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Negotiating a Political Path to Agroforestry: Roots and Shoots of the Conservation Security Program Nadine Lehrer University of Minnesota.

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Presentation on theme: "Negotiating a Political Path to Agroforestry: Roots and Shoots of the Conservation Security Program Nadine Lehrer University of Minnesota."— Presentation transcript:

1 Negotiating a Political Path to Agroforestry: Roots and Shoots of the Conservation Security Program Nadine Lehrer University of Minnesota

2 Suggestions for promoting agroforestry in the U.S. through changes in farm policy ?

3 Context of U.S. Agriculture Increased efficiency and concentration Increased efficiency and concentration Economics, mechanization, business interests, cultural values, subsidies Economics, mechanization, business interests, cultural values, subsidies In this larger agricultural context, agroforestry seems peripheral In this larger agricultural context, agroforestry seems peripheral How do we frame agroforestry as essential to the future of U.S. agriculture? How do we frame agroforestry as essential to the future of U.S. agriculture? Conservation Security Program as example Conservation Security Program as example

4 U.S. Farm Policy Commodity subsidy history Commodity subsidy history Roosevelt’s 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act Roosevelt’s 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act Early coalition of Farm Bureau, USDA, Congress Early coalition of Farm Bureau, USDA, Congress Farm Bill expansion has incorporated other interests Farm Bill expansion has incorporated other interests Beneficiaries Beneficiaries Most commodity subsidies go to large farms Most commodity subsidies go to large farms Most farm payments are still for commodities Most farm payments are still for commodities Federal farm payments 1995 – 2003 (EWG, 2005) : Federal farm payments 1995 – 2003 (EWG, 2005) : $103.7 billion in commodity subsidies $103.7 billion in commodity subsidies $16.3 billion in conservation subsidies $16.3 billion in conservation subsidies Benefits are targeted Benefits are targeted Knutson et al., 1990; Wright & Gardener, 1995; Hoppe et al., 2001; EWG, 2005

5 Conservation Security Program CSP history CSP history Sustainable agriculture community Sustainable agriculture community Tom Harkin, IA Tom Harkin, IA Funding caps and delays Funding caps and delays Change from open enrollment Change from open enrollment CSP mechanisms : base payment, cost-share practices, enhanced payment CSP mechanisms : base payment, cost-share practices, enhanced payment TierResourcesExtent Max Annual $ I Soil & water Part of farm $20,000 II Soil & water All of farm $35,000 III All resources All of farm $45,000

6 Current & Potential Impacts Impact (2004): 2200 producers, 1.9 million acres, 18 watersheds, expansion for 2005 Impact (2004): 2200 producers, 1.9 million acres, 18 watersheds, expansion for 2005 Philosophical impact Philosophical impact Relation to agroforestry Relation to agroforestry

7 CSP Politics Support Support sustainable agriculture groups (SAWG, SAC) sustainable agriculture groups (SAWG, SAC) environmental groups (Sierra Club, NRDC), environmental groups (Sierra Club, NRDC), some mainstream commodity groups (AFBF, NCGA) some mainstream commodity groups (AFBF, NCGA) “Opposition” some environmental groups (ED?, EWG) some commodity groups (NCBA) some members of House some agribusiness CSP is at a tipping point

8 What to do at a tipping point Great potential for CSP and thus agroforestry Great potential for CSP and thus agroforestry Potential opposition and limited funding Potential opposition and limited funding Strategies for supporting CSP Strategies for supporting CSP Coalition-building Coalition-building Being attuned to situational factors (“triggers”) (Buck 1996) Being attuned to situational factors (“triggers”) (Buck 1996)

9 Coalition Building Conservation Coalition as an example Conservation Coalition as an example 1985 versus 1990 (Roberts & Dean 1994) 1985 versus 1990 (Roberts & Dean 1994) Collaborative versus oppositional models Collaborative versus oppositional models Tactics Tactics Ideological Commonalities Ideological Commonalities Situational Factors Situational Factors

10 Ideological Commonalities Strength of common interests Strength of common interests Family farmer rhetoric Family farmer rhetoric Public support Public support Examples Examples Tom Harkin Tom Harkin Coalitions with Coalitions with agribusiness? agribusiness?

11 Situational Factors World Trade Debates World Trade Organization ideology World Trade Organization ideology Conflicts over U.S. interests in domestic versus international spheres Conflicts over U.S. interests in domestic versus international spheres Domestic vs. multinational Domestic vs. multinational agribusiness interests 1995 URAA “Green Box” 1995 URAA “Green Box”provisions Brazil’s cotton suit Brazil’s cotton suit Alexandre Meneghini / Associated Press

12 A Hypothetical Situation Possibility of forced subsidy reduction in the U.S. Possibility of forced subsidy reduction in the U.S. Ideological need to support farmers Ideological need to support farmers CSP as a non-trade-distorting option CSP as a non-trade-distorting option A strong CSP coalition could step in to promote increases in CSP as subsidies are drawn down A strong CSP coalition could step in to promote increases in CSP as subsidies are drawn down National Farmers Union, others National Farmers Union, others Federal government and agribusiness emphasis on export markets Federal government and agribusiness emphasis on export markets A two-pronged approach: A two-pronged approach: Create an “ideal” CSP through coalition building & lobbying Create an “ideal” CSP through coalition building & lobbying Wait for potential triggers to expand coalitions & ramp up CSP Wait for potential triggers to expand coalitions & ramp up CSP

13 Where to go from here Possible Partners Possible Partners Green Lands Blue Waters Green Lands Blue Waters Conservation Coalition chez Defenders of Wildlife Conservation Coalition chez Defenders of Wildlife National Fish & Wildlife Federation National Fish & Wildlife Federation National Campaign for Sustainable Agriculture, SAWG, SAC National Campaign for Sustainable Agriculture, SAWG, SAC Community Food Security Coalition, Kellogg Foundation Community Food Security Coalition, Kellogg Foundation National Catholic Rural Life Conference National Catholic Rural Life Conference IATP and health community IATP and health community Minnesota Project, Land Stewardship Project Minnesota Project, Land Stewardship Project Possible events Possible events Mike Johanns USDA listening sessions later this summer Mike Johanns USDA listening sessions later this summer Community Food Security Coalition conference, October 2005 Community Food Security Coalition conference, October 2005

14 Conclusions CSP is a good venue for agroforestry CSP is a good venue for agroforestry CSP is at a tipping point – potential for expanded provisions and role in Farm Bill CSP is at a tipping point – potential for expanded provisions and role in Farm Bill Policy is made incrementally through negotiating diverse interests Policy is made incrementally through negotiating diverse interests Agroforestry community should help promote CSP’s success through: Agroforestry community should help promote CSP’s success through: Broad and perhaps unlikely coalition-building Broad and perhaps unlikely coalition-building Awareness and use of situational factors such as (but not limited to) world trade. Awareness and use of situational factors such as (but not limited to) world trade.

15 Thank you! Many thanks to Many thanks to Mike Kilgore, Nick Jordan and lab group, Jill Feldstein, Ken Brooks, Anthony Snider, AFHVS group for reading, hearing, and commenting on various drafts Mike Kilgore, Nick Jordan and lab group, Jill Feldstein, Ken Brooks, Anthony Snider, AFHVS group for reading, hearing, and commenting on various drafts EPA-STAR Fellowship Program, University of Minnesota (Dept. of Forest Resources, MISA, MacArthur Program) for funding support EPA-STAR Fellowship Program, University of Minnesota (Dept. of Forest Resources, MISA, MacArthur Program) for funding support Many others for great thoughts and comments Many others for great thoughts and comments Questions? Comments? Questions?


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