Presentation on theme: "Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer"— Presentation transcript:
1Kevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer Introduction to the ecosystem approach as a framework for management of ecosystem useKevern Cochrane and Warwick Sauer
2Structure of the Talk Part I The global context; What is EA – from a sectoral example to an integrated multi-sectoral approach;Intro to ecosystem servicesEA Management and Institutions – Responding at Different Scales;Understanding the benefits and objectives: a pre-requisite for proactive management – the ASCLME as an example;Conclusions.
3Structure of the Talk Part II An example of a simple cost-benefit analysis for management decisions using EAF
5CBD Definition of an Ecosystem Approach The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. …It is … focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems.
6FAO Definition of EAFAn Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries strives to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking account of the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries. (FAO, 2003)
7FAO Code of ConductStates and users of living aquatic resources should conserve aquatic ecosystems. The right to fish carries with it the obligation to do so in a responsible manner so as to ensure effective conservation and management of the living aquatic resources.
82) What is EA – from a sectoral example to an integrated multi-sectoral approach Photo: ASCLME website
9A Sectoral Example - the Rationale for EAF The purpose of an ecosystem approach to fisheries is to plan, develop and manage fisheries in a manner that addresses the multiplicity of societal needs and desires, without jeopardising the options for future generations to benefit from marine ecosystems.Including the full range of goods and services…
10The underlying rationale of single-species approaches: the Schaefer Model
123. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries: Ecosystem valuation JOHN JATOE
13Ecosystem Valuation: an economist’s perspective The economic theory of valuation calls for thecomputation of total economic values made up ofboth use and non-use (market & non-market; extractive & non-extractive) values:Direct use value;Indirect use value;Option value;Existence value;Bequest value;Starting point for valuation is people’s preferences
14Ecosystem servicesProvisioning: the products obtained from ecosystems, including food and fibre, fuel, genetic resources, bio-chemicals, natural medicines, pharmaceuticals, ornamental resources, and fresh water;Regulating: the regulation of ecosystem processes including those relating to air quality, water, climate, human diseases, erosion, biological controls, and storm protection;
15Ecosystem servicesCultural: the nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through, for example: spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences, including cultural diversity, spiritual and religious values, knowledge systems, educational values, inspiration, aesthetic values, social relations, sense of place, cultural heritage values, and recreation and ecotourism;Supporting: the benefits “that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services. They differ from provisioning, regulating, and cultural services in that their impacts on people are either indirect or occur over a very long time.”
17Introducing the importance of ecosystem services to human wellbeing SupportingNutrient cyclingSoil formationPrimary productionetc. …ProvisioningFoodFresh waterWood and fibreFuelRegulatingClimate regulationFlood regulationDisease preventionWater purificationCulturalAestheticSpiritualEducationalRecreationalconstituents of well-beingSecurityPersonal safetySecure resource accessSecurity from disastersBasic material for good lifeAdequate livelihoodsSufficient nutritious foodShelterAccess to goodsHealthStrengthFeeling wellAccess to clean air & waterGood social relationsSocial cohesionMutual respectAbility to help othersFreedom of choice and actionOpportunity to be able to achieve what an individual values being and doingvalue forMillennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005
18water for food water purification flow regulation water storage water supplywater storageAs the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment report explains, the benefits people receive from nature are ‘ecosystem services’. Forests, aquifers, soils, lakes and wetlands provide water storage, wetlands and soils filter water, rivers provide conveyance and transportation and abundance of fish, floodplains and wetlands lower flood peaks in downstream cities, while mangroves, coral reefs and barrier islands protect coasts against storms and inundation. Nature recycles and absorbs excess nutrients and water pollution.Degradation of these services is costly – the TEEB – focused on water and wetlands provides great data to support thiswater supplywater conveyancecultural servicesfisheries provisionwater for energy
19Healthy vs. Degraded approach Compare health and degraded system - services
20Some examples of “EAF Issues” example 1: Benguela Current countries Bycatch of species that are important target species for other fisheries.Mortality to threatened sharks, seabirds and other species of conservation concernLimited knowledge of true biodoiversity and impacts of fishery on biodiversityConflicts between industrial and small-scale fisheriesImpacts of trawls on the benthic fauna and floraIncreasing impacts on fisheries of offshore mining and oil exploration and extractionEnvironmental impacts (e.g. Benguela Niño and deoxygenation events)
21Recognising and Acknowledging the Impacts and Interactions HealthJust to briefly mention the method used to identify and prioritise the issues for each fishery. It was a three step process.CLICKFirst to identify the risks or issues using 7 broad categories. All issues raised were noted to ensure that all opinions were considered.The prioritisation process then allowed objective ranking of the issues.Each issue was assessed in terms of the impact of it occurring and the likelihood of it occurring.Finally the Performance Reports for all issues above a moderate score were compiled.Lynne Shannon coordinated the scientific effort to use these reports to determine what indicators are necessary and discuss indicators which already exist. She will discuss this further in her presentation. I will just show a summary graph for each fishery.
