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Everyday Life in Indian Country Semi-sedentary communities –Planting grounds –Winter hunting grounds Trade Warfare Gendered division of labor.

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Presentation on theme: "Everyday Life in Indian Country Semi-sedentary communities –Planting grounds –Winter hunting grounds Trade Warfare Gendered division of labor."— Presentation transcript:


2 Everyday Life in Indian Country Semi-sedentary communities –Planting grounds –Winter hunting grounds Trade Warfare Gendered division of labor

3 Everyday Life in Colonial America Indians facilitate trade –Furs for European manufactured goods Indians provide vital labor –Harvest workers –Basket, pottery, and broom makers Many Indian communities contain Europeans –Intermarriage of traders and Indian women –European captives: 1600 from New England alone


5 Indians vs Europeans Authority: Hierarchy and consent; male Religion: Animism, pantheism, but supreme creator deity Gender: women’s and men’s roles Childrearing practices: Indians less restrictive, punitive Authority: Hierarchy and consent; male Religion: Christianity Gender: Men’s and women’s spheres Childrearing practices: More restrictive, but varied

6 Indians and the American Revolution

7 The Aftermath of the French and Indian War (7 Years’ War) Indians lost ability to play French and English off against each other –Consequences: Expansion of English settlement Decline in traditional gift-giving, observance of protocols

8 "Reason and Rhetoric will fall to the Ground unless supported by Strouds and Duffells. Liberality is alone with Indians true Eloquence without which Demosthenes and Cicero or the more modern orators Burke and Barre might harangue in vain."

9 Growth of English perception of Indians as savage

10 The Proclamation Line of 1763 English colonists ignored it –Population of British North America doubled every 25 years, up 400% between 1700 and 1750. –50,000 whites west of Appalachians by 1775.


12 What is happening elsewhere? First Spanish mission established in California, 1769 Smallpox epidemic breaks out in Mexico City in 1779, spreads to Canada by 1783 Active Indian slave trade among Spanish, Apache, Utes, Comanches; Carolina slave trade active Active international trade in Northwest, involving Spain, England, France, Russia, China

13 The Revolutionary War “He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.” –Declaration of Independence, 1776

14 The Quest for Neutrality “This is a family quarrel between us and Old England. You Indians are not concerned in it. We don't wish you to take up the hatchet against the king's troops. We desire you to remain at home, and not join either side, but keep the hatchet buried deep.” –Continental Congress, 1775

15 Why Side with the British?: A rational decision Familiarity with English officials (Indian Superintendants, such as Sir William Johnson) English officials invested heavily in gift-giving, to compete with French –Parliament allowed 75,000 pounds in goods for southern superintendancy to maintain alliance

16 Impact of War Scattering of communities Divisions within communities –War chiefs vs civil chiefs –Anglo vs American Break-up of Great League of the Iroquois –Oneida and Tuscarora - American –Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Cayuga - British

17 Loss of traditional and ceremonial knowledge –“Great Part of our ancient Customs & Ceremonies have, thro’ the Loss of Many of our principal men during the War, been neglected & forgotten, so that we cannot go through the whole with our ancient Propriety.” Cayuga leader Kingageghta, 1789

18 Social impact of Revolution Population loss from war, disease, famine, migration –Up to 50% among Iroquois Social problems: demoralization –Suicide –Alcoholism

19 Peace of 1783 leaves out Indians “Your Fathers the English have made Peace with us for themselves, but forgot you their Children, who Fought with them, and neglected you like Bastards.” –American Major Wall to Shawnees during prisoner exchange in 1783

20 The territory west of the Appalachians to the Mississippi, which England ceded to the American Colonies after the Revolutionary War, belonged to "free and independent nations of Indians, and you have no right to it." –Conde de Aranda, Spanish representative to the Treaty of Paris negotiation, 1783

21 Aftermath of American Revolution Accelerated Indian land loss

22 The Trouble with Treaties 1780s - Indian/settler conflicts continue 1784 - Treaty of Fort Stanwix (second) –U.S. abandons land by conquest argument. –Iroquois cede large portions of land 1785 - Treaty of Fort McIntosh –Delawares, Wynadots (Hurons), Miamis, others cede land 1786 - Treaty of Fort Finney –Shawnees cede land 1786 - Indian Confederation formed: –Demand that Ohio River remain boundary between U.S. and Indian land

23 1787 - Northwest Ordinance –Promises justice to Indians –Includes provisions for Ohio Country settlements to become states 1790-91 - Indian victories over American forces at Fort Wayne, Maumee Valley 1790-91 - Indian victories over US at Fort Wayne, Maumee Valley 1793 - Failed negotiations over Ohio Country with US 1794 - American victory over Indians at Battle of Fallen Timbers 1795 - Treaty of Greenville: Indians cede most of Ohio Valley to US

24 “Your people settle much Faster on our Lands after a Treaty than before.” –Old Tassel of the Cherokees to Joseph Martin, 1785

25 Indian Responses Conservatives: Return to old ways Progressives: Adopt white ways –Cherokee attempts Dilemma: "How to imitate superior alien customs while reasserting the integrity of the ancient way of life.” –Anthony F. C. C. Wallace, The Death and Rebirth of the Seneca Revitalization movements

26 Revitalization Movements


28 Indian Removal

29 “[I would be pleased] to see the good and influential individuals among them [the Indians] run into debt, because we observe that when these debts get beyond what the individual can pay, they become willing to lop them off by a cession of lands.” –Thomas Jefferson, 1803

30 Unlike British, and French before them, “The United States looked to build an empire on Indian land, not on Indian trade, and that required the Indians’ removal.” –Colin Calloway


32 Persistence



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