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Cold War in China and Korea Previously China- civil war between communists Mao Zedong and the nationalists; Japan invaded (WWII ) fighting put on hold.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War in China and Korea Previously China- civil war between communists Mao Zedong and the nationalists; Japan invaded (WWII ) fighting put on hold."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War in China and Korea Previously China- civil war between communists Mao Zedong and the nationalists; Japan invaded (WWII ) fighting put on hold. North controlled by communists- South controlled by nationalistsNorth controlled by communists- South controlled by nationalists Civil War resumes- Nationalists better supplied and bigger army- funded by the U.S.- nationalists did little to gain the people’s support and many deserted to the communist side- communists win!!! 1950People’s Republic of China signs a friendship treaty with Russia Nationalists flee to Taiwan (an island off of China) and set up a govt.Nationalists flee to Taiwan (an island off of China) and set up a govt.

2 1950’s China take control of surrounding areas- Tibet, Mongolia, parts of IndiaChina take control of surrounding areas- Tibet, Mongolia, parts of India Industry is taken over by the state and production is increased.Industry is taken over by the state and production is increased. Land is taken from wealthy landlords and given to the peasants or formed in communes (community living farms)Land is taken from wealthy landlords and given to the peasants or formed in communes (community living farms) 1960Friendship with Soviets end 1966Cultural Revolution- Mao wants to confirm power- students join the Red Guard to restore equality- attacked anyone with privilege, government officials, parents, intellectuals, factory managers- closed down schools and colleges 1976China in chaos- Red Guard is dissolved, Cultural Revolution stopped, many were killed

3 Korea Previous to WWII- Japan controlled Korea, at the end of the war Korea was divided (Soviets) N & S (U.S.) at the 38th parallel June 1950N Korea invades S Korea, Containment policy. S Korea asks U.N. for help. U.N. sends an international force, led by US Oct N pushes S to tip of country - General MacArthur led attack, land behind at Inchon, trap in between & defeat N - captures half of N.’s forces and pushes the rest back almost to China. 1950Chinese forces join with N. Korea & push the U.S. back to 38th next two years fought back to 38th parallelnext two years fought back to 38th parallel 1953 sign a cease-fire agreement, the country stays divided Then- Now - South Korea flourished with the help of U.S. aid- free democratic elections in the 80’s, strong economically - N. Korea hard times, has Nuclear weapons, flash them around for everyone to see. - N. Korea hard times, has Nuclear weapons, flash them around for everyone to see.

4 Cold War Around the World World Grouped into 3 sectionsWorld Grouped into 3 sections –1st world- U.S. and allies –2nd world- Soviets and allies –3rd world- developing nations- often characterized by poverty and political instability- places like Asia, Africa, Latin America Both the Soviets and U.S. try to gain alliances with these countries by:Both the Soviets and U.S. try to gain alliances with these countries by: –Humanitarian Aid- building schools, hospital, providing supplies –Spying and secret activities/assassinations - CIA (us) KGB (Russia) –Supporting of different sides in revolutions, political uprisings Some countries create their own alliance of non-aligned countries led by India and Indonesia.Some countries create their own alliance of non-aligned countries led by India and Indonesia.

5 Latin America Often between short lived democracies and harsh dictatorsOften between short lived democracies and harsh dictators After WWII most countries overwhelmed with revolutionary movements. The Soviets and the Americans give military aid, supplies and special forces into the conflicts.After WWII most countries overwhelmed with revolutionary movements. The Soviets and the Americans give military aid, supplies and special forces into the conflicts. Nicaragua- US supports dictator- communist rebels (Sandinistas) overthrow dictator- 10 year civil war- US funds anti- comm group- ContrasNicaragua- US supports dictator- communist rebels (Sandinistas) overthrow dictator- 10 year civil war- US funds anti- comm group- Contras Middle east- Iran- US supports shah (dictator) stops his overthrow helps him keep power until flees country comes to US for cancer treatment- fundamentalist group takes over- Iranian hostage crisis- 1 year- 60 hostages- fighting between Iran and IraqIran- US supports shah (dictator) stops his overthrow helps him keep power until flees country comes to US for cancer treatment- fundamentalist group takes over- Iranian hostage crisis- 1 year- 60 hostages- fighting between Iran and Iraq Egypt- looks to soviets for aid, British remove $ for dam, Egypt takes Suez canal, Britian/ France invade, nuclear threats both sides, UN cease fire aggreementEgypt- looks to soviets for aid, British remove $ for dam, Egypt takes Suez canal, Britian/ France invade, nuclear threats both sides, UN cease fire aggreement Afghanistan-1970s communist govt set by Soviets, rebel overthrow, Soviets invade, get stuck fighting in Afganistan for 10 years, US supplies fightersAfghanistan-1970s communist govt set by Soviets, rebel overthrow, Soviets invade, get stuck fighting in Afganistan for 10 years, US supplies fightersAfrica Soviet Union aids fights against colonial powers Congo, 1971 Mozambique, 1974 AngolaSoviet Union aids fights against colonial powers Congo, 1971 Mozambique, 1974 Angola

