Presentation on theme: "Phase II- 1957-1963. October 4 th 1957 The Soviets launched Sputnik. 1 st Satellite to Orbit the earth. Needed sophisticated missile technology to launch."— Presentation transcript:
October 4 th 1957 The Soviets launched Sputnik. 1 st Satellite to Orbit the earth. Needed sophisticated missile technology to launch ICBM- Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles- made it possible to launch nuclear weapons from Soviet Union to US in 30 minutes. Led to the Creation of NASA and an emphasis on Math, Science and foreign languages in the education system “Space Race” between Soviets and US. Wanted to be the 1 st to put a man on the Moon (1969).
Post WWII most of Latin American countries were in economic turmoil sought aid from the superpowers. 1950’s Cuba ruled by a US backed dictator Batista 1959 Fidel Castro led a Communist Revolution – Nationalized Cuban economy taking over US owned sugar mills and refineries – Eisenhower responded with a trade embargo on all Cuban products – Castro turned to the Soviets for help (economic military) – Cuba, Only 90 Miles off the US coast. US feared that Communists would use Cuba as a base to spread communism throughout the West
The Bay of Pigs – Covert CIA mission to try and overthrow Fidel Castro – A communist who had overthrown the US backed leader in Cuba. CIA trained and armed Cuban exiles (La Brigada) to overthrow Castro. April 17 th 1961 1,400 Cuban exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs Kennedy cancelled air support, no popular uprising occurred Castro easily captured Cuban exiles Significance - Made America look weak and disorganized
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev wanted the West to recognize East Germany and withdraw from Berlin. Khrushchev also wanted to stop the flow of East Germans to West Berlin. US refused Soviets responded by building a wall through Berlin. Guards shot those trying to escape into West Berlin. Becomes the physical symbol of the Cold War
US installed nuclear weapons in Turkey Soviets respond by trying to place nuclear weapons in Cuba Soviet perspective is that this creates parity October US spy Planes discover 42 missile sites being built US sees Latin America as its sphere of influence Kennedy orders a naval blockade to stop Soviets from bringing any more missiles
Kennedy Demanded removal of missiles Deal was struck Kennedy publicly agreed not to invade Cuba, Privately to dismantle missiles in Turkey. Soviets removed missiles from Cuba. Significance – demonstrated the failure of Brinkmanship. No means of dealing with crisis No red phone Communication through informal means
Soviets and US agreed to a Treaty to ban the testing of nuclear weapons Backing down to US cost Khrushchev politically. Showed Soviets their military inferiority – created a massive military build up.
People thought that the Communists were trying to take over the world and were infiltrating American governmental organizations and society in general. Subversion – effort to secretly weaken a society and overthrow the government.
Fear of Communism and nuclear war dominated people’s lives. Schools practicing “duck and cover” senarios Marketing of fallout shelters – mini buildings that would protect you from radiation, people could stock them with food and supplies. TV shows depicted undercover agents fighting communism Books told stories of the aftermath of nuclear war
1947 Truman created the loyalty review program- which screened all federal employees for communist ties. Had the effect of confirming peoples fears that Communists had infiltrated the government. Over 2,000 federal employees quit and 212 were fired
House of Un-American Activities (HUAC) was created to investigate Communist and Fascist activities in 1938. HUAC began holding high profile hearings. Put Hollywood on trial –Blacklisted actors, writers etc. that were thought to have communist ties The Rosenbergs – Members of the Communist Party -Accused of selling secrets of the atomic bomb to the Soviets Convicted of espionage- executed in 1953. Project Venona – secret documents that cracked the Soviet spy code – held evidence of the Rosenbergs guilt. (Ethel is currently considered innocent)
Wisconsin senator – who stated that he had a list of 205 people who worked for the state department who were members of the Communist Party. McCarthy became the head of HUAC in 1952 and began a “witch-hunt” for disloyal Americans based on no real evidence. McCarthy used theatrics to arouse fear and damage people’s careers. Army-McCarthy Hearings were televised Eventually Americans got fed up with his antics and he lost political viability