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Vietnam Chapter 21. -Vietnam was a colony of France until 1954. -Vietnam was a colony of France until 1954. -Originally called Indochina. -Originally.

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Presentation on theme: "Vietnam Chapter 21. -Vietnam was a colony of France until 1954. -Vietnam was a colony of France until 1954. -Originally called Indochina. -Originally."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vietnam Chapter 21

2 -Vietnam was a colony of France until Vietnam was a colony of France until Originally called Indochina. -Originally called Indochina. -Vietnam won its independence from France with a revolution led by General Ho Chi Minh. -Vietnam won its independence from France with a revolution led by General Ho Chi Minh. -Divided into N. and S. Vietnam at Geneva Conference. -Divided into N. and S. Vietnam at Geneva Conference. -North was Communist led by Ho Chi Minh. -North was Communist led by Ho Chi Minh. -South was Democratic and led by Ngo Dinh Diem. -South was Democratic and led by Ngo Dinh Diem. -Both were supposed to unite under one leader. -Both were supposed to unite under one leader. -Election never happens and begins the conflict between both sides. -Election never happens and begins the conflict between both sides.

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5 Kennedy and Vietnam -JFK wanted to stop the spread of Communism. -Sends military advisors to aid S. Vietnam. -By 1963, there were 16,000 advisors in S. Vietnam. -Kennedy realized Diem was unpopular and could not win war against Ho Chi Minh. -JFK helps overthrow Diem. -Diem is later assassinated. -U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara suggests to JFK that the U.S. pull out of Vietnam. -Before JFK can make a decision, he is assassinated.

6 LBJ and Vietnam -Johnson wanted to win Vietnam at any costs. -N. Vietnam and Communists were winning support in the South. -Communist guerilla fighters in S. Vietnam were called Viet-Cong.

7 Gulf of Tonkin Incident -August 1964, a U.S. Navy Destroyer is torpedoed off the coast of N. Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. -August 1964, a U.S. Navy Destroyer is torpedoed off the coast of N. Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. -Ship is in international waters. -Ship is in international waters. -Johnson uses incident to push U.S. further into war. -Johnson uses incident to push U.S. further into war. -On August 7th, 1964 Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. -On August 7th, 1964 Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Gives Johnson complete control over U.S. involvement in Vietnam. -No declaration of war needed. -No declaration of war needed. -After winning the 1964 election, LBJ increases U.S. involvement. -After winning the 1964 election, LBJ increases U.S. involvement. -Begins to draft more men. -Begins to draft more men. -By 1965, the number of people drafted rises four times. -By 1965, the number of people drafted rises four times.

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9 Battle of Pleiku  -Feb. 1965, the Viet Cong kill 8 American soldiers in S. Vietnam.  -126 are wounded.  -U.S. Commander in Vietnam, General William Westmoreland, gets more draftees b/c of Pleiku.  -184,000 more Americans are drafted.  -LBJ also orders U.S. to bomb N. Vietnam.  -By the end of 1968, 536,000 U.S. troops are in S. Vietnam.

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11 Battlefield in Vietnam -Viet Cong had a major advantages over U.S. -Viet Cong had a major advantages over U.S. 1.Jungle Fighting 1.Jungle Fighting 2.Allies in Cambodia and Laos 2.Allies in Cambodia and Laos 3.Support from locals 3.Support from locals -Made the U.S. military superiority useless. -Made the U.S. military superiority useless. -S. Vietnamese also did not help us. -S. Vietnamese also did not help us. -Made it more difficult. -Made it more difficult. -Fighting in jungles was extremely hard. -Fighting in jungles was extremely hard. 1.Leeches 1.Leeches 2.Fever 2.Fever 3.Heat 3.Heat 4.Rain 4.Rain 5.Infections 5.Infections

12 Viet Cong Weaponry -B/c the U.S. had better weapons and military, the Viet Cong used sneak attacks against U.S. 1.Booby Traps 2.Underground Tunnels 3.Animal Snares 4.Punji Stakes  -Holes filled with sharp, poisoned tipped spikes. 5.Land Mines and Bouncing Betty’s

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21  -U.S. troops went weeks without seeing Viet Cong.  -Sometimes troops were attacked by women and children who had bombs strapped to their bodies.  -Vietnamese often were helping the U.S. soldiers one day and the Viet Cong the next.  -B/c the U.S. could not tell who was friend or foe, civilians were often massacred.  -One major way civilians were injured was with new type of warfare;  -Saturation Bombing -Dropping a large number of bombs over an area

22 Tet Offensive -January 30, 1968 was the Vietnamese New Year. -January 30, 1968 was the Vietnamese New Year. -Viet Cong began a massive offensive. -Viet Cong began a massive offensive. -Two major places were attacked. -Two major places were attacked. 1.Saigon 1.Saigon -Capitol of S. Vietnam -Capitol of S. Vietnam -Viet Cong attack U.S. embassy -Viet Cong attack U.S. embassy -Lasts until March. -Lasts until March. 2.Khe Sanh 2.Khe Sanh –American base near boarder –Battle lasts until April. –Viet Cong lose both battles, but prove they can attack any part of U.S. troops or invade any parts of S. Vietnam. –Shows U.S. home front 1st horrors of Vietnam.

23 Chemical Warfare -U.S. uses 2 major chemicals in Vietnam. 1.Agent Orange  -Used in Jungles by pilots to kill leaves and brush.  -Helped to expose V.C. hiding places.  -Later discovered to cause huge health and mental problems in U.S. troops who were exposed. 2.Napalm  -Jelly-like substance dropped from planes.  -Burned uncontrollably.  -If hit human skin, would burn off flesh.

