehicles in U.S.
10 Production of cars doubled by 1929…1 in 5 Americans had a car by the end of the decade.
11 In 1926, the price of a Ford Model T was $290
12 Economic Effects More jobs (auto industry & related industries: Steel, rubber, and oil ) Roads and highways are built (more new jobs!) Gas stations, hotels, and restaurants popped up across the country (more new jobs!) Social Effects Growth of suburbs People could live outside the city and drive to work (commute) Driving gave women more freedom Easier to interact with others in cities & states
14 Modern advertising began to take shape using pop culture and celebs new appliances and consumer goods available at a lower cost spurred consumption. Businesses had learned HOW to efficiently produce goods; now the focus was creating desire. This ad uses a celebrity endorsement to glamorize smoking and exploits the image of the “new woman” of the 1920’s.
25 Immigrants from Mexico to fill low pay jobs. came to cities…the BARRIO… Spanish speaking neighborhoods. LA: Mexican barrio NYC: Puerto Rican barrio
26 Warren G. Harding (1920-23) Harding wins landslide election promising a “return to normalcy” Return to isolationism Pro-business policies Make economy grow and create jobs Administration rocked by scandals Read P. 666-69
27 “The business of America is business. The man who builds a factory builds a temple. The man who works there worships there” Calvin Coolidge Coolidge’s priorities: Protect big business…urged Congress to pass Fordney-McCumber Act (raised tariff 25%) Business was the “key to creating the American way of life…”
28 Industry Booms: Quantity of goods made by industry doubled More jobs created and incomes rose People spent money on new products Refrigerators, radios, phonographs, vacuum cleaners Installment buying (credit) allowed people to spend more money than they could afford BUT…Overspending would become a serious economic problem…more on this later!
29 A Soaring Stock Market (“bull market”) More people invested in the stock market than ever before Stocks were bought on margin Buyers put down 10%, borrowed 90% Margin buying works as long as stock prices rise Margin buying became a 2 nd cause for The Great Depression of the 1930’s
30 How did presidential leadership influence US policy during the 1920’s? Presidential leadership: Created a strong economy Created a bull market Returned the nation to pre-WW1 isolation Increased jobs and family income Created an era of peace & prosperity …life was good!
31 Social & Cultural Tensions 1. Collision of Traditional & Modern Values 2. Restricting Immigration 3. The “New” Ku Klux Klan 4. Prohibition & Crime
32 By 1920, with MORE living in cities than rural areas… Urban values began to dominate Diversity: 1. Politics 2. Language 3. Social customs
33 Fundamentalist vs. Secular beliefs 1) Fundamentalists believe in a literal interpretation of the Bible 2) Secular means things NOT connected to religion
34 In March 1925, Tennessee passed the nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach evolution The ACLU promised to defend any teacher willing to challenge the law – John Scopes did John T. Scopes was a biology teacher who dared to teach his students that man MAY HAVE evolved from lower species
35 The ACLU hired Clarence Darrow, the most famous trial lawyer of the era, to defend Scopes The prosecution countered with William Jennings Bryan, a fundamentalist & the 3 time Democratic presidential nominee
36 Darrow put Bryan on the stand to testify as an expert on the Bible. Bryan admitted some things in the Bible could not be taken literally…showed flaws in some of his logic
37 Scopes Trial: Fundamentalism v. Modernism Darrow & Scopes lost the case but won the point with the public. Scopes fined $100
38 A 2nd example of the clash between city & rural values was the passage of the 18 th Amendment in 1920. Launched era known as Prohibition (the “Noble Experiment”) Made it illegal to make, distribute, sell, transport or consume liquor. Prohibition lasted from 1920 to 1933 when it was repealed by the 21 st Amendment
39 Support for Prohibition Reformers had long believed alcohol led to crime, child & wife abuse, and accidents Supporters were largely from the rural south and west
41 Many did not believe drinking was a sin…con’t. to drink Went to hidden saloons known as “speakeasies” People also bought liquor from bootleggers who smuggled it in from Canada, Cuba and the West Indies All of these activities became closely affiliated with …
