Presentation on theme: "SAWEN Update BHUTAN Sonam Wangchuk, Chief Wildlife Conservation Division, Bhutan Second Meeting of South Asia Expert Group on Illegal Wildlife Trade –"— Presentation transcript:
SAWEN Update BHUTAN Sonam Wangchuk, Chief Wildlife Conservation Division, Bhutan Second Meeting of South Asia Expert Group on Illegal Wildlife Trade – Paro,
Location of Bhutan BHUTAