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Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer

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1 Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer
Introduction to the ecosystem approach as a framework for management of ecosystem use Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer

2 Structure of the Talk Part I The global context;
What is EA – from a sectoral example to an integrated multi-sectoral approach; Intro to ecosystem services EA Management and Institutions – Responding at Different Scales; Understanding the benefits and objectives: a pre-requisite for proactive management – the ASCLME as an example; Conclusions.

3 Structure of the Talk Part II
An example of a simple cost-benefit analysis for management decisions using EAF

4 1) The global context

5 CBD Definition of an Ecosystem Approach
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. …It is … focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems.

6 FAO Definition of EAF An Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries strives to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking account of the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries. (FAO, 2003)

7 FAO Code of Conduct States and users of living aquatic resources should conserve aquatic ecosystems. The right to fish carries with it the obligation to do so in a responsible manner so as to ensure effective conservation and management of the living aquatic resources.

8 2) What is EA – from a sectoral example to an integrated multi-sectoral approach
Photo: ASCLME website

9 A Sectoral Example - the Rationale for EAF
The purpose of an ecosystem approach to fisheries is to plan, develop and manage fisheries in a manner that addresses the multiplicity of societal needs and desires, without jeopardising the options for future generations to benefit from marine ecosystems. Including the full range of goods and services…

10 The underlying rationale of single-species approaches: the Schaefer Model

11 The ecological reality:

12 3. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries: Ecosystem valuation

13 Ecosystem Valuation: an economist’s perspective
The economic theory of valuation calls for the computation of total economic values made up of both use and non-use (market & non-market; extractive & non-extractive) values: Direct use value; Indirect use value; Option value; Existence value; Bequest value; Starting point for valuation is people’s preferences

14 Ecosystem services Provisioning: the products obtained from ecosystems, including food and fibre, fuel, genetic resources, bio-chemicals, natural medicines, pharmaceuticals, ornamental resources, and fresh water; Regulating: the regulation of ecosystem processes including those relating to air quality, water, climate, human diseases, erosion, biological controls, and storm protection;

15 Ecosystem services Cultural: the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through, for example: spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences, including cultural diversity, spiritual and religious values, knowledge systems, educational values, inspiration, aesthetic values, social relations, sense of place, cultural heritage values, and recreation and ecotourism; Supporting: the benefits “that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services. They differ from provisioning, regulating, and cultural services in that their impacts on people are either indirect or occur over a very long time.”

16 Total Value of a Fishery Ecosystem

17 Introducing the importance of ecosystem services to human wellbeing
Supporting Nutrient cycling Soil formation Primary production etc. … Provisioning Food Fresh water Wood and fibre Fuel Regulating Climate regulation Flood regulation Disease prevention Water purification Cultural Aesthetic Spiritual Educational Recreational constituents of well-being Security Personal safety Secure resource access Security from disasters Basic material for good life Adequate livelihoods Sufficient nutritious food Shelter Access to goods Health Strength Feeling well Access to clean air & water Good social relations Social cohesion Mutual respect Ability to help others Freedom of choice and action Opportunity to be able to achieve what an individual values being and doing value for Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005

18 water for food water purification flow regulation water storage
water supply water storage As the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment report explains, the benefits people receive from nature are ‘ecosystem services’. Forests, aquifers, soils, lakes and wetlands provide water storage, wetlands and soils filter water, rivers provide conveyance and transportation and abundance of fish, floodplains and wetlands lower flood peaks in downstream cities, while mangroves, coral reefs and barrier islands protect coasts against storms and inundation. Nature recycles and absorbs excess nutrients and water pollution. Degradation of these services is costly – the TEEB – focused on water and wetlands provides great data to support this water supply water conveyance cultural services fisheries provision water for energy

