Presentation on theme: "The Cold War The Cold War began with the Berlin Crisis immediately following Germany’s surrender at the end of WW II. The Soviet dictator, Josef Stalin,"— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War began with the Berlin Crisis immediately following Germany’s surrender at the end of WW II. The Soviet dictator, Josef Stalin, was not about to let the US and the West control the future of Germany – he had plans to make Germany a communist nation moving forward. The other allies were just as determined to not allow Stalin to decide Germany’s fate. In the end, they split Berlin into four occupation zones for which lasted from 1945–49, one each belonging to the four allied victors (US, England, France, and the USSR). The complete breakdown of east-west allied cooperation and joint administration in Germany became clear with the Soviet imposition of the Berlin Blockade that was enforced from June 1948 to May 1949. The three western zones were merged to form the Federal Republic of Germany in May 1949, and the Soviets followed suit in October 1949 with the establishment of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Beginnings of Cold War
Berlin West Berlin, was divided up amongst the Allies and an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the communist zone – like a capitalist island within communist East Germany. The Berlin Blockade: was an attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting [giving up] to the communists. The Berlin Airlift: Allies/USA, flew in much aid & determination signalled the West’s to use all resources to defend Berlin. (massive aid.) It was felt by both sides that Berlin could act as the trigger for a global war between capitalist and communist countries.
Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
The ‘Truman Doctrine’ Truman had been horrified at the pre-war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” gave massive arms and materials. Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to help capitalists to stop communists in Italy and France. It signalled the end of “isolationist” policies and provided a green light for the US to engage in military confrontations anywhere in the world where a nation was threatened by communist takeover.
The ‘Marshall Plan’ The Marshall Plan offered huge amounts of aid and money to enable the economies of Europe to rebuild after World War II, and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism. The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.
NATO: To Keep the World Safe for Protect Democracy The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was a military alliance consisting of the following: USA, U.K., France, Italy, Denmark, West Germany, Canada, Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, Greece, Belgium, Lux. and Netherlands, Formed on April 4, 1949
The Soviet Response Nations under enforced communist rule (the Soviet Iron Curtain) included: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Soviet Union,& Albania. Led by the USSR, these nations formed the Warsaw Pact Alliance, an alliance designed to offset the alliance of the Democracies of Western Europe and was the communist response in the East to the West’s NATO Alliance.
The Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, more commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, was a mutual defense treaty between eight communist nations in central and eastern Europe following WW II. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on May 14, 1955, in Warsaw, Poland. The Warsaw Pact was mainly a Soviet military reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955, as well as a signal to the capitalist west that the east was willing and ready to stand up to the west militarily. The Warsaw Pact
*The CIA was tremendously valuable in protecting the USA during the Cold War and now. Its purpose was and still is to use spies to gather information on nations hostile to the USA as well as on Western European nations who were our allies, just in case they might attempt to threaten our interests, national security, or undermine democratic principles. The Soviet counterpart to the CIA was the KGB. The Central Intelligence Agency
China Becomes Communist - 1949 Civil war broke out between nationalists (democrats) and communists. Due to weak military leadership and corruption, the communists gained control of China under the leadership of Mao Zedong, banishing the democratic nationalist leadership under the direction of Chiang Kai-Shek to a tiny island off the coast of China called Taiwan (Chinese Taipei) where they remain to this day.
Nationalist: Chiang Kai-shek Relied heavily on U.S. aid which made him less popular internally Struggled with inflation and a failing economy, which opened the door for the communists, who of course said they would do better by the people. Suffered from weak leadership in his military and government councils, which created poor morale. Warlords sympathetic to the communist message also created problems that, in the end, he could not overcome.
Communist: Mao Zedong Relied on Soviet Aid – Russia is a neighbor of China’s and was trusted much more than the strange westerners. This did not hurt his popularity. Attracted peasants with promises of land reform and improved food production. Highly motivated leadership combined with a message that appealed to the suffering Chinese people, Mao defeated the Nationalists and Chiang Kai-Shek.
America reacts to Communist China Many felt it was a failure to contain the spread of communism, that we weren’t doing enough to stop them. There was a growing fear of communists taking over U.S. & its agents infiltrating our government. The second red scare was beginning.
