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Map of Europe, 1715. 17 th Century European Constitutions.

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Presentation on theme: "Map of Europe, 1715. 17 th Century European Constitutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Map of Europe, 1715

2 17 th Century European Constitutions

3 The Ancien Régime Absolutism 16 th -17 th Century Political Background Theorists: Bossuet, Hobbes System of Privilege Clergy, Nobility, Commoners Louis XIV by H. Rigaud

4 Chateau de Versailles A Few Figures 800 hectares (2,000 acres) of grounds 20 kilometres (12 miles) of roads 46 kilometres (27 miles) of trellises 200,000 trees 210,000 flowers planted every year 132 kilometres (80 miles) of rows of trees 23 hectares (55 acres): surface area of the Grand Canal 5.57 kilometres (3.3 miles): perimeter of the Grand Canal 20 kilometres (12 miles) of enclosing walls 50 fountains 620 fountain nozzles 35 kilometres (21 miles) of water conduits 11 hectares (26 acres) of roof 51,210 square meters of floors 2,153 windows 700 rooms 67 staircases 6,000 paintings 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings 2,100 sculptures 5,000 items of furniture and objets d'art 150 varieties of apple and peach trees

5 The Enlightenment The Philosophes Baron de Montesquieu ( ) François Marie Arouet Voltaire ( ) Denis Diderot ( ) Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( )

6 The Scottish Enlightenment Adam Smith ( ) The Wealth of Nations, 1776 Laws of Supply and Demand The ‘Invisible Hand’ of competition Laissez-faire

7 The Origins of the French Revolution: The Noble Revolt Necker’s Budget Taxation Reform Noble Demands Doubling the Third and Vote by Head Elections and the Cahiers Abbé Sieyes, What is the Third Estate? Jacques Necker ( )

8 Necker Gambles with the King

9 The Two-headed Monster King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette

10 The People under the Old Régime

11 The Awakening of the Third Estate

12 I. Price of Bread in Sous II. % of Income Spent on Bread, , 14.5, 13.5, 12 sous per loaf) Workers & the Economy,

13 From Third Estate to National Assembly, 1789 National Assembly, June 17, 1789 Tennis Court Oath, June 20, 1789 Tennis Court Oath, June 20, 1789 Storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 Storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 The Great Fear The Night of August 4 th : Abolition of privileges End of “feudalism” View of the Siege and Storming of the Bastille, Jean-Pierre Houel © Photothèque des musées de la Ville de Paris

14 Jacques-Louis David: Painter of the Revolution The Oath of the Tennis Court

15 Participants in the Storming of the Bastille, Total Arrests Joiners (49) Cabinet-Makers (48) Locksmiths (41) Shoe-makers (28) Shopkeeper Assistants (22) Gauze Makers (22) Sculptors (20)

16 The Great Fear, 1789

17 The Liberal Revolution Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen: Written Constitution Equality before the Law Freedom of Speech, Press, Association and Religion Meritocracy Private Property

18 War and Revolution Legislative Assembly, France declares war on Austria : 20 April 1792 Brunswick Manifesto : 25 July 1792 Paris Commune : 10 August 1792 The sans-culottes movement National Convention (Sept July 1794) Girondins v. Mountain Monarchy Abolished Republic Founded King Guillotined, January 1793

19 J.-L. David, Sketch of Marie Antoinette

20 Songs of the Revolution It'll Be Okay Translation It'll Be Okay Translation Popular during the early years of the Revolution, this song's lively tune and repetitive chorus expressed revolutionaries' hopefulness about the future. The Marseillaise (War Song for the Army of the Rhine) Translation The Marseillaise (War Song for the Army of the Rhine) Translation Joseph Rouget de Lisle, Gillaume Guillon Lethière, The Fatherland in Danger

21 Ca Ira (It’ll be O.K.) “It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K." Let's string up the aristocrats on the lampposts! "It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K," We'll string up the aristocrats! Liberty will triumph “It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K," And we will no longer have nobles or priests "It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K,"" Equality will reign throughout the land And the Austrian slave will follow it. "It’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K., it’ll be O.K," And their hellish clique will be sent to the devil.

22 The Marseillaise Arise you children of our motherland, Oh now is here our glorious day ! Over us the bloodstained banner Of tyranny holds sway ! Of tyranny holds sway ! Oh, do you hear there in our fields The roar of those fierce fighting men ? Who came right here into our midst To slaughter sons, wives and kin. To arms, oh citizens ! Form up in serried ranks ! March on, march on ! And drench our fields With their tainted blood ! Supreme devotion to our Motherland, Guides and sustains avenging hands. Liberty, oh dearest Liberty, Come fight with your shielding bands, Come fight with your shielding bands ! Beneath our banner come, oh Victory, Run at your soul-stirring cry. Oh come, come see your foes now die, Witness your pride and our glory. To arms, etc.. Into the fight we too shall enter, When our fathers are dead and gone, We shall find their bones laid down to rest, With the fame of their glories won, With the fame of their glories won ! Oh, to survive them care we not, Glad are we to share their grave, Great honor is to be our lot To follow or to avenge our brave. To arms, etc..

23 The Reign of Terror, Committee of Public Safety, March 1793-July 1794 Maximilien Robespierre ( ) Threats to Revolutionary France  Invasion: Massed levy  Civil War: Vendée Rebellion  Terror and the Republic of Virtue  Approx. 40,000 guillotined  De-christianization  New calendar  Metric system

24 Executions during the Reign of Terror, % Classes in France (86, 8, 4, 1.5, 0.5%) Executions (28, 31, 25, 8, 7%)

25 J.-L. David, Death of Marat

26 The Propaganda War

27 Empire and Restoration: Outline Directory, Consulate, Empire, The 100 Days, 1815 Bourbon Restoration, Congress of Vienna Napoleon by A.-J. Gros, Chateau de Versailles

28 Napoleon Bonaparte to 1799 Career to 1799 Born, Corsica, 1769 École Militaire, 1779 Battle of Toulon, 1793 Army of Italy, 1796 Defeat of Austria (Treaty of Campo Formio, 1797) Egyptian Expedition, 1798 J.-L. David, Bonaparte Leaping the St. Bernard

29 French Expansion,

30 The Rosetta Stone ©The British Museum

31 Bonaparte’s Military Exploits Military Career to th Brumaire (9 Nov. 1799) overthrows Directory Battle of Austerlitz, 1805 Battle of Jena, 1806 Russian Campaign, 1812 Battle of Leipzig, 1813 Abdication, April Days, March-June 1815 Waterloo, June 1815 J.-A.-D. Ingres, Napoleon on his Imperial Throne, 1806

32 David’s Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon (1804)

33 Bonaparte and French Society Radical or Reactionary? State Secondary Schools, 1802 Restoration of titles, 1804 Legion of Honor, 1804 Napoleonic Code, 1804 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, The Empress Josephine (1805)

34 Congress of Vienna Postwar Settlement Restoration of France ‘Spheres of influence’ not ‘balance of power’ Pragmatic acceptance of some change ‘Metternich system’ of absolutism Sir Thomas Lawrence, Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry (Lord Castlereagh),

35 Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815

36 The Industrial Revolution: The ‘Putting-out’ System

37 Who wants to be a Cotton Millionaire?

38 The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, I Steam Engines Thomas Newcomen (1712) James Watt (1781) Example of a Cornish Beam Engine Example of a Cornish Beam Engine Watt steam engine, 1781 Surviving Newcomen engine

39 The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, II Cotton Industry: John Kay, Flying Shuttle, 1722 James Hargreaves, spinning jenny, 1764 Richard Arkwright, water frame, 1769 Arkwright water frame, 1785 Reproduction of 1770 spinning jenny

40 The Industrial Revolution: The Factory System The Factory System A spinning mill Employment of new technology Centralization of production Factory discipline Separation of work and home

41 The Industrial Revolution: Factory Employment Employment at Quarry Bank Mill, (%) From Mary Rose, The Gregs of Quarry Bank Mill (1986)

42 Two Early Factories Lumbhole Mill, ca Dane Mill, converted from water to steam power, ca. 1780s

43 The Industrial Revolution: New Technology, III The Railroad Backward linkages: Employment Iron and coal production Engineering Forward linkages: Travel and transport  Prices Markets and distribution Stephenson’s Rocket, 1829

44 Industrialization in Europe, c. 1850

45 Urbanization,

46 Critics of Capitalism Utopian Socialism Robert Owen ( ) New Lanark, New Harmony, Grand National Consolidated Trades Union,

47 Critics of Capitalism Utopian Socialists, cont. Charles Fourier ( ) Phalanstery or phalanx Claude Saint- Simon ( ) Charles Fourier

48 Marx and Engels The Communist Manifesto, 1848 Materialist dialectic Bourgeoisie and proletariat Theory of class struggle Karl Marx ( )


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