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The Post War International Scene Chapter 17. 1945- The United Nations - Planned for at Tehran in 1943 by Big 3 (FDR, Churchill, Stalin)

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Presentation on theme: "The Post War International Scene Chapter 17. 1945- The United Nations - Planned for at Tehran in 1943 by Big 3 (FDR, Churchill, Stalin)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Post War International Scene Chapter 17

2 1945- The United Nations - Planned for at Tehran in 1943 by Big 3 (FDR, Churchill, Stalin)

3 * In April 1945 in San Francisco 50 nations adopt a charter for an international peace keeping organization * Member states pledged to seek peaceful solutions to disputes, to try and prevent wars, and to stop those that broke out * Also pledged to end hunger, disease, and illiteracy

4 * Sec. Council (15 nations~ US, Gr. Brit, France, Soviet Union, and China permanently, and 10 others on 2 yr rotating terms. * General Assembly (all members) discuss problems and recommend actions * Each Sec Council member (permanent) can veto council resolutions ** Current Sec Gen of U.N. – Ban Ki-moon of S. Korea

5 1948- Israel * Palestine - a territory administered by Great Britain since World War I * Many Jews settled there in 1930’s to avoid Nazi persecution * In 1947 a UN commission recommends it be divided into a Jewish and Arab State

6 * 1948 British withdraw and the Jewish there proclaim the nation of Israel *After winning a war with Arab neighbors, Egypt, Syria & Jordan, the U.N. helps restore peace to the area **Fate of Palestinians – refugee camps in Jordan & Syria and the continuing struggle today to gain an independent State

7 1940’s- Truman Doctrine * Recognized “cold war” between democratic and communist countries * Truman Doctrine is a “containment” policy using counter force to contain Soviet aggression * “It must be the policy of the US to support (with economic and military aide) free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation

8 1947- Marshall Plan * Would provide $12 billion to 16 western European nations over 4 years * Benefits to the US would include: ~ Stronger economies in W Europe would better resist communism ~ Stronger economies would increase demand for American exports

9 * Also included rebuilding Germany - seen as necessary for a healthy western Europe * Soviets lead an economic bloc of nations in eastern Europe ** Marshall Plan becomes crowning achievement of containment policy or Truman Doctrine

10 1948- Berlin Blockade * Both Germany and Berlin, its Capital, were divided into 4 zones of occupation following the war- Soviets, US, Great Britain, and France

11 * June 1948 western allies merge their zones declaring independent Ger. Fed. Rep. (West Germany) * Soviets respond with blockade of isolated Berlin - located in Soviet zone

12 * For nearly a year the U.S. and its allies airlift tons of supplies to West Berlin * Soviets end blockade May of 1949

13 1949- NATO * Though initially opposed to a peacetime military alliance with European nations, the blockade makes many in US Congress change their minds

14 * The mutual defense treaty of US, France, Great Britain, Bel, Neth, Lux, Den, Nor, Por, It, Ice, and Canada in 1949, Greece and Turkey in 1952, West Germany in 1955. Agreed to consider an attack on any one of them as an attack on them all ** Break from isolationist past…

15 * The US, having nuclear weapons and therefore its dominant member, always had one of its generals as commander of NATO Forces * USSR later forms opposing Warsaw Pact of USSR, Poland, E Germany, Hungary, Rom., Bul., Alb., and Czech.

16 1949- Mao Tse-Tung * Communist leader in Chinese civil war fighting Chiang Kai Shek’s nationalists * By 1950’s, communists win, declaring People’s Republic of China * U.S. Supported nationalists retreat to Formosa - now Taiwan

17 * US refuses to recognize communist mainland China - instead recognizing and supporting Taiwanese as legitimate government of China **Until the 1970’s...

18 1949 * Soviets detonate atomic device causing US to lose its monopoly

19 NSC 68 Document * Classified intelligence document describing future of world as an “indefinite period of tension and danger.” It also encouraged U.S. to meet any (communist) threat promptly and unequivocally

20 1950-53 Korea * Following WWII Korea becomes Soviet-dominated Northern Zone and US-dominated Southern Zone (divided at the 38 th parallel) - with negotiations toward unification going nowhere

21 * June 1950 North invades South, crossing dividing line of 38 th parallel * UN Security Council condemns the invasion and recommends action to aid South * Truman orders US military to help South

22 * UN votes to establish a joint fighting force under a U.S. General (it ends up being 4/5 U.S. troops) * By Aug. 1950 MacArthur directs surprise landing at Inchon behind N. Korean lines and within 2 weeks U.N. forces recapture most of South Korea

23 * Oct 1950, following U.N. directive and Truman’s support, Mac crosses 38 th parallel in effort to establish a unified democratic Korea

24 * Late Nov. Chinese troops cross Yalu River into N. Korea, driving UN troops back across 38 th parallel with heavy losses * Chosin Reservoir- “Frozen Chosin”

25 * Controversy between Truman and MacArthur then takes place: - Truman wants “limited” war, regaining territory only to 38 th parallel - MacArthur wants total N. Korean surrender and to bomb bases in China - While Truman is negotiating for peace, MacArthur issues statement demanding N.Korean surrender - Truman then decides to send MacArthur home

26 * Negotiations for peace take 2 years (1951-1953) and take place while fighting continues * 38 th parallel re-established as boundary with a demilitarized zone (DMZ) set up - and still there today

27 Initial Attack by North Pusan Perimeter Inchon counterattack UN Invasion of North Chinese join conflictDMZ – 38 th Parallel Progress of the Korean War in maps

28 1950’s Dulles Arms Race EX. (Radio Free Europe) *Changed US policy from “containment” to active encouragement of E. European countries to overthrow communism John Dulles was Sec of State under Eisenhower

29 * Also encouraged arms race by threatening massive retaliation against Soviets or Chinese if deemed necessary and by accumulating an arsenal of sophisticated nuclear weaponry * 1 st Strike capability * Massive retaliation as a deterrant * Triad of delivery systems

30 *“Thaw” in Cold War occurs from 1953-1960 following Stalin’s Death ~ Khrushchev ‘n Eisenhower: Summit in Geneva,Switzerland 1955, US visit in 1959…

31 U-2 Incident * Stalin dies in 1953. His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, seeks lessening of tension * Khrushchev comes to US, plans summit with Eisenhower * After a period known as a “thaw” in the East– West Cold War, relations worsen when an American U-2 high altitude plane used to photograph ground activities was shot down over the USSR

32 * Francis Gary Powers was the pilot * Khrushchev, now the Soviet leader, demands an apology and distrust renews

33 1956 Hungary Uprising * Following Poland’s successful loosening of Soviet control (Polish worker’s riot and gain greater control of their gov’t), Hungarians demonstrate and protest for the same

34 * Soviet tanks and troops swiftly crush the “uprising” with the U.S. unable to do anything about it

35 1940’s – 1950’s French in Vietnam and Domino Theory * After WWII, French return to their colonial territories in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos * Vietnamese, under Ho Chi Minh, continue earlier efforts (war) to gain independence * Late 40’s French consider withdrawing, but because Ho Chi Minh is communist we contribute aid to Fr. War effort for 5 yrs * 1954 French troops surrender Domino Theory – if Vietnam was allowed to fall to Communism her neighbors would too, like dominoes

36 1959-1960 Castro/Cuba * US-supported dictatorships in Latin America becoming unpopular with the people there 1959 Fidel Castro leads revolution over U.S.-supported Cuban dictator named Bautista

37 * When newly recognized Castro gov’t seizes American businesses Eisenhower places an embargo on trade with Cuba * In response, Cuba establishes close ties with Khruschev-led Soviet Union * Eisenhower breaks off relations with Cuba Jan of 1961 - just before his term of office expired

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