Presentation on theme: "ODYSSEY 15 -16 Women Portents Telemakhos Grows Up."— Presentation transcript:
ODYSSEY 15 -16 Women Portents Telemakhos Grows Up
The Story Thus Far… Odysseus has made it home Telemakhos is on his way home from Sparta The Suitors are actively planning on killing Telemakhos when he returns Penelope is still in hiding from the Suitors
Women and their Wiles Athena tells Telemakhos that Penelope is close to getting married Eurymakhos – “Wide-Fighter” “You know a woman’s pride at bringing riches to the man she marries” (pg. 268) Dowry Agreed upon by the father and future husband Could be property, cash, or land
Marriage & Dowry Sometimes called “bride price” Dowry + husband’s contribution = oikos! “ideal” was to provide support without having to buy supplies If divorced, dowry returned in full 5th C. Athens - women and their money becoming more and more important for production of Athenian citizens
Helen and her Wiles Helen does two important things Give Telemakhos a robe Interprets omens The Robe “keep it for your own bride, your joyful wedding day” (pg. 271) How joyful was Helen’s marriage?
Menelaus & Helen Menelaus had intended to kill Helen Took her on his ship, intending to kill her later Forgot all about it by the time he reached Sparta OR…the sight of her topless changed his mind
Women and their Wiles II The Phoinikian Slave Intrigue against her master Caused Eumaios to be sold to Laertes Tricky female slave Odysseus’ Maidservants “You and I alone must learn how far the women are corrupted” (pg. 299) “Yes, make distinction between good girls and those who shame your house” (pg. 300)
“Good” Women Antikleia RRaised Eumaios ““gave new clothing, cloak and sandals…well she loved me” (pg. 279) TThe source of Eumaios’ loyalty to Odysseus
Penelope The model of sophrosyne – “excellence” North: “she is a good housekeeper, a nurturer of her husband, a child-bearer..she is chaste, graceful and does not like to talk about sex with other women” Od. 18.333 (pg. 344): “Here, then, you must attend to everything” She is quite capable, though she loses her temper (pg. 303-304)
Portents and Birds Two divinations in these books 1)The eagle and goose 2)Hawk and dove
The Hawk and Goose A mountain eagle appears with a goose in its talons Eagle = Odysseus, Goose = Suitors Helen interprets, not Menelaus Helen seems tuned in to domestic strife Bird signs VERY important (especially eagles)
The Hawk and Dove Theoklymenos is descendant of Melampous Melampous introduced the worship of Dionysos to Greece (Herodotus) A serpent licked his ears and he could then understand bird language and guess the future Theoklymenos interprets as sign of eternal rule by Odysseus’ house Pg. 285 “A god spoke in this bird-sign on the right. I knew it when I saw the hawk fly over us.”
Hesiod Works & Days 202-211 And now I will tell a fable for princes who themselves understand. Thus said the hawk to the nightingale with speckled neck, while he carried her high up among the clouds, gripped fast in his talons, and she, pierced by his crooked talons, cried pitifully. To her he spoke disdainfully: `Miserable thing, why do you cry out? One far stronger than you now holds you fast, and you must go wherever I take you, songstress as you are. And if I please I will make my meal of you, or let you go. He is a fool who tries to withstand the stronger, for he does not get the mastery and suffers pain besides his shame.' So said the swiftly flying hawk, the long- winged bird.
Bird Signs Aka Augury haruspicy is the study of entrails Apollo was the god of prophecy Signs on the right were favorable Never organized into state religion as in Rome
What do they mean? Signs of unalterable divine will Here, they signify Odysseus as a predatory, aggressive creature Sense of impending doom for the suitors
Telemakhos Grows Up Not afraid to express himself now Turns down extended xenia from Menelaos Acts as a noble around other nobles To Helen (pg. 273) Peisistratos (pg. 274-275) Still uncertain about Odysseus, even though Athena twice told him to buck up
Telemakhos Still Has Doubts “uncomprehending, wild with incredulity, [he] cried out, ‘You cannot be my father Odysseus!” (pg. 295) “How can two men do battle with a houseful in their prime?” (pg. 297) It’s actually 118 suitors, according to Telemakhos (pg. 297) Once Telemakhos believes, however….
REVENGE Telemakhos finds his courage “Even when danger comes, I think you’ll find courage in me.” (pg. 299) “Telemakhos, now strong with magic..” (pg. 305) Athena is going to fight with the two men, and this finally gives hope to Telemakhos
Foreshadowing The individualization of the suitors Some good – Amphinomos Some bad - Antinoos Sharp increase in omens and portents The last example of proper xenia The introduction and evolution of the servants of Odysseus