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The Civil War Begins Strategy, Military, and Manpower.

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1 The Civil War Begins Strategy, Military, and Manpower

2 October 19, 1860 Springfield, Illinois Miss. Grace Bedell My dear little Miss. Your very agreeable letter of the 15th. is received. I regret the necessity of saying I have no daughters. I have three sons -- one seventeen, one nine, and one seven, years of age. They, with their mother, constitute my whole family. As to the whiskers, having never worn any, do you not think people would call it a piece of silly affection if I were to begin it now? Your very sincere well-wisher A. Lincoln

3 Crittenden Compromise last ditch effort maintains slavery where it was extends 36 30 (Missouri Compromise) line to California - slavery allowed S. of the line Fails! – war is inevitable

4 South Carolina Secedes Dec. 20, 1860 Why? - election of Lincoln - believe Lincoln will end slavery “his opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery. He declared, “Government cannot endure permanently half slave, half free.”

5 Confederacy Forms SC joined by Mississippi 1-9 Florida 1-10 Alabama 1-11 Georgia 1-19 Louisiana 1-26 Texas 2-1 February 1861


7 The Charleston Mercury announces South Carolina’s secession from the Union (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

8 The Border States Slave states that stayed: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri losing them would add 50% to the Southern population (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

9 Jefferson Davis President of Confederacy FYI - Black hawk war 1831 - cotton planter - member of US House of Reps - colonel Mex. Am War - Senator - Sec. of war for Pres. Pierce - inaugurated Feb. 22 1862

10 We feel that our cause is just and holy; we protest solemnly in the face of mankind that we desire peace at any sacrifice save that of honour and independence; we ask no conquest, no aggrandizement, no concession of any kind from the States with which we were lately confederated; all we ask is to be let alone; that those who never held power over us shall not now attempt our subjugation by arms. Jefferson Davis

11 Richmond Virginia

12 Alexander Stephens Vice President of the Confederacy FYI - lawyer - planter/slave owner - Georgia House and Senate - US House of Reps - voted against secession in GA convention -

13 "African Slavery … was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution." He went on to assert that the then-prevailing "assumption of the equality of races" was "fundamentally wrong." "Our new [Confederate] government is founded … upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery—subordination to the superior race—is his natural and normal condition," and, furthermore, "With us, all of the white race, however high or low, rich or poor, are equal in the eye of the law. Not so with the negro. Subordination is his place. He, by nature, or by the curse against Canaan, is fitted for that condition which he occupies in our system." Cornerstone Speech in Savannah, Georgia Alexander Stephens

14 Lincoln’s Inauguration “no State upon its own mere motion can lawfully get out of the Union” “I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.”

15 Northerners Affirm the Union Northerners considered secession unconstitutional and treasonable Lincoln: “no State can lawfully get out of the Union” and could “only do so against law, and by revolution.” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

16 Fort Sumter Crisis 1861 federal fort in Confederate territory - Ft. Sumter Charleston, SC - Ft. Pickens Pensacola, FL Lincoln’s choices - send in troop = aggressor - leave it to Confed = weak - chooses ½ way send in supplies

17 Lincoln chose resupply & the attack began on April 12, 1861 at 4:30am…the war was on! (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

18 April 12, 1861 rebels attack the fort 2 days later it falls to Confederacy

19 Reaction to Fort Sumter “So Civil War is inaugurated at last, God defend the right.” - NY lawyer George Templeton Strong “Woe to those who began this war if they were not in bitter earnest.” - SC Mary Chestnut

20 Lincoln Reacts calls for 75,000 militiamen 4 more states secede Virginia 4-17 Arkansas 5-6 Tennessee 5-7 N. Carolina 5-20 April 19 calls for a blockade of southern ports



23 United States Of America Blue, Yankees Confederate States Of America Grey, Rebels

24 Choosing Sides Robert E. Lee- VA Son of “Lighthorse Harry” Lee a Revolutionary Hero and married to a descendant of Martha Washington offered command of the Federal forces (Union) decides he cannot go against his “country” (VA) He could not “raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children.”

25 Choosing Sides- a House Divided! In every state except SC regiments were organized to fight in the Union approximately 100,000 Southerners fought for the Union 1 of every 5 from Arkansas killed in the war fought for the Union In Texas German Americans opposed Secession and the war - Confederates send in troops to repress Union sentiment - Any German criticizing the Confederate cause was hanged, shot, or whipped - killed 35 German-Am trying to escape to Mexico Confederacy kills several members of the Arkansas Peace Society

26 23 states including 4 border 22 million people 2x Railroads more industry produced 97% of countries firearms more farm production more access to capital 11 states 9 million people (4million are slaves) Union Confederacy Economic Comparison


28 navy grows from 90 ships to 650 better leaders by end of war defensive war knowledge of land more experienced leaders - strong military tradition in South - Citadel and VA Military Institute - West Point Union Confederacy Military Comparison

29 Union Strategy Anaconda Plan 1.Blockade Confederate Seaports - choke off flow of foreign funds 2.Go after the Capital-Richmond 3.Penetrate the Heart of the Confederacy - take the Mississippi River - Divide the Confederacy



32 Defend - the Union will give up and leave them alone Get support from Europe - GB and France - similar to Revolutionary War - believe King Cotton Diplomacy will ensure aid Southern Strategy

33 Coastline 3,500 miles Territory 750,000 sq. m

34 taxes - 1 st income tax paper currency - “greenbacks” - not backed by gold & silver - causes inflation borrowing - sold bonds to people - loans from banks 1 st attempt-requisition funds from states 1863 income tax borrowing - ineffectively sold bonds - could not convince Europe focused on paper money - huge inflation! Union Confederacy Financing the War

35 begins w/ voluntary recruitment March 1863 Draft law -avoid draft by 1. hiring replacement 2. pay $300 fee begins w/ voluntary recruitment April 1862 Conscription Act = Draft - white males 18-35 yrs - by 1864 17-50yrs - avoid draft by 1. hiring substitute 2. exemption of 1 man on plantations w/ more than 20 slaves Union Confederacy Raising an Army

36 manual labor - building fortifications, digging trenches, etc… cooking, laundry, etc last desperate measure - passed conscription for 300,000 - war ended before used Union Confederacy Use of African Americans originally excluded from war After Emancipation Proclamation - enlisted in army to fight - dig trenches and build fortifications


38 Was it inevitable that the North would win this war?

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