42 Prohibition contributed to the growth of organized crime in every major city Al Capone – “Scarface” Chicago, Illinois Capone took control of the Chicago liquor business by killing off his competition Al Capone was finally convicted on tax evasion charges in 1931
43 200 murders are directly tied to Capone. St. Valentine ’ s Day Massacre was also his work. During Prohibition, he made $100,000,000. Capone
44 Territories expanded and gang warfare erupted over turf and control of liquor Org. crime moved into other areas: Gambling Drugs prostitution
45 Gangsters bribed police and other government officials to look the other way They forced businesses to pay a fee for “ protection ” If you didn ’ t pay …
46 By the mid-1920s, only 20% of Americans supported Prohibition Many felt Prohibition caused more problems than it solved The 21 st Amendment finally repealed Prohibition in 1933
50 KDKA (Pittsburgh) the FIRST radio broadcast
51 Radio Although print media was popular, radio was the most powerful communications medium to emerge in the 1920s. News delivered faster and to a larger audience. Americans could hear the voice of the president or listen to the World Series as it happened
52 Charles Lindbergh Nickname: “Lucky Lindy” May 27, 1927: Lindbergh made the first nonstop solo trans-Atlantic flight. Spirit of St. Louis NYC - Paris 33 ½ hours later – (no auto pilot) $25,000 prize
53 Radio, newsreels, made sports BIG business. Jack Dempsey 1921 – world heavyweight champion boxer.
61 Before 1927 movies were silent until… Al Jolson stars in The Jazz Singer… 1 st film w/sound
62 Even before sound, movies offered a means of escape through romance and comedy First sound movie: Jazz Singer (1927) First animated with sound: Steamboat Willie (1928) 1928-Steamboat Willie-Walt Walt Disney's animated Steamboat Willie marked the debut of Mickey Mouse. It was a seven minute long black and white cartoon.
Music: Jazz The only uniquely American music form Born in New Orleans Spread to northern cities
64 Paul Robeson Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Bessie Smith
65 Duke Ellington jazz pianist and composer, led his 10 piece orchestra at Harlem’s famous Cotton Club.
67 Bessie Smith blues singer, was perhaps the most outstanding vocalist of the decade By 1927 was the highest- paid black artist in the world
68 Famed composer George Gershwin merged traditional elements with American Jazz.
69 F. Scott Fitzgerald coined the phrase “Jazz Age” to describe the 1920s Fitzgerald wrote Paradise Lost and The Great Gatsby The Great Gatsby reflected the emptiness of New York elite society
70 Ernest Hemingway The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms, criticized the glorification of war His simple, straightforward style of writing set the literary standard Hemingway - 1929
Main Street Elmer Gantry Babbitt Themes were critical of American society 71
72 Playwright Eugene O ’ Neill Dark tragedies of everyday American life. A LONG DAY ’ S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT
73 After the tumult of World War I, Americans were looking for a little fun in the 1920s. Women were independent and achieving greater freedoms. i.e.. right to vote, more employment, freedom of the auto Chicago 1926
74 “Flappers” Challenged the traditional ways. Revolution of manners and morals. A Flapper was an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes.
76 New Roles for Women Many women entered the workplace as nurses, teachers, librarians, & secretaries. Earned less than men and were prevented from obtaining certain jobs. Early 20 th Century teachers
78 The Harlem Renaissance a literary and artistic movement, celebrating African- American culture Began in Harlem, NY Took pride in black culture Wrote about problems of being black in white culture
79 1914: 50,000 African Americans in Harlem. 1930: 200,000 Nora Neale Hurston THEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD
I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America. 80 I, Too, Sing America
1920s were a vibrant, exciting time The radio, film, literature, music, sports and fashion dominated pop culture Republican leadership fostered a climate favorable to business…an era of “mass consumption” BUT! The economy was built on shaky ground…it would come crashing down in 1929 (our next unit) 81