22Ecosystem approaches to sectors in the broader EA framework
234. EA Management and Institutions – Responding at Different Scales
24What is management?“The process of dealing with or controlling things or people”Risk management in business: “the forecasting and evaluation of financial risks together with the identification of procedures to avoid or minimize their impact”(Oxford Dictionary)
25Management Processes i) Developing a management plan
26Multi-scale Requirements of EBM Governance Structure Fanning et al A large marine ecosystem governance framework
275. Challenges to Application of EA: Institutional Needs in the BCLME* Management structuresStakeholder participationAccess rightsManagement plansInter-agency cooperationInternational (outside BCLME)Information and researchDataResearch staffScience and decision-makingInformation disseminationLegalMonitoring, control and surveillanceEnforcementObserver coverage*From the BCLME/FAO Project on EAF Implementation
28Priority Issues for Implementation of EAF the BCLME Lack of capacity is a major constraint in the attempt to implement EAF.All countries need a resource management structure that:is suitable for EAF;includes the main stakeholders; andencompasses direct involvement of stakeholders in the decision-making process.In Angola and Namibia communications with the oil industry and marine diamond mining respectively must be improved.Improved capacity for long-term ecosystem monitoring, placement of scientific observers and improved data management are required.Angola requires:improved surveillance and compliance;a suitable system of access rights for the artisanal fisheriesInadequate capacity should not preclude the implementation of EAF measures.Single species approaches are an essential component of the fisheries management but need to be broadened for EAF.
29Understanding the benefits and objectives: a pre-requisite for proactive management – the ASCLME as an example
30Again complicated interactions – The Case of the Mozambique Channel Biodiversity & TourismSubsistence & fisheriesThe beneficial uses of natural goods and services of the Mozambique Channel are dependent on the ecosystem30
31Jacquet, J. L. and Zeller, D. 2007Mozambique catch reconstructions for the small-scale fisheries sector, industrial sector and estimates of total industrial catch including discards,
32The value of “Small Scale” vs. Large Scale/Industrialised Fisheries This graph compares small-scale with large-scale fisheries on a global basis. It probably underestimates the role of small-scale fisheries. Also, we would achieve most stated aims of fisheries management plans (particularly their social aims) by dedicated access arrangement for small scale fisheries. (But, of course, we must leave enough fish for the rest of the ecosystem to function and to meet to challenges of global warming).FISHERYBENEFITSLARGE SCALESMALL SCALENumber of fishersemployedabout ½ millionover 12 millionAnnual catch of marinefish for humanconsumptionabout 29 million tonnesabout 24 million tonnesCapital cost of each jobon fishing vessels$30,000-$300,000$250$2,500Annual catch of marinefish for industrialreduction to meal andAlmost noneoil, etc.about 22 million tonnesAnnual fuel oilconsumption14–19 million tonnes1–3 million tonnes=2–5 tonnes1020 tonnesFish caught per tonne offuel consumedFishers employed500–4,000for each $1 millioninvested in fishingvessels5-30Fish and invertebratesLittlediscarded at sea1-20million tonnes
33And understanding the value and Importance of Coral Reefs in the ASCLME Region ECOSYSTEM SERVICESIn real terms - for coastal communities – reefs provide:Food SecuritySecurity of Livelihoods (Income)Protection for the community (from storm surge, tsunami, etc)Materials (coral sand for building)Transportation (channels)Recreational opportunitiesCultural sustainabilityClimate Change and otherPressures will requireadaptive measures not onlyfocusing on managementof reefs but also with a focuson the associated coastalcommunitiesSupportingPrimary andSecondaryproductionNutrientcyclingFoundationresources thatsustain othergoods andservicesProvisioningFoodMaterialsMedicinesWaterwaysRegulatingCarbon sequestrationSeawater bufferingClimate regulationCoastal protectionDisease/pest controlCulturalRecreationSpiritualAestheticEducational
34Adaptive Management Requirements The WIO LME Perspective Understanding the Value of the EcosystemWhat are various ecosystem services worth?What do these ecosystem services represent to the WIO countries in terms of jobs and salaries?How can the region achieve the full economic potential of ecosystem goods and services whilst maintaining their sustainability?34
