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An Introduction to the Law and its Sources Susan Carter.

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1 An Introduction to the Law and its Sources Susan Carter

2 Legal sense v ‘Common sense’ Pepper Finance Corporation v Williams [2008] NSWSC 4 Pepper Finance Corporation v Williams [2008] NSWSC 4 Law v Politics “Judges are bound by legal texts and their own prior precedents to a degree that political actors are not. And crucially, judges have an obligation to explain their results as the product of legal judgement.” Michael C. Dorf

3 To remember: Law is both a body of knowledge and a way of thinking about that knowledge: it is important to master both. Law is both a body of knowledge and a way of thinking about that knowledge: it is important to master both. You are expected to know not just what the law is, but why. Anytime you think about the answer to a legal question – ask yourself, why do I know that this is the answer? What is my legal source or authority? You are expected to know not just what the law is, but why. Anytime you think about the answer to a legal question – ask yourself, why do I know that this is the answer? What is my legal source or authority? You may disagree with some or indeed all of the substantive law which you are studying. But you cannot change it simply by disagreeing with it. If you want to change the law – that is turn your policy into law – you need to understand the law and its processes first. You may disagree with some or indeed all of the substantive law which you are studying. But you cannot change it simply by disagreeing with it. If you want to change the law – that is turn your policy into law – you need to understand the law and its processes first.

4 Law v Policy “Courts and judges are not meant to have agendas, and judges are not meant to seek popularity. They are expected to administer justice according to law, regardless of the consequences for their approval ratings. A judicial decision that pleases one side or the other of a partisan conflict will always attract applause or blame from some of the partisans, but people expect judges to attend to the task of administering justice and to leave politics to politicians.” Gleeson CJ

5 Law v Politics “Behind the legal issues that the Court must decide there often are intensely political concerns. Yet the Court is expected to resolve those issues according to law, and adhering to legal methodology. We expect judges to decide issues after hearing argument in specific cases.” Gleeson CJ

6 Legal approach v personal opinion “In Australia, one of the responsibilities of the High Court is to decide the constitutional validity of federal or State legislation. The public would be outraged if the Justices advanced, as a reason for holding legislation to be valid or invalid, their approval or disapproval of the policy of the legislation.” Gleeson CJ

7 Latham CJ, First Uniform Tax case "[T]he controversy before the Court is a legal controversy, not a political controversy. It is not for this or any court to prescribe policy or to seek to give effect to any views or opinions upon policy. We have nothing to do with the wisdom or expediency of legislation. Such questions are for Parliaments and the people... The Court must consider and deal with... [the] legal contention. But the Court is not authorized to consider whether the Acts are fair and just as between States - whether some States are being forced, by a political combination against them, to pay an undue share of Commonwealth expenditure or to provide money which other States ought fairly to provide. These are arguments to be used in Parliament and before the people. They raise questions of policy which it is not for the Court to determine or even to consider."

8 1.2 What is law? The Scope of Jurisprudence

9 What is ‘law’? Osborn’s Concise Law Dictionary tells us that “law” means: “ an obligatory rule of conduct. The commands of him or them that have coercive power (Hobbes). A law is a rule of conduct imposed and enforced by the Sovereign (Austin). But the law is the body of principles recognised and applied by the State in the administration of justice (Salmond). Blackstone, however, maintained that a rule of law made on a pre-existing custom exists as positive law apart from the legislator or judge”

10 Four answers: NATURAL LAW NATURAL LAW POSITIVISM POSITIVISM COMMON LAW COMMON LAW LEGAL REALISM LEGAL REALISM

11 NATURAL LAW Aristotle Aristotle Cicero Cicero St Thomas Aquinas St Thomas Aquinas Finnis Finnis Dominated Western thought until the 18th Century Dominated Western thought until the 18th Century Assertions about natural law were often the basis of the argument for individual or human rights and for imposing limitations on government Assertions about natural law were often the basis of the argument for individual or human rights and for imposing limitations on government Groundwork for the principles of international law Groundwork for the principles of international law

12 Cicero, De Re Publica “True law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting. It summons to duty by its commands, and averts from wrongdoing by its prohibitions….It is a sin to try to alter this law, nor is it allowable to repeal any part of it, and it is impossible to abolish it entirely.We cannot be freed from its obligations by Senate or people, and we need not look outside ourselves for an expounder or interpreter of it. And there will not be different laws at Rome and at Athens, or different laws now and in the future, but one eternal and unchangeable law will be valid for all nations and all times, and there will be one master and ruler, that is, God, over us all, for he is the author of this law, its promulgator, and its enforcing judge. Whoever is disobedient is fleeing from himself and denying his human nature, and by reason of this very fact he will suffer the worst penalties, even if he escapes what is commonly considered punishment”