Korean War [1950-1953] Syngman Rhee South Korea (Democracy Kim Il-Sung North Korea (Communism) “Domino Theory”
Korean War began in 1950, when communists in N. Korea crossed the 38 th parallel and attacked S. Korea. The initial push came as a shock, and the unprepared S. Koreans found themselves pushed back into a small corner in the southeastern part of the Korean peninsula, They were overwhelmed, and would surely fall unless someone came to their rescue. America would be the savior, leading a UN delegation to save the day. The troops arrived and pushed the communists all the way back to the Chinese border. The N. Koreans found themselves in much the same position as the S. Koreans had been in only two short months previous. China felt threatened by UN troops on their border attacking a communist neighbor (remember, China was also communist) and so China attacked and pushed the US and U. N. forces back to the 38 th parallel. Fighting went on for another two years with neither side being able to advance much, and it became clear this was a quagmire, a stalemate. In 1953 an armistice was signed – the Korean War was a draw. The war, technically, has never ended. Today, there is a DMZ (demilitarized zone) dividing the two nations, and a peace treaty has never been signed. The Korean War - 1950-1953
The Korean Peninsula was ruled by the Empire of Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II. Following the surrender of Japan in September 1945, Allied administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th parallel, with U.S. military forces occupying the southern half and Soviet military forces occupying the northern half. Much like with Berlin, the Soviet half (North Korea) became communist while the American half (South Korea) became a democracy. When relations between the west and the USSR deteriorated, fighting began and went on for three years. The fighting ended on July 27, 1953, when an armistice agreement was signed. The agreement restored the border at the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), a 2.5-mile (4.0 km)-wide fortified buffer zone between the two Korean nations. Minor incidents continue to the present day on this border, which remains heavily armed on both sides. The Korean War – 1950-1953
Anti-Communism Prehistory: The Popular Front - The Popular Front was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period. Many American artists were allegedly Popular Front advocates and believed in socialism. Most were not communists, however. Being socialist doesn’t mean you’re communist! Yet many people equated (and still do!) the two positions. The House Committee on Un-American Activities, or HUAC was an investigative committee of the US House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities by private citizens, public employees, and any groups suspected of having Communist ties. The committee's anti- Communist investigations are often confused with those of Senator Joseph McCarthy who was never in the House of Representatives.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without evidence. It has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from 1950 to 1956 and characterized by heightened fears of communist influence on American institutions and espionage (spying) by Soviet agents. The term was originally coined to criticize the anti-communist pursuits of Republican U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin as well as HUAC in the House. McCarthy claimed there were communists and Soviet spies inside the US government and elsewhere – he harshly targeted Hollywood as well, throwing people’s names out as being communist and never having any evidence to prove his claims. He was censured (punished and rebuked) by the Senate for ruining people’s lives and careers with his lies. McCarthy also crusaded to expel and out any persons whom he accused of homosexuality. Real nice guy, McCarthy. He died a few years later and no one cried… Anticommunism
Artists Accused Unfairly of Communist Ties Orson Welles Charlie Chaplin Duke Ellington Frank Capra Dorothea LangeJohn Steinbeck
Artists Unfairly Accused of Communist Ties Danny KayeHumphrey BogartLauren Bacall
Artists Who Supported McCarthy Ronald Reagan Walt Disney
McCarthyism > Herbert Block’s cartoon about McCarthyism, 1949
McCarthyism >Article in defense of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, 1951
This was also a conflict between Communism (Russian) and Democracy (US). This time it was Cuba who sided with the Russians and tried to cause trouble directly with America! The President during this time was John F. Kennedy. No missiles were fired. The topic is covered thoroughly in another PowerPoint. The Cuban Missile Crisis
This title was given to the activity of one’s country trying to build more weapons than any other country. This started with the invention of the Atomic Bomb. Both the United States and Russia believed that having the most and strongest weapons would keep them safe. People began to build underground shelters to protect themselves. The Arms Race
The Space Race was a 20th-century (1955–1972) competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for supremacy in spaceflight capability. It began in August of1955, when the Soviet Union responded to the US announcement 4 days earlier to launch artificial satellites, by declaring they would also launch a satellite "in the near future". The Soviets were first to score with the October 4, 1957 launch of Sputnik 1, the first orbiting satellite. The race reached its high point with the July 20, 1969 landing of the first humans on the Moon on the American ship Apollo 11, and concluded in a period of détente (easing of strained relations) with the April 1972 agreement on a co-operative Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Today, Russia and America cooperate in the maintenance and research activities aboard the International Space Station. The Space Race