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1 Chapter 20 2 3 Economic Problems: 1. Unemployment 2. Cost of living doubled during WWI 3. Weak demand for farm products American public divided over.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 20 2 3 Economic Problems: 1. Unemployment 2. Cost of living doubled during WWI 3. Weak demand for farm products American public divided over."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Chapter 20

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4 3 Economic Problems: 1. Unemployment 2. Cost of living doubled during WWI 3. Weak demand for farm products American public divided over U.S. joining League of Nations: 1. Isolationism rose 2. Nativism rose

5 4 Isolationism pulling away from involvement in world affairs. Nativism Fear / distrust of foreigners

6 5 Could communists overthrow the U.S. gov’t. as they had done in Russia? The Red Scare of Atty. Genl. Mitchell A. Palmer authorized the “Palmer Raids”

7 6 The case of Sacco and Vanzetti

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10 9  Paved roads, traffic lights, motels, billboards  Home design (garages, driveways)  Gas stations, repair shops, shopping centers  Freedom for rural families  Independence for women and young people  Cities like Detroit, Flint, Akron grew  By 1920… 80% of world’s vehicles in U.S.

11 10  Production of cars doubled by 1929…1 in 5 Americans had a car by the end of the decade.

12 11 In 1926, the price of a Ford Model T was $290

13 12  Economic Effects  More jobs (auto industry & related industries: Steel, rubber, and oil )  Roads and highways are built (more new jobs!)  Gas stations, hotels, and restaurants popped up across the country (more new jobs!)  Social Effects  Growth of suburbs  People could live outside the city and drive to work (commute)  Driving gave women more freedom  Easier to interact with others in cities & states

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15 14  Modern advertising began to take shape using pop culture and celebs  new appliances and consumer goods available at a lower cost spurred consumption.  Businesses had learned HOW to efficiently produce goods; now the focus was creating desire. This ad uses a celebrity endorsement to glamorize smoking and exploits the image of the “new woman” of the 1920’s.

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20 19  Urbanization still accelerating: 1920 New York = 5 million Chicago = 3 million

21 :  First time in American history that there were more people living in cities than on farms.

22 21  1920s: Farming was not profitable.  6 million farmers or their children left the farms for the cities.

23 22  Between 1910 – 1920, many African Americans moved from the South to the North  Called the Great Migration  Racial tensions increased in Northern cities  Races riots occurred in # of cities

24 23  Jim Crow laws in the South limited life for African Americans.  Lack of education  Lack of housing  Lack of jobs  Lynchings

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26 25  Immigrants from Mexico to fill low pay jobs.  came to cities…the BARRIO… Spanish speaking neighborhoods.  LA: Mexican barrio  NYC: Puerto Rican barrio

27 26  Warren G. Harding ( )  Harding wins landslide election promising a “return to normalcy”  Return to isolationism  Pro-business policies  Make economy grow and create jobs  Administration rocked by scandals Read P

28 27 “The business of America is business. The man who builds a factory builds a temple. The man who works there worships there” Calvin Coolidge  Coolidge’s priorities:  Protect big business…urged Congress to pass Fordney-McCumber Act (raised tariff 25%)  Business was the “key to creating the American way of life…”

29 28 Industry Booms:  Quantity of goods made by industry doubled  More jobs created and incomes rose  People spent money on new products  Refrigerators, radios, phonographs, vacuum cleaners  Installment buying (credit) allowed people to spend more money than they could afford  BUT…Overspending would become a serious economic problem…more on this later!

30 29  A Soaring Stock Market (“bull market”)  More people invested in the stock market than ever before  Stocks were bought on margin  Buyers put down 10%, borrowed 90%  Margin buying works as long as stock prices rise  Margin buying became a 2 nd cause for The Great Depression of the 1930’s

31 30  How did presidential leadership influence US policy during the 1920’s?  Presidential leadership:  Created a strong economy  Created a bull market  Returned the nation to pre-WW1 isolation  Increased jobs and family income  Created an era of peace & prosperity …life was good!

32 31 Social & Cultural Tensions 1. Collision of Traditional & Modern Values 2. Restricting Immigration 3. The “New” Ku Klux Klan 4. Prohibition & Crime

33 32  By 1920, with MORE living in cities than rural areas…  Urban values began to dominate  Diversity: 1. Politics 2. Language 3. Social customs

34 33  Fundamentalist vs. Secular beliefs 1) Fundamentalists believe in a literal interpretation of the Bible 2) Secular means things NOT connected to religion

35 34  In March 1925, Tennessee passed the nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach evolution  The ACLU promised to defend any teacher willing to challenge the law – John Scopes did John T. Scopes was a biology teacher who dared to teach his students that man MAY HAVE evolved from lower species

36 35  The ACLU hired Clarence Darrow, the most famous trial lawyer of the era, to defend Scopes  The prosecution countered with William Jennings Bryan, a fundamentalist & the 3 time Democratic presidential nominee

37 36  Darrow put Bryan on the stand to testify as an expert on the Bible.  Bryan admitted some things in the Bible could not be taken literally…showed flaws in some of his logic

38 37 Scopes Trial: Fundamentalism v. Modernism  Darrow & Scopes lost the case but won the point with the public.  Scopes fined $100

