Presentation on theme: "World War II. Introduction: Most devastating war in human history 55 million dead 1 trillion dollars Began in 1939 as strictly a European Conflict Widened."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction: Most devastating war in human history 55 million dead 1 trillion dollars Began in 1939 as strictly a European Conflict Widened to include most of the world
How It Began: WWI leftovers Defeated Germany had to pay the cost of war. Restrictions from the Treaty of Versailles prevents Germany from rebuilding their military Italy victorious but wanted more territory Japan victorious but wanted China Outside factors…
What Were These Outside Factors? Germany reduced size Organized League of Nations France and Britain unsure, scared of another war U.S. isolationist, also scared of another war
Rise of Hitler Nazi Party organized, 1920s Nazi party largest in Germany, 1932 Hitler voted as chancellor, 1933 New parliament created 450, 000 members Larger than German army
Hitler Gets Busy Gestapo Created -- April, 1933 Jewish Boycott – April, 1933 Jewish Books Banned & Burned – May, 1933 27,000 People in Camps – July, 1933 60,000 People in Camps – 1938 Illegal to Leave Germany – October, 1941
German Territorial Gains Austria – March, 1938 Border of Czechoslovakia – Sept., 1938 All of Czechoslovakia – March, 1939 Poland – Sept., 1939 By Summer of 1940, Germany Controlled Most of Europe World shocked as France falls to Germans
Making Friends With Hitler Stalin and the Soviet Union, 1939 Betrayed by 1941 Mussolini and Italy, 1939 Until Italian overthrow of Mussolini in 1943
Japan Japan is also in economic crisis Japan was “China Hungry” Japanese angry over U.S. support of China Officially allied itself with Germany in 1940
D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944 Allied troops landed at Omaha Beach. Allies suffered over 2,000 casualties. Within one week, ½ million men came ashore. By late July, Allies had over 2 million troops in France
Liberating France Ground gained at Normandy General Patton pushes through northern France Uprising started by the French Resistance frees Paris
War in Europe Ends In March 1945 Allied bombers increase strikes of German cities Soviet forces advance from the east April 25, 1945 – Soviet forces meet up with American forces Hitler commits suicide in an underground bunker in Berlin on April 30, 1945
V-E Day V-E (Victory in Europe Day) May 8, 1945, Germany surrenders Celebration is quickly quelled by the discovery of The Holocaust
War in the Pacific Attack on Pearl Harbor just the beginning… Hours after Pearl Harbor, Japanese warplanes bombed Clark Field, an American air base in the Philippines. Japanese attack American bases on Wake Island on Dec. 8 Bases in Guam are attacked Dec. 10
WHY??? Attacks were designed to gain control of the Western Pacific. Hoped to shatter American forces Hoped for American withdrawal from the area.
The Philippines Fall Over 11,000 Americans and Filipinos surrender to invading Japanese on May 6. 76,000 Filipinos and Americans in total were captured and held as prisoners of war. Japanese split these POWs into groups of 500-1,000 to be moved into an army camp.
Bataan Death March POWs were forced to march many miles. During the march they were denied water and rest. Those who could not keep up were beaten, tortured, and often shot. At least 10,000 POWs died during the 6-12 day march. Those who survived were sent to prison camps where an additional 15,000 died.
China Enters the War Officially joins Allies on Dec. 9, 1941 Chinese armies were poorly trained and quickly lost control of the Burma Road to the Japanese.
Doolittle Raid In April 1942, American B-25 bombers took off, lead by Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle. The planes flew 650 miles to Japan to carry out a counterattack. Dropped bombs on Tokyo and other cities before crash landing in China. Little damage but boosted morale.
Battle of Midway Began June 4, 1942. Key island about 1,100 miles northwest of Hawaii. Fought entirely from the air. Americans sank 4 Japanese carriers and downed 250 planes killing most of Japan’s most skilled naval pilots. American victory was due to break of Japanese code JN-25.
Battle of Guadalcanal Allies finally have offensive in the Pacific. First goal is to take Guadalcanal where Japanese were building an airfield. More than 11,000 marines landed on the island in August 1942. The 2,200 Japanese who were defending the island fled into the jungle.
“Jungle Warfare” Americans were forced to fight in the jungle. Marines were easy targets for snipers. Both sides landed thousands of reinforcements. After 5 months of fighting, Japan’s forces left the island in Feb. 1943.
Island-Hopping Americans selectively attacked key islands, cutting off other islands. This helped Americans move closer to their ultimate goal… JAPAN!!
Iwo Jima One of the bloodiest battles of the war. Tiny island, 700 miles from Japan. Steep, rocky slopes were covered with caves and tunnels controlled by the Japanese. For 74 days, American planes poured nearly 7,000 tons of bombs on the island.
Iwo Jima Americans stormed the beaches in Feb. 1945 encountering fierce resistance. After 3 days of combat, Americans had advanced only about 700 yards inland. Eventually nearly 110,000 Americans were on the island fighting only 25,000 Japanese. After 1 month, Americans secured the island. Only 216 Japanese were captured.
Casualties of Iwo Jima Americans suffered an estimated 25,000 casualties. 27 Medals of Honor were awarded. This photo came to symbolize the struggles and sacrifices of American troops.
Battle of Okinawa Small island, 350 miles from Japan Fought from April to June of 1945 Final obstacle to a Japanese invasion. Over 100,000 defenders pledged to fight to the death Allies send 1,300 warships and over 180,000 troops to invade the island. Effort is second only to D- Day. Japanese flew nearly 2,000 kamikaze attacks. Defenders used banzai charges to keep U.S. out.
Casualties of Okinawa Japanese surrender after 3 months. 7,200 Japanese remained to surrender. Nearly 50,000 Americans died. Deadliest battle of the Pacific war. “We would attack during the day, dig in for the night – not for sleep but for safety… And then, at night, they would come a screaming banzai or a single shadow.” -An American GI at Okinawa
The Invasion of Japan? After grueling battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa, Americans are aware of how costly an invasion would be. Japanese had proven their willingness to die for their cause.
The Manhattan Project In August 1939, Einstein sends a letter to Roosevelt warning of a new bomb Germans could build. Roosevelt creates a team of scientists to build the atomic bomb first. Called the Manhattan Project.
The Atomic Bomb July 16, 1945, scientists field test the first atomic bomb in New Mexico. “Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.” Bhagavad Gita, the Hindu holy book (Recalled by J. Robert Oppenheimer)
Possible Scenarios to End the War 1.Massive invasion of Japan, expected to cost millions in Allied casualties. 2.Naval blockade to starve Japan, along with conventional bombing. 1.Demonstration of the new weapon on a deserted island to pressure Japan to surrender. 2.Softening of Allied demands for an unconditional surrender.
What To Do??? Roosevelt dies suddenly in April 1945, making Harry S. Truman President. An advisory group of scientists, military leaders, and government officials met to debate the options. The final decision, however, rested with President Truman.
Truman Decides Easy decision for Truman Bomb is a military weapon, made to be used. “You should do your weeping at Pearl Harbor.” Truman to his critics, 1963
August 6, 1945 The Enola Gay dropped a single bomb on Hiroshima, a city in southern Japan and the site of a large army base.