13 Thomas Aquinas: 4 types of law – God’s plan for the universe 1. The Eternal – God’s plan for the universe that part of the eternal law which is discoverable by reason and which is to be found in the human mind 2. The Natural- that part of the eternal law which is discoverable by reason and which is to be found in the human mind - the law created by humans on the basis of natural reason, (or positive law) and 3. The Human - the law created by humans on the basis of natural reason, (or positive law) and – that law revealed in scripture. 4. The Divine – that law revealed in scripture.

14 The problem of “unjust laws” Lex iniusta non est lex: an unjust law is not a law Lex iniusta non est lex: an unjust law is not a law A just law : A just law : is consistent with the requirements of natural law is consistent with the requirements of natural law Does not exceed the authority of the law maker Does not exceed the authority of the law maker Imposes burdens on citizens fairly. Imposes burdens on citizens fairly.

15 Finnis’ basic goods 1. life (and health) 2. knowledge 3. play 4. aesthetic experience 5. sociability (friendship) 6. practical reasonableness 7. religion

16 POSITIVISM Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham John Austin John Austin HLA Hart HLA Hart Very influential over last 200 years and in current legal thinking; a critique of common law and natural law thinking Very influential over last 200 years and in current legal thinking; a critique of common law and natural law thinking

17 Positivism Is and ought or is and should are separate questions. Is and ought or is and should are separate questions. “The existence of law is one thing; its merit or demerit is another. Whether it be or be not is one enquiry; whether it be or be not conformable to an assumed standard, is a different enquiry. A law, which actually exists, is a law, though we happen to dislike it, or though it vary from the text, by which we regulate our approbation and disapprobation.” John Austin “The existence of law is one thing; its merit or demerit is another. Whether it be or be not is one enquiry; whether it be or be not conformable to an assumed standard, is a different enquiry. A law, which actually exists, is a law, though we happen to dislike it, or though it vary from the text, by which we regulate our approbation and disapprobation.” John Austin

18 Positivism Legal systems are created by (posited) by people rather than having some natural or metaphysical existence. Legal systems are created by (posited) by people rather than having some natural or metaphysical existence.

19 Law as a command: Austin Features of a command: Features of a command: a wish or desire of one rational being directed to another a wish or desire of one rational being directed to another this intention is communicated this intention is communicated if the command is not obeyed a punishment of some sort will result if the command is not obeyed a punishment of some sort will result

20 Command theory Austin: A law is a general command made by a sovereign Austin: A law is a general command made by a sovereign Problem: how could sovereigns – who make commands – be subject to the rule of law. Problem: how could sovereigns – who make commands – be subject to the rule of law. Rejected by HLA Hart Rejected by HLA Hart

21 HLA Hart Laws exist in two groups: Laws exist in two groups: primary rules (substantive law – eg road rules) primary rules (substantive law – eg road rules) Secondary rules (rules about rules – eg constitutions, procedural rules.) Secondary rules (rules about rules – eg constitutions, procedural rules.) “rule of recognition”. “rule of recognition”.

22 COMMON LAW Not necessarily what we think of as common law today, but the foundational ideas of much of common law thought. Not necessarily what we think of as common law today, but the foundational ideas of much of common law thought. Common law theory flowered in 16-18th centuries. Common law theory flowered in 16-18th centuries. Coke Coke Blackstone Blackstone Hale Hale Predominantly English Predominantly English

23 Common Law Law is not something made either by king, parliament or judges, but rather is the expression of a deeper reality which is merely discovered and publicly declared by them. (cf Trigwell’s case) Law is not something made either by king, parliament or judges, but rather is the expression of a deeper reality which is merely discovered and publicly declared by them. (cf Trigwell’s case) Precedent Precedent Written record, or reporting of law Written record, or reporting of law Judges declare law, they do not make law Judges declare law, they do not make law Individual judge is unimportant – “oracle” of the law Individual judge is unimportant – “oracle” of the law Law as artificial reason which must be learned Law as artificial reason which must be learned

24 Blackstone “judges…are the depositaries of the law; the living oracles, who must decide in all cases of doubt, and who are bound by an oath to decide according to the law of the land. Their knowledge of that law is derived from experience and study;…and from being long personally accustomed to the judicial decisions of their predecessors. And indeed these judicial decisions are the principal and most authoritative evidence….The judgement itself [is] carefully registered and preserved, under the name of records, in public repositories set apart for that particular purpose; and to them frequent recourse is had, when any critical question arises, in the determination of which former precedents may give light or assistance…For it is an established rule to abide by former precedents, where the same points come again in litigation; as well to keep the scale of justice even and steady, and not liable to waver with every new judge’s opinion”

