Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Part 2 Advantages and Strategies. Seven states in the deep South had left by February 1, 1861. Four more left after Lincoln called for troops."— Presentation transcript:
Seven states in the deep South had left by February 1, 1861. Four more left after Lincoln called for troops. Four slave states stayed in the Union, and West Virginia eventually broke off from Virginia.
Dark Blue = Union States Light Blue = Union Territories Orange = Confederate States Yellow = Loyal Slave States Brown = Disputed Territories
Between 1861 and 1865, the North and the South waged war against each other in what remains the bloodiest war in American history. For much of that time, it was not entirely clear which side would win. Both sides enjoyed their own unique advantages which they believed would be enough to ensure a quick victory.
Even after it became clear that there would be no quick victory in the war between the states, it was not a foregone conclusion that the Union would prevail over the Confederacy. As the war progressed, it seemed more and more inevitable that the North would prevail, but that was not the case at the beginning of the war.
UnionCSA Total population22,100,000 (71%)9,100,000 (29%) Free population21,700,0005,600,000 Slave population, 1860400,0003,500,000 Soldiers2,100,000 (67%)1,064,000 (33%) Railroad length21,788 miles (71%)8,838 miles (29%) Manufactured items90%10% Firearm production97%3% Bales of cotton in 1860Negligible4,500,000 Bales of cotton in 1864Negligible300,000 Pre-war U.S. exports30%70%
Key Northern Advantages FAR LARGER POPULATION – Easily outnumbered the South, where 1/3 of the population was enslaved. HUGE LEAD IN MANUFACTURING – Led in nearly all major categories. BIGGER NAVY – Used to block Southern trade. ABRAHAM LINCOLN’S DETERMINATION – Often considered one of America’s strongest presidents ever, Lincoln was absolutely determined to preserve the United States.
Key Southern Advantages HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE – Most fighting was done on Southern territory, and they were protecting their homes, families, and way of life. FIGHTING A DEFENSIVE WAR – They didn’t have to really conquer anything. They had to just hold on long enough until the North gave up. SUPERIOR MILITARY LEADERSHIP – The South had always had a strong military history, and America’s best military minds were usually Southern.
Northern Strategies BLOCKADE THE SOUTH – This would cut off supplies, and weaken the South. CONQUER THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER – This would cut the Confederacy in two, weakening the Confederate States of America. CAPTURE THE CAPITAL OF RICHMOND – After Virginia seceded, the southern capital was moved from Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond, Virginia which is only about 100 miles from Washington, D.C.
Southern Strategies USE “HOMEFIELD ADVANTAGE” TO ITS FULLEST – People tend to fight their best when protecting their families and property. Many Southerners compared their struggle to the American Revolution. PROLONG THE WAR – Keep fighting until the North was so sick of it, that they would finally say “good riddance” to the South. “KING COTTON” – Because both Britain and France depended on Southern cotton, perhaps they would intervene in the war and help the South.
Jefferson Davis – President of the C. S. A. Represented Mississippi in the House of Representatives from 1845-46 Served in the Army during the Mexican-American War United States Senator from Mississippi, 1847-51 United States Secretary of War from 1853-57 President of the C. S. A. 1861-65
“We feel that our cause is just and holy; we protest solemnly in the face of mankind that we desire peace at any sacrifice save that of honour and independence; we ask no conquest, no aggrandizement, no concession of any kind from the States with which we were lately confederated; all we ask is to be let alone; that those who never held power over us shall not now attempt our subjugation by arms.” ***President Jefferson Davis, April 29, 1861
Jefferson Davis and his Cabinet with General Lee
Davis’ first wife, Sarah Knox Taylor, died three months after they were married from malaria. His second wife was named Varina Howell. They had 6 children, but only 1 survived young adulthood and married.
W hile he had a lot of experience as a politician, Jefferson Davis ended up being an unsuccessful President of the C. S. A. He had an overbearing and over controlling personality, and didn’t like to trust things to other people to accomplish. He often chose friends for important positions, instead of people who were qualified. He failed to form any type of bond with the “common people”, and preferred to speak with politicians and military folk. He neglected to handle domestic problems well.
An elderly Jefferson Davis around 1885. He was imprisoned briefly after the war, and charged with treason. However, he was not executed. In his later years he somewhat re-built his legacy.
Abraham Lincoln – President of the U. S. A. Had failed at many things at life, but persevered Little political experience in Washington, D. C. Somewhat impatient Positive attitude and sense of humor helped put those around him at ease
Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you.... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it."
Lincoln and His Cabinet at the time of the Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln married, Mary Todd from Kentucky. They had four sons, Robert, Eddie, Willie, and Tad. The eldest son, Robert was the only one to survive to adulthood. Eddie died at 3, Willie at 11, and Tad at 18. Mrs. Lincoln later spent time at a mental institution.
From his second inauguration speech on March 4, 1865, just 6 weeks before his assassination. Fondly do we hope—fervently do we pray—that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man's 250 years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said 3,000 years ago, so still it must be said, "the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether.“ With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations
Assassination Visiting Antietam One Month to Live