35VALUE OF MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES OF WIO The ASCLME/SWIOFP joint Cost Benefit Analysis has estimated that the coastal and marine resources of the ASCLME region contribute almost US$22.4 billion a year to the GDP of the countries of region. Coastal tourism contributed the largest to GDP at over US$11 billion a year, followed by fisheries, coastal agriculture and forestryThe fisheries of the ASCLME are estimated to generate a resource rent of just about US$68 million per year currently, of which about US$59 million are generated by ASCLME countries and the remainder by countries outside of the region.The goal of the ecosystem approach (to fisheries management) is to conserve natural resources and protect biodiversity while optimizing social and economic benefits and minimizing negative social and economic impacts to communities. Ecosystem goals are set with reference to the larger environment, including ecosystem parameters or environmental conditions (e.g., water quality) that limit fishery management options.35
36VALUE OF MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES OF WIO The fisheries of the ASCLME are estimated to support almost 6 million workers, generating wages of about US$366 million per year. On the other hand, owners of fishing capital earn normal profits of US$60 million per year Rebuilding and effectively managing fisheries of the ASCLME could result in annual gains in economic rent of US$ 221 million while wages and economic impact are likely to increase by US$10 million and $43 million per year, respectively
37Outputs from the original Round-Table in Grahamstown June 2011 Limited numbers of scientists/social scientists/economists represents a long–term riskFindings need to be packaged for the private sector (e.g. fishing industry) as well as governmentsPolitical regime-change needs re-education (because of 5 year political cycles). Continuity lies in middle to senior managementDifferent levels of confidence are required for decisions at different scales (e.g. national or regional)
38Round-Table Discussion – Bridging the Disconnect It was understood that often results are not entirely conclusive and there is a tendency to want to do more studies on the same topic to refine the conclusions (achieving reliable Confidence Limits)In terms of Marine Ecosystem management we need to embrace the Precautionary Approach, but we need to go further and develop a mechanism that can arrive at a ‘Weight of Evidence’ related to evolving ‘trends” in data and conclusions that is:A. Accepted by peers to be reliable enough to guide management decisions and..B. Upon which decision-makers can act immediately while accepting that the information may need further ‘fine- tuning’One very real challenge will be developing the skill-set that can define the reliable ‘Weight of Evidence’ and can translate existing science into ‘Confident’ advice for policy-makers and managers
39The Adaptive Management approach A MORE DYNAMIC MANAGEMENT APPROACHOne possible approach that was discussed at the Grahamstown Round-Table:Moving immediately from the Precautionary approach to identify appropriate Indicators that will provide an early ‘indication’ of trendsSeek to establish a Weight-of-Evidence that scientists and their peers feel comfortable in agreeing defines a clear indication or trend - and which can give managers and policy-makers sufficient confidence upon which to act (even if not 95% certain)Use this WoE to initiate predictive modelling to support conclusions and upon which to compare continued monitoring of IndicatorsFine-tune models and guidance to Managers and Policy-Makers as move toward acceptable confidence limits
40The Advantages to the Policy-makers This approach will take decision-making beyond the ‘precautionary’ approach which is often seen as being based more on supposition than strong evidence and which therefore leaves policy-makers feeling vulnerable and indecisiveB. It will also provide senior government leaders at the economic/finance level and management level with clearer guidance on where to prioritise activities and funding in terms of both immediate management needs and further research (this also extends to the funding agencies of course)
41ConclusionsThe recent awareness of importance of EA recognises interactions and impacts between different human sectors and ecosystemImplementation of EA builds on sectoral approaches but requires addition of wider knowledge and encompassing institutionsOptimal use of natural resources requires that negative impacts and conflicts are addressed and resolved: this requires compromises and trade-offsBest-available information on ecological, social and economic costs and benefits of activities and decisions affecting activities important for wise decision-making. Economic valuations contribute to that information.