6 Cuba U.S. supported dictator Batista is overthrown by Communist movement, led by Fidel Castro1959- U.S. supported dictator Batista is overthrown by Communist movement, led by Fidel Castro Castro put in reforms that helped the people: economy, literacy, health care, women’s rights, but was a harsh dictator- executing opposition and silencing the pressCastro put in reforms that helped the people: economy, literacy, health care, women’s rights, but was a harsh dictator- executing opposition and silencing the press Castro took over U.S. owned sugar mills, U.S. trade embargo- stopping all trade with CubaCastro took over U.S. owned sugar mills, U.S. trade embargo- stopping all trade with Cuba April CIA trained Cuban exiles attempted to retake with Cuba an Invasion called the Bay of Pigs, but without air support from the U.S. the attack failed miserably and the U.S. was humiliated.April CIA trained Cuban exiles attempted to retake with Cuba an Invasion called the Bay of Pigs, but without air support from the U.S. the attack failed miserably and the U.S. was humiliated.

7 Cuban Missile Crisis- July After the failed invasion the Soviets (doubting the U.S.) built secret missile sites in Cuba,July After the failed invasion the Soviets (doubting the U.S.) built secret missile sites in Cuba, discovered by an American Spy plane, standoff began.discovered by an American Spy plane, standoff began. U.S. demanded the missiles moved, blockade of Cuba.U.S. demanded the missiles moved, blockade of Cuba. Troops in Florida ready to invadeTroops in Florida ready to invade Soviets backed down with the promise that we would not invade and remove our missiles from Turkey.Soviets backed down with the promise that we would not invade and remove our missiles from Turkey. Cuba is dependent on Soviet for aid, fight with them around the world.Cuba is dependent on Soviet for aid, fight with them around the world When the Soviet Union collapsed, aid to Cuba stopped and its economy fell apart. Castro refuses to ask for help or make economic reforms and Cuba continues to struggle under the U.S. embargo1991- When the Soviet Union collapsed, aid to Cuba stopped and its economy fell apart. Castro refuses to ask for help or make economic reforms and Cuba continues to struggle under the U.S. embargo

8 Cold War in Vietnam Vietnam was originally a French colony in Southeast Asia.Vietnam was originally a French colony in Southeast Asia. 1930’sHo Chi Minh led the Communist party in Vietnam, the fight for freedom from French. 1940’sHo Chi Minh try to fight off the Japanese and assist American fighters in the area. 1945Japanese leave at the end of WWII, Vietnamese expect freedom but the French take the colony back Vietnamese under Ho Chi Minh fight the French. Vietminh- Communist Vietnamese forces. French control cities, Vietminh control countryside. Lost major battle at Dien Bien Phu, the French in the North surrender Vietnam is divided between the communists in the N and the French & Americans in the S at the Geneva Peace Conference. S is promised free elections to decide their fate in 2 yrsS is promised free elections to decide their fate in 2 yrs French influence in Vietnam decreases the US increases, containment policy, hoping to stop communism from spreading.French influence in Vietnam decreases the US increases, containment policy, hoping to stop communism from spreading.

9 During the 50’s, 60’s Domino Theory, if one country fell to communism those around it would also fall.Domino Theory, if one country fell to communism those around it would also fall. The Americans put into power Ngo Dinh Diem, head of S Vietnam, free elections cancelled b/c they thought they would loseThe Americans put into power Ngo Dinh Diem, head of S Vietnam, free elections cancelled b/c they thought they would lose Diem is a harsh dictator, disliked by many of the people.Diem is a harsh dictator, disliked by many of the people. After canceled elections communist supporters grow in S. Vietnam, and N. Vietnam attacksAfter canceled elections communist supporters grow in S. Vietnam, and N. Vietnam attacks weapons, supplies and thousands of military advisors were sent to S. Vietnam to help train the Vietnamese and support the army.weapons, supplies and thousands of military advisors were sent to S. Vietnam to help train the Vietnamese and support the army. 1963Diem is assassinated with the permission of the U.S. but the new leaders are not any more successful. 1964Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- two American ships were said to be attacked by N. Vietnam and Congress allowed troops to be sent.

10 1968/69Height of war in Vietnam- 500,000 troops, massive bombing of northern cities but U.S. faced several major problems- S. Vietnam govt unpopular- little backing for the warS. Vietnam govt unpopular- little backing for the war Fighting guerrilla war in unknown land, could never tell who the enemy wasFighting guerrilla war in unknown land, could never tell who the enemy was Continuous troop rotation- finally figure out what is happening then they go homeContinuous troop rotation- finally figure out what is happening then they go home Discontent at home in U.S./ war protestsDiscontent at home in U.S./ war protests Nixon turns war over to Vietnamese in Vietnamization and gradual withdrawal, heavy bombing, negotiate peace treaty- War is over 1975S. Vietnam fell to the communists, Cambodia also falls to communism Then –now1.5 million people fled Vietnam when it fell to communism, many killed for anti-Communist beliefs. It is still communist in the 90’s, it began to open itself to international trade and investment.Then –now1.5 million people fled Vietnam when it fell to communism, many killed for anti-Communist beliefs. It is still communist in the 90’s, it began to open itself to international trade and investment.


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