24 Agent Orange

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27 Napalm Modern Napalm Attack Napalm Scene

28 My Lai Massacre U.S. troops told village of My Lai was hiding 250 V.C. troops. -Troops only found women and children. -Lieutenant William Calley Jr. ordered them to be killed anyway were killed in village. -Calley sentenced to life in prison. -President Nixon later releases him. -American people felt he was a scapegoat for Generals who ordered the village wiped out. -V.C. just as brutal towards U.S. troops and Vietnamese who supported U.S. -In village of Hue, V.C. killed 5,000 civilians.

29 My Lai Massacre

30 Lt. William Calley Jr.

31 Student Protests  -June 1971, The NY Times publishes the Pentagon Papers. -Show that govt. lied to the American people about the Vietnam War.  -Helps create an even bigger anti- war movement in the U.S.  -Movement led mostly by students.  -One of the major anti-war groups was S.D.S. -Students for a Democratic Society.

32 Anti-War Violence -Students and police/Govt. begin clashing in Berkley -University of California at Berkley students are arrested for passing out anti-war fliers. -There was no freedom of speech on college campuses at the time. -Berkley becomes the center of the radical antiwar-movement.

33 2.Teach-Ins -University of Michigan Professors planned a one day strike against the war in Vietnam. -Govt. threatens to fire professors if they strike. -Instead, professors teach special night classes about the war. -Thousands show up. -Spreads to other universities.

34 Selective Service & The Draft ► act said all men could be drafted. ► -Early 1960’s most did not fight being drafted. ► -Went to Vietnam as Conscientious Objectors.  -Opposed to fighting in war on moral or religious reasons. ► -1965, LBJ doubles # of people to be drafted. ► -By , Anti-war movement begins.

35 Deferments -Most were against the unfair Deferments. -Official postponements of being drafted. -Deferments usually went to rich or politically connected families. -Minorities also upset about draft status b/c they were forced to fight for a country that gave them no rights. -Major protests in Chicago, NYC, and D.C. -Felt LBJ reason America’s youth was being killed. -“Hey, Hey LBJ, how many babies you kill today?”

36 Pro War Stance -Early in the war, the majority of Americans were pro-war. -Their slogans were “My Country Right or Wrong” &”Love It or Leave It.” -Another reason for war support was that many anti-war protests were violent. 1.Columbia University  -Students take over University offices and fight with police in April The Weathermen  -Chicago SDS fought police w/ pipes and clubs.  -Wanted to overthrow capitalism and stop draft.

37 Counter Culture -Youth of 1960’s who looked for their own identity. -Youth of 1960’s who looked for their own identity. -Took their idea from Beatniks & went against society’s norms. -Took their idea from Beatniks & went against society’s norms. -“Hippies” did all they could to look different. -“Hippies” did all they could to look different. -Mini skirts, long hair, loose clothing, etc. -Mini skirts, long hair, loose clothing, etc.

38 Sexual Revolution -New views on sex began in the 1960’s. -More open discussion of sex in media and society. -2 major books during sexual revolution. 1.Sex and the Single Girl -Helen Gurley Brown 2.Human Sexual Response -William Masters and Virginia Johnson -Traditional roles (Marriage) were rejected.

39 Drugs -Psychedelic drugs gained huge popularity in the 1960’s. -Marijuana and LSD were 2 major drugs. -Overdoses were common. {Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison, Hendrix}

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41 Music  -New Kind of music begins in 1960’s  -Rolling Stones, Beatles, Hendrix, Joplin, Doors, Grateful Dead.  -Centers around Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco  -2 major concerts in late 1960’s  1.Woodstock -August ,000 show up for concert in NY -Largest and most memorable music event.  2.Altamont -Dec Rolling Stones have free concert for 300,000. -Hire Hell’s Angels Biker gang as security. -Ends in violence. 4 people die.

42 Vietnamization Robert McNamara tells LBJ to end war in Vietnam Robert McNamara tells LBJ to end war in Vietnam. -LBJ ignores his request and anti-war sentiment grows. -LBJ ignores his request and anti-war sentiment grows. -Finally on March 31, 1968 LBJ announces that he will not run for re-election. -Finally on March 31, 1968 LBJ announces that he will not run for re-election. -Nixon wins 1968 election after Dem. Candidate Robert Kennedy is killed -Nixon wins 1968 election after Dem. Candidate Robert Kennedy is killed -One month later, Paris Peace Talks begin. -One month later, Paris Peace Talks begin. -Nixon creates policy called Vietnamization. -Nixon creates policy called Vietnamization. –Replace U.S. troops with S. Vietnamese troops.

43 Anti War Movement’s Rebirth  Nixon ignores strategy to pull out of Vietnam.  -Kept bombing schedule.  -Also began to bomb Cambodia.  -Restarts anti-war protests on college campuses.  1.Kent State  -Ohio 1970  -National Guard kills 4 unarmed students  2.Jackson State  -All black college where 2 are killed by police for protesting war.

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46 U.S. Withdraws -January 1973 Peace treaty signed. -4 parts of treaty: 1.U.S. withdraws in 60 days 2.All POW’s returned. 3.No attacks on Cambodia and Laos. 4.17th Parallel would divide N&S Vietnam

47 ► -April 29, 1975, the last of U.S. troops pull out of Vietnam. ► -April 30th, S. Vietnam is overrun and conquered by N. Vietnamese Communists. ► Members of the US Embassy in Saigon and remaining US citizens in Vietnam have to be taken out by helicopter. ► -Longest and least successful war in U.S. history. ► -58,000 American troops killed. ► -300,000 wounded. ► -Cost of war was $150 Billion. ► -1979, veterans begin plans for Vietnam War Memorial. ► -Opens in 1982 in Washington D.C.

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