25 Prohibitions del Roy : Coke “ A controversy of land between parties was heard by the King, and sentence given, which was repealed, for this, that it did belong to the common law: then the King said, that he thought the law was founded upon reason, and that he and others had reason, as well as the Judges; to which it was answered by me, that true it was, that God had endowed his Majesty with excellent science, and great endowments of nature; but his Majesty was not learned in the laws of his realm of England, and causes which concern the life, or inheritance, or goods, or fortunes of his subjects, are not to be decided by natural law reason, but by the artificial reason and judgement of law, which law is an act which requires long study and experience, before that a man can attain to the cognizance of it; and that the law was the golden met-wand and measure to try the causes of the subjects; and which protected his Majesty in safety and peace: with which the King was greatly offended and said, that then he should be under the law, which was treason to affirm, as he said: to which I said, that Bracton saith, quod Rex non debet esse sub homine, sed sub Deo et lege [that the King is under no man, but under God and the law].

26 Common Law Change is possible – through the incremental development of the common law by accumulated decisions, but a law which has stood the test of time is to be preferred to one which has simply been devised in a particular era. Change is possible – through the incremental development of the common law by accumulated decisions, but a law which has stood the test of time is to be preferred to one which has simply been devised in a particular era. Law organically connected to the people it serves through custom and tradition Law organically connected to the people it serves through custom and tradition

27 LEGAL REALISM Oliver Wendell Holmes (laid groundwork) Oliver Wendell Holmes (laid groundwork) “The prophecies of what the courts will do in fact, and nothing more pretentious, are what I mean by law” (This is the question which the bad man wants answered.) “The prophecies of what the courts will do in fact, and nothing more pretentious, are what I mean by law” (This is the question which the bad man wants answered.) John Dewey (Dewey decimal system) John Dewey (Dewey decimal system) Karl Llewellyn Karl Llewellyn Jerome Frank Jerome Frank 20th Century 20th Century

28 Legal Realism The life of the law does not exist in the application of pre-existing rules to concrete cases, but rather in the development through experience of legal principles. The life of the law does not exist in the application of pre-existing rules to concrete cases, but rather in the development through experience of legal principles. The law then, is what the courts do, not what they did two centuries ago (except insofar as it is a guide to what they will do now), or an abstract set of doctrines. The law then, is what the courts do, not what they did two centuries ago (except insofar as it is a guide to what they will do now), or an abstract set of doctrines. For realists, law is an inherently practical activity, which must be associated with the real world, as it is something which has a practical effect in the concrete world, and is not merely a body of abstract rules and doctrines. For realists, law is an inherently practical activity, which must be associated with the real world, as it is something which has a practical effect in the concrete world, and is not merely a body of abstract rules and doctrines.

29 Statute Law and Case Law

30 Sources of law Statute –laws made by ParliamentStatute –laws made by Parliament Case law – laws made by judges

31 Statutes v Case law Statutes operate from the general to the particular, whereas cases operate from the particular to the general.

32 CITATION OF STATUTES Statutes are always cited:Statutes are always cited: Title/Year/(Jurisdiction) Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 (Cth)Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 (Cth) Exotic Diseases of Animals Act 1993 (WA) s 6Exotic Diseases of Animals Act 1993 (WA) s 6 Methodist Church of Samoa in Australia Property Trust Act 1998 (NSW) s4(2)(d)Methodist Church of Samoa in Australia Property Trust Act 1998 (NSW) s4(2)(d)

33 STRUCTURE OF AN ACT NUMBERNUMBER DATEDATE LONG TITLELONG TITLE SHORT TITLESHORT TITLE PREAMBLE (OR PURPOSE CLAUSES INSTEAD OF A PREAMBLE)PREAMBLE (OR PURPOSE CLAUSES INSTEAD OF A PREAMBLE) Preamble always starts with “Whereas”Preamble always starts with “Whereas” TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTS PARTS OR CHAPTERS, DIVISIONS AND HEADINGSPARTS OR CHAPTERS, DIVISIONS AND HEADINGS

34 SYDNEY TURF CLUB ACT 1943 As at 13 November 2007 Act 22 of 1943 TABLE OF PROVISIONS Long Title Long Title An Act to constitute and incorporate a Sydney Turf Club and to declare its objects, functions and powers; to provide for the acquisition by that club of certain racecourses and the equipment thereof; to provide for the discontinuance of the licences of certain racecourses; to provide for the establishment of a Racing Compensation Fund in the Treasury; to amend the Gaming and Betting Act 1912 and certain other Acts; and for purposes connected therewith. PART 1 - PRELIMINARY 1 Name of Act and commencement (1) This Act may be cited as the Sydney Turf Club Act (2) This Act shall commence on a day to be appointed by the Governor and notified by proclamation published in the Gazette.