19 Healthy vs. Degraded approach
Compare health and degraded system - services

20 Some examples of “EAF Issues” example 1: Benguela Current countries
Bycatch of species that are important target species for other fisheries. Mortality to threatened sharks, seabirds and other species of conservation concern Limited knowledge of true biodoiversity and impacts of fishery on biodiversity Conflicts between industrial and small-scale fisheries Impacts of trawls on the benthic fauna and flora Increasing impacts on fisheries of offshore mining and oil exploration and extraction Environmental impacts (e.g. Benguela Niño and deoxygenation events)

21 Recognising and Acknowledging the Impacts and Interactions
Health Just to briefly mention the method used to identify and prioritise the issues for each fishery. It was a three step process. CLICK First to identify the risks or issues using 7 broad categories. All issues raised were noted to ensure that all opinions were considered. The prioritisation process then allowed objective ranking of the issues. Each issue was assessed in terms of the impact of it occurring and the likelihood of it occurring. Finally the Performance Reports for all issues above a moderate score were compiled. Lynne Shannon coordinated the scientific effort to use these reports to determine what indicators are necessary and discuss indicators which already exist. She will discuss this further in her presentation. I will just show a summary graph for each fishery.

22 Ecosystem approaches to sectors in the broader EA framework

23 4. EA Management and Institutions – Responding at Different Scales

24 What is management? “The process of dealing with or controlling things or people” Risk management in business: “the forecasting and evaluation of financial risks together with the identification of procedures to avoid or minimize their impact” (Oxford Dictionary)

25 Management Processes i) Developing a management plan

26 Multi-scale Requirements of EBM Governance Structure
Fanning et al A large marine ecosystem governance framework

27 5. Challenges to Application of EA: Institutional Needs in the BCLME*
Management structures Stakeholder participation Access rights Management plans Inter-agency cooperation International (outside BCLME) Information and research Data Research staff Science and decision-making Information dissemination Legal Monitoring, control and surveillance Enforcement Observer coverage *From the BCLME/FAO Project on EAF Implementation

28 Priority Issues for Implementation of EAF the BCLME
Lack of capacity is a major constraint in the attempt to implement EAF. All countries need a resource management structure that: is suitable for EAF; includes the main stakeholders; and encompasses direct involvement of stakeholders in the decision-making process. In Angola and Namibia communications with the oil industry and marine diamond mining respectively must be improved. Improved capacity for long-term ecosystem monitoring, placement of scientific observers and improved data management are required. Angola requires: improved surveillance and compliance; a suitable system of access rights for the artisanal fisheries Inadequate capacity should not preclude the implementation of EAF measures. Single species approaches are an essential component of the fisheries management but need to be broadened for EAF.

29 Understanding the benefits and objectives: a pre-requisite for proactive management – the ASCLME as an example

30 Again complicated interactions – The Case of the Mozambique Channel
Biodiversity & Tourism Subsistence & fisheries The beneficial uses of natural goods and services of the Mozambique Channel are dependent on the ecosystem 30

31 Jacquet, J. L. and Zeller, D. 2007 Mozambique catch reconstructions for the small-scale fisheries sector, industrial sector and estimates of total industrial catch including discards,

32 The value of “Small Scale” vs. Large Scale/Industrialised Fisheries
This graph compares small-scale with large-scale fisheries on a global basis. It probably underestimates the role of small-scale fisheries. Also, we would achieve most stated aims of fisheries management plans (particularly their social aims) by dedicated access arrangement for small scale fisheries. (But, of course, we must leave enough fish for the rest of the ecosystem to function and to meet to challenges of global warming). FISHERY BENEFITS LARGE SCALE SMALL SCALE Number of fishers employed about ½ million over 12 million Annual catch of marine fis h for human consumption about 29 million tonnes about 24 million tonnes Capital cost of each job on fishing vessels $30,000 - $300,000 $250 $2,500 Annual catch of marine fish for industrial reduction to meal and Almost none oil, etc. about 22 million tonnes Annual fuel oil consumption 14 19 million tonnes 1 3 million tonnes = 2 5 tonnes 10 20 tonnes Fish caught per tonne of fuel consumed F ishers employed 500 4,000 for each $1 million invested in fishing vessels 5 - 30 Fish and invertebrates L ittle discarded at sea 1 - 20 million tonnes

33 And understanding the value and Importance of Coral Reefs in the ASCLME Region
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES In real terms - for coastal communities – reefs provide: Food Security Security of Livelihoods (Income) Protection for the community (from storm surge, tsunami, etc) Materials (coral sand for building) Transportation (channels) Recreational opportunities Cultural sustainability Climate Change and other Pressures will require adaptive measures not only focusing on management of reefs but also with a focus on the associated coastal communities Supporting Primary and Secondary production Nutrient cycling Foundation resources that sustain other goods and services Provisioning Food Materials Medicines Waterways Regulating Carbon sequestration Seawater buffering Climate regulation Coastal protection Disease/pest control Cultural Recreation Spiritual Aesthetic Educational

34 Adaptive Management Requirements The WIO LME Perspective
Understanding the Value of the Ecosystem What are various ecosystem services worth? What do these ecosystem services represent to the WIO countries in terms of jobs and salaries? How can the region achieve the full economic potential of ecosystem goods and services whilst maintaining their sustainability? 34

The ASCLME/SWIOFP joint Cost Benefit Analysis has estimated that the coastal and marine resources of the ASCLME region contribute almost US$22.4 billion a year to the GDP of the countries of region. Coastal tourism contributed the largest to GDP at over US$11 billion a year, followed by fisheries, coastal agriculture and forestry The fisheries of the ASCLME are estimated to generate a resource rent of just about US$68 million per year currently, of which about US$59 million are generated by ASCLME countries and the remainder by countries outside of the region. The goal of the ecosystem approach (to fisheries management) is to conserve natural resources and protect biodiversity while optimizing social and economic benefits and minimizing negative social and economic impacts to communities. Ecosystem goals are set with reference to the larger environment, including ecosystem parameters or environmental conditions (e.g., water quality) that limit fishery management options. 35

The fisheries of the ASCLME are estimated to support almost 6 million workers, generating wages of about US$366 million per year. On the other hand, owners of fishing capital earn normal profits of US$60 million per year Rebuilding and effectively managing fisheries of the ASCLME could result in annual gains in economic rent of US$ 221 million while wages and economic impact are likely to increase by US$10 million and $43 million per year, respectively

37 Outputs from the original Round-Table in Grahamstown June 2011
Limited numbers of scientists/social scientists/economists represents a long–term risk Findings need to be packaged for the private sector (e.g. fishing industry) as well as governments Political regime-change needs re-education (because of 5 year political cycles). Continuity lies in middle to senior management Different levels of confidence are required for decisions at different scales (e.g. national or regional)

38 Round-Table Discussion – Bridging the Disconnect
It was understood that often results are not entirely conclusive and there is a tendency to want to do more studies on the same topic to refine the conclusions (achieving reliable Confidence Limits) In terms of Marine Ecosystem management we need to embrace the Precautionary Approach, but we need to go further and develop a mechanism that can arrive at a ‘Weight of Evidence’ related to evolving ‘trends” in data and conclusions that is: A. Accepted by peers to be reliable enough to guide management decisions and.. B. Upon which decision-makers can act immediately while accepting that the information may need further ‘fine- tuning’ One very real challenge will be developing the skill-set that can define the reliable ‘Weight of Evidence’ and can translate existing science into ‘Confident’ advice for policy-makers and managers

39 The Adaptive Management approach
A MORE DYNAMIC MANAGEMENT APPROACH One possible approach that was discussed at the Grahamstown Round-Table: Moving immediately from the Precautionary approach to identify appropriate Indicators that will provide an early ‘indication’ of trends Seek to establish a Weight-of-Evidence that scientists and their peers feel comfortable in agreeing defines a clear indication or trend - and which can give managers and policy-makers sufficient confidence upon which to act (even if not 95% certain) Use this WoE to initiate predictive modelling to support conclusions and upon which to compare continued monitoring of Indicators Fine-tune models and guidance to Managers and Policy-Makers as move toward acceptable confidence limits

40 The Advantages to the Policy-makers
This approach will take decision-making beyond the ‘precautionary’ approach which is often seen as being based more on supposition than strong evidence and which therefore leaves policy-makers feeling vulnerable and indecisive B. It will also provide senior government leaders at the economic/finance level and management level with clearer guidance on where to prioritise activities and funding in terms of both immediate management needs and further research (this also extends to the funding agencies of course)

41 Conclusions The recent awareness of importance of EA recognises interactions and impacts between different human sectors and ecosystem Implementation of EA builds on sectoral approaches but requires addition of wider knowledge and encompassing institutions Optimal use of natural resources requires that negative impacts and conflicts are addressed and resolved: this requires compromises and trade-offs Best-available information on ecological, social and economic costs and benefits of activities and decisions affecting activities important for wise decision-making. Economic valuations contribute to that information.

42 Part II. An example of a simple cost-benefit analysis for management decisions using EAF

43 Distribution of Benefits and Costs
Distributional aspects: …To whom do the various benefits and costs accrue? A major consideration in EAF implementation is the question of who receives the benefits and who incurs the costs of that implementation Inter-temporal aspects: …When do the various benefits and costs occur? e.g., benefits realized in long term, but costs arising in the short term. immediate realities (e.g., annual food supply, electoral time frame) that affect or constrain the reality of EAF implementation.

44 The challenge The goal must be to:
evaluate the costs and benefits of different management choices to achieve specific objectives; select the measure or measures that give the greatest benefits for the lowest costs (taking distribution into account); and integrate across the full set of management measures being applied to ensure consistency and complementarity; Implement, monitor and adapt as necessary

45 Selecting New or Modifying Management Measures
Identify Issues For Action Prioritise Issues Select Optimal Measures Consider Management Measures to Address Priority Issues Consider Costs & Benefits of Management Options for all Objectives Agree on Broad Objectives for Fishery Implement

46 A Simple Scoring Approach as an Example

47 The Angolan Artisanal Fishery – Broad Objectives
Maintain biomass of important at productive levels. Minimize impact on juvenile or undersized fish. Minimize impacts on threatened, protected species. Minimize impacts on coastal communities and ecosystems. Maintain or increase the supply of good-quality fish to the population. Contribute to poverty alleviation through the increase of opportunities for employment Increase equity in the distribution of employment and income Maximize the contribution of the fishery to the national economy, especially coastal provinces

48 Cost-Benefit of By-catch limits in Angola Trawl Fishery
Objective Comments / rationale on the Effects of the Proposed Management Response Short term Long term Cost Benefit Restore biomass of commercially important demersal species to optimal levels of productivity; Will contribute via reduction of mortality 1 3 Maintain demersal community structure in terms of size structure and species composition; Minimize impacts of bottom trawl fishery on threatened, protected or vulnerable species (sea turtles, sharks, marine mammals, other); No effect Minimize impacts of bottom trawling on bottom substrate; Reduction of by-catch will reduce impact 2 To contribute to poverty alleviation through the increase of opportunities of employment in the fisheries extractive sector and in the fish processing industry in the coastal provinces; Indirect effect, via recovered stocks To promote the development of the industrial productive fisheries sector; To promote reliable supply of fish products to the population, at accessible prices; To promote equity in the distribution of employment and income among the regions of the country and in the coastal provinces; Maximize long-term economic benefits from the fishery; Total Cost - Benefit 5 17

49 Some Potential Management Actions for the Angolan Artisanal Fishery
Management and MCS Bycatch and Gear Social and Economic Issues

50 Benefit Cost Estimators for EAF Management Actions – Angolan Artisanal Fishery

51 Conclusions Governance and management need to be adaptive: monitoring performance in the system and adapting management measures to maximise chances of achieving objectives. Every management decision is likely to have costs and benefits which may differ for different stakeholders Careful consideration must be given to costs and benefits to ensure optimal decisions Economic valuation is an important tool in this regard

52 Thank You

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