Presentation on theme: "Intro to Freedom “Give me liberty or give me death!” – Patrick Henry."— Presentation transcript:
Intro to Freedom “Give me liberty or give me death!” – Patrick Henry
Authority Men, it seems, have always subjected themselves to authority. The ancient kingdoms were states totally controlled by the will of a single man. This king told men to buy, sell, produce, fight, etc. Men did not need to think. They had no reason to. Theirs was to obey or be punished.
Freedom 1 : the quality or state of being free: as a : the absence of necessity, coercion, or constraint in choice or action b : liberation from slavery or restraint or from the power of another : INDEPENDENCE c : the quality or state of being exempt or released usually from something onerous d : EASE, FACILITY e : the quality of being frank, open, or outspoken f : improper familiarity g : boldness of conception or execution h : unrestricted use 1 : the quality or state of being free: as a : the absence of necessity, coercion, or constraint in choice or action b : liberation from slavery or restraint or from the power of another : INDEPENDENCE c : the quality or state of being exempt or released usually from something onerous d : EASE, FACILITY e : the quality of being frank, open, or outspoken f : improper familiarity g : boldness of conception or execution h : unrestricted use 2 a : a political right b : FRANCHISE, PRIVILEGE synonyms FREEDOM, LIBERTY, LICENSE mean the power or condition of acting without compulsion. FREEDOM has a broad range of application from total absence of restraint to merely a sense of not being unduly hampered or frustrated. LIBERTY suggests release from former restraint or compulsion. LICENSE implies freedom specially granted or conceded and may connote an abuse of freedom.
Ancient India 1000BC, Indian Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita swa means “one’s own” and raj means “to rule over” Two understandings of the meaning –Political sense –Spiritual or psychological sense
Ancient India Political Freedom –Rule over self and freedom of action –Self rule of country by natives Spiritual Freedom –through self-knowledge, one acquires freedom from ignorance, illusion and fear
Ancient India Spiritual Freedom –A person is unfree if obsessed with money or possessions. The Bhagavad Gita tells us that a truly free person acts without craving. –Spiritual liberation comes from understanding ones unity with all beings. This revelation brings freedom from alienation, divisiveness and fear. –The free person can see himself in all beings and all beings in himself.
Ancient India Notice the idea that freedom comes in recognizing interdependence, not independence. Swaraj is a paradigm it that it represents freedom in internal and external senses. This duality is echoed by many subsequent philosophers.
Ancient Israel "Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. Then God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” And God said, “See, I have given you every herb that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed; to you it shall be for food. Also, to every beast of the earth, to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every green herb for food”; and it was so." (Genesis 1:26-30 NKJV)
Ancient Israel Was Adam created free? Does God give Adam a divine right to be absolute monarch? What changes at the fall? (Gen 3:14-19)
Ancient Israel Abraham –A man who lived free –Denial of polytheism –Belief in a single God: Creator and Judge –God does not force men, He simple judges their actions.
Ancient Israel Moses –Slaves are fed. No wonder the children of Israel howled for food in the wilderness –Moses taught personal freedom and responsibility –No god or king was going to control them, and take care of them. The One God would judge their actions, so they must obey Him, but they must chose to obey for, they were free.
Ancient Israel Moses –the people keep trying to make idols, something to tell them what to do. Finally God through Moses gives them the 10 Commandments. –But notice the Commands. Do any of them tell you what to do? –3 of the 10 command prohibit the creation of an image, picture or description of God. God demands that people understand Him through what He has revealed, not through conception
Ancient Israel Read Duet 17:14-20 Does God want a king over Israel? What are the thing the king is not to do? What is the last warning?
Ancient Israel Gideon –"Then the men of Israel said to Gideon, “Rule over us, both you and your son, and your grandson also; for you have delivered us from the hand of Midian.” But Gideon said to them, “I will not rule over you, nor shall my son rule over you; the Lord shall rule over you.”" (Judges 8:22-23 NKJV) Samuel – Read 1 Samuel 8.
Ancient Israel The nation of Israel lived under the rule of law, but had no king or central government It existed this way for several hundred years. This is the natural state of man: to follow a set of rules to keep order and to otherwise act and carry out business as one pleases
Ancient Greek Cities The Greeks understood freedom in both physical and spiritual ways Athens was a free state where the people were tolerant in their public and private lives Pericles called Athens “the apostle of freedom and an education to all of Greece.” Pericles advocated the external/political idea of freedom which most Greeks held
Ancient Greek Cities Democracy was the product of freedom in Athens. Athens had about 360,000 people of which about 40,000 were men of citizen class. These men were extremely active in the political system
Ancient Greek Cities Plato and “The Republic” Decline of Athens already in effect –The execution of Socrates Treason Leading the youth astray –Plato condemns the democratic idea short sighted, easily manipulated by demogogues –Plato wanted meritocracy.
Christian Thought "Then Jesus said to those Jews who believed Him, “If you abide in My word, you are My disciples indeed. And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.” They answered Him, “We are Abraham’s descendants, and have never been in bondage to anyone. How can You say, ‘You will be made free’?” Jesus answered them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, whoever commits sin is a slave of sin. And a slave does not abide in the house forever, but a son abides forever. Therefore if the Son makes you free, you shall be free indeed." (John 8:31-36 NKJV)
Christian Thought "So He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up. And as His custom was, He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. And He was handed the book of the prophet Isaiah. And when He had opened the book, He found the place where it was written: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, Because He has anointed Me To preach the gospel to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives And recovery of sight to the blind, To set at liberty those who are oppressed; To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.”" (Luke 4:16-19 NKJV)
Christian Thought "Jesus said to him, ‘You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’ This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like it: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets.”" (Matthew 22:37-40 NKJV)
Christian Thought Jesus didn’t add anything to what the Moses had already said. He countered the contemporary misapplication and restored a proper meaning. The Four groups of the day –Essenes –Sadducees –Pharisees –Zealots
Christian Thought Christ, like the Greek and Hindi philosophers before Him, believed in the two kinds of freedom. Christ’s personal mission was for spiritual freedom. The Mosaic writings, accepted by Christ, leave us with the case for political freedom.
Moslem Thoughts The Pagan environment of Mecca Mohammed’s message –One God –Individual Freedom –Equality of man Mohammed chased from Mecca and fights at Medina. Wins and his message spreads.
Moslem Thoughts This free thought spread across Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa. These lands became free. Merchants were free to trade from west Africa to India. The basic laws of nature were reinstated and men were free to prosper. College were built and great amounts of research was done.
Moslem Thoughts Dark Ages in Europe were the Age of Discovery in the Moslem world. There was no ruler of the Moslem world. Each area setup government as it saw fit. The Islamic idea echoed the Mosaic and Christian ideas but put them into practice differently.
Feudalism In Europe, the kings were absolute sovereigns. This was the way in England as well. In England, John taxed the barons so much they revolted against him and made him sign the Magna Charta. This set in place a system of freedoms.
Feudalism In the feudal order, all men are equal as men before God or before the law, but they are not equal in class. Each class has duties and obligations to other classes and enjoys certain freedoms. Thus, each man is free in his own class and knows his place.
The American Experiment The Founding Fathers put the two pieces together (all men are brothers and all men are free) and built a government based upon it. They were learned men; men who had read The Bible, The Republic and The Treaties on Government by Locke. They understood that no authority can control men without causing damage.
The American Experiment They also understood the need for representative government checked by the Natural Law. Men must be free but freedom must be checked by law. This unleashed an era of prosperity unlike anything the world has ever seen. Free men will live well and own and trade.