39 38  A 2nd example of the clash between city & rural values was the passage of the 18 th Amendment in  Launched era known as Prohibition (the “Noble Experiment”)  Made it illegal to make, distribute, sell, transport or consume liquor. Prohibition lasted from 1920 to 1933 when it was repealed by the 21 st Amendment

40 39 Support for Prohibition  Reformers had long believed alcohol led to crime, child & wife abuse, and accidents  Supporters were largely from the rural south and west

41 40 Poster supporting Prohibition

42 41  Many did not believe drinking was a sin…con’t. to drink  Went to hidden saloons known as “speakeasies”  People also bought liquor from bootleggers who smuggled it in from Canada, Cuba and the West Indies  All of these activities became closely affiliated with …

43 42  Prohibition contributed to the growth of organized crime in every major city  Al Capone –  “Scarface”  Chicago, Illinois  Capone took control of the Chicago liquor business by killing off his competition Al Capone was finally convicted on tax evasion charges in 1931

44 43  200 murders are directly tied to Capone.  St. Valentine ’ s Day Massacre was also his work.  During Prohibition, he made $100,000,000. Capone

45 44  Territories expanded and gang warfare erupted over turf and control of liquor  Org. crime moved into other areas:  Gambling  Drugs  prostitution

46 45 Gangsters bribed police and other government officials to look the other way They forced businesses to pay a fee for “ protection ”  If you didn ’ t pay …

47 46  By the mid-1920s, only 20% of Americans supported Prohibition  Many felt Prohibition caused more problems than it solved  The 21 st Amendment finally repealed Prohibition in 1933

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49 48  Dance Marathons  Charleston

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51 50  KDKA (Pittsburgh) the FIRST radio broadcast

52 51 Radio  Although print media was popular, radio was the most powerful communications medium to emerge in the 1920s.  News delivered faster and to a larger audience.  Americans could hear the voice of the president or listen to the World Series as it happened

53 52  Charles Lindbergh  Nickname: “Lucky Lindy”  May 27, 1927: Lindbergh made the first nonstop solo trans-Atlantic flight.  Spirit of St. Louis  NYC - Paris  33 ½ hours later – (no auto pilot)  $25,000 prize

54 53  Radio, newsreels, made sports BIG business.  Jack Dempsey 1921 – world heavyweight champion boxer.

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56 55 Gertrude Ederle

57 56 The “Galloping Ghost”: Red Grange

58 57 Bobby Jones…featured in the Legend of Bagger Vance

59 58 Coach Knute Rockne built Notre Dame into a college football powerhouse

60 59  Charlie Chaplin  The Little Tramp movies

61 60 Rudolph Valentino

62 61  Before 1927 movies were silent until… Al Jolson stars in The Jazz Singer… 1 st film w/sound

63 62  Even before sound, movies offered a means of escape through romance and comedy  First sound movie: Jazz Singer (1927)  First animated with sound: Steamboat Willie (1928) 1928-Steamboat Willie-Walt Walt Disney's animated Steamboat Willie marked the debut of Mickey Mouse. It was a seven minute long black and white cartoon.

64 Music: Jazz  The only uniquely American music form  Born in New Orleans  Spread to northern cities

65 64  Paul Robeson  Louis Armstrong  Duke Ellington  Bessie Smith

66 65 Duke Ellington  jazz pianist and composer, led his 10 piece orchestra at Harlem’s famous Cotton Club.

67 66 Louis Armstrong

68 67 Bessie Smith  blues singer, was perhaps the most outstanding vocalist of the decade  By 1927 was the highest- paid black artist in the world

69 68  Famed composer George Gershwin merged traditional elements with American Jazz.

70 69  F. Scott Fitzgerald coined the phrase “Jazz Age” to describe the 1920s  Fitzgerald wrote Paradise Lost and The Great Gatsby  The Great Gatsby reflected the emptiness of New York elite society

71 70  Ernest Hemingway  The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms, criticized the glorification of war His simple, straightforward style of writing set the literary standard Hemingway

72  Main Street  Elmer Gantry  Babbitt  Themes were critical of American society 71

73 72  Playwright Eugene O ’ Neill  Dark tragedies of everyday American life. A LONG DAY ’ S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT

74 73  After the tumult of World War I, Americans were looking for a little fun in the 1920s.  Women were independent and achieving greater freedoms.  i.e.. right to vote, more employment, freedom of the auto Chicago 1926

75 74 “Flappers”  Challenged the traditional ways.  Revolution of manners and morals.  A Flapper was an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes.

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77 76 New Roles for Women  Many women entered the workplace as nurses, teachers, librarians, & secretaries.  Earned less than men and were prevented from obtaining certain jobs. Early 20 th Century teachers

78 77 Chicago, Female Beach Goers Arrested for Indecent Exposure

79 78 The Harlem Renaissance  a literary and artistic movement, celebrating African- American culture  Began in Harlem, NY  Took pride in black culture  Wrote about problems of being black in white culture

80 79  1914: 50,000 African Americans in Harlem.  1930: 200,000  Nora Neale Hurston  THEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD

81  I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America. 80 I, Too, Sing America

82  1920s were a vibrant, exciting time  The radio, film, literature, music, sports and fashion dominated pop culture  Republican leadership fostered a climate favorable to business…an era of “mass consumption”  BUT! The economy was built on shaky ground…it would come crashing down in 1929 (our next unit) 81


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