35 2. (Repealed) 3. Definitions 3A3A. Notes 3A PART 2 - SYDNEY TURF CLUB Division 1 - Incorporation and constitution 44. Constitution etc Application of income etc First members, directors and auditors 6

36 Division 2 - Objects, functions and powers 77. Objects and functions of Club Acting secretary 8 Division 3 - Financial 99. Temporary accommodation Power to borrow Insurance, and payments out of funds 11 Division 4 - (Repealed) None PART 3 - RACING COMPENSATION FUND (Repealed)

37 PART 4 - GENERAL Members defaulting in payment of bets not eligible to continue as members Rights of member personal By-laws Commencement of by-laws Public notification of by-laws Offences etc Exclusion of undesirable persons Directors may fix tolls and charges Power to let lands, buildings or tolls Inspection 28

38 2929. Club to repair etc Indemnity (Repealed) Regulations 32 SCHEDULE 1 SCHEDULE 1 Schedule 2 (Repealed) SCHEDULE 3 SCHEDULE 3

39 Three good sites for finding legislation:

40 The Section is the most important part of an Act Sections are sub-divided into: SECTION s1 SUB-SECTION(2) PARAGRAPH(a) SUB-PARAGRAPH(v)

41 TRADE PRACTICES ACT SECT 52 Misleading or deceptive conduct Misleading or deceptive conduct (1) A corporation shall not, in trade or commerce, engage in conduct that is misleading or deceptive or is likely to mislead or deceive.

42 Elements of s52(1) CorporationCorporation Trade or commerceTrade or commerce Engage in conductEngage in conduct Misleading or deceptiveMisleading or deceptive

43 Case law : relevant only to the parties Decision: relevant only to the parties Ratio decidendi : for decision : reason for decision : this answers the legal question for decision : this answers the legal question for decision : creates the : creates the binding law

44 CASE CITATION PLAINTIFF’S NAME v DEFENDANT’S NAME (Civil case) OR R v PERSON CHARGED WITH OFFENCE/DEFENDANT OR ACCUSED (Criminal case) THEN

45 YEAR in which the case was decided (in square or round brackets depending on the reporting system used)YEAR in which the case was decided (in square or round brackets depending on the reporting system used) VOLUME in which the case has been reportedVOLUME in which the case has been reported ABBREVIATION of the particular reportABBREVIATION of the particular report PAGE NUMBER at which the report begins, andPAGE NUMBER at which the report begins, and PAGE NUMBER from which you are quoting (and name of judge)PAGE NUMBER from which you are quoting (and name of judge)

46 Examples : Behrens v Bertram Mills Circus Ltd [1957] 2QB 1Behrens v Bertram Mills Circus Ltd [1957] 2QB 1 Australian Broadcasting Corporation v Lenah Game Meats Pty Ltd (2002) 208 CLR 199Australian Broadcasting Corporation v Lenah Game Meats Pty Ltd (2002) 208 CLR 199 R v Brown [1994] 1 AC 212R v Brown [1994] 1 AC 212

47 Vocabulary Ratio decidendi Ratio decidendi Rationes decidendi Rationes decidendi Obiter dicta Obiter dicta Obiter dictum Obiter dictum

48 Mary v Tom Mary and Tom are neighbours. Mary erects a dividing fence between the properties made out of cedar inlaid with ivory. She then seeks to recover half of the cost of the fence from her neighbour Tom pursuant to the Dividing Fences Act. Tom declines to pay, as he didn’t want a fence at all, certainly not a cedar fence as it clashes with his Tuscan landscaping, and doesn’t want to pay for the ivory inlays as they are all on Mary’s side. Mary sues Tom. Tom defends the suit claiming that the fence Mary erected is not a ‘dividing fence’ within the meaning of the Act.

49 Fact or law? The best way to tell the difference is to ask yourself, could a witness give evidence to answer this question? If yes – it is an issue of fact. If yes – it is an issue of fact. If no – it is an issue of law. If no – it is an issue of law.


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