42Part II. An example of a simple cost-benefit analysis for management decisions using EAF
43Distribution of Benefits and Costs Distributional aspects:…To whom do the various benefits and costs accrue?A major consideration in EAF implementation is the question of who receives the benefits and who incurs the costs of that implementationInter-temporal aspects:…When do the various benefits and costs occur?e.g., benefits realized in long term, but costs arising in the short term.immediate realities (e.g., annual food supply, electoral time frame) that affect or constrain the reality of EAF implementation.
44The challenge The goal must be to: evaluate the costs and benefits of different management choices to achieve specific objectives;select the measure or measures that give the greatest benefits for the lowest costs (taking distribution into account); andintegrate across the full set of management measures being applied to ensure consistency and complementarity;Implement, monitor and adapt as necessary
45Selecting New or Modifying Management Measures Identify IssuesFor ActionPrioritise IssuesSelect OptimalMeasuresConsider ManagementMeasures to AddressPriority IssuesConsider Costs & Benefitsof Management Optionsfor all ObjectivesAgree on BroadObjectives for FisheryImplement
47The Angolan Artisanal Fishery – Broad Objectives Maintain biomass of important at productive levels.Minimize impact on juvenile or undersized fish.Minimize impacts on threatened, protected species.Minimize impacts on coastal communities and ecosystems.Maintain or increase the supply of good-quality fish to the population.Contribute to poverty alleviation through the increase of opportunities for employmentIncrease equity in the distribution of employment and incomeMaximize the contribution of the fishery to the national economy, especially coastal provinces
48Cost-Benefit of By-catch limits in Angola Trawl Fishery ObjectiveComments / rationale on the Effects of the Proposed Management ResponseShort termLong termCostBenefitRestore biomass of commercially important demersal species to optimal levels of productivity;Will contribute via reduction of mortality13Maintain demersal community structure in terms of size structure and species composition;Minimize impacts of bottom trawl fishery on threatened, protected or vulnerable species (sea turtles, sharks, marine mammals, other);No effectMinimize impacts of bottom trawling on bottom substrate;Reduction of by-catch will reduce impact2To contribute to poverty alleviation through the increase of opportunities of employment in the fisheries extractive sector and in the fish processing industry in the coastal provinces;Indirect effect, via recovered stocksTo promote the development of the industrial productive fisheries sector;To promote reliable supply of fish products to the population, at accessible prices;To promote equity in the distribution of employment and income among the regions of the country and in the coastal provinces;Maximize long-term economic benefits from the fishery;Total Cost - Benefit517
49Some Potential Management Actions for the Angolan Artisanal Fishery Management and MCSBycatch and GearSocial and Economic Issues
51ConclusionsGovernance and management need to be adaptive: monitoring performance in the system and adapting management measures to maximise chances of achieving objectives.Every management decision is likely to have costs and benefits which may differ for different stakeholdersCareful consideration must be given to costs and benefits to ensure optimal decisionsEconomic valuation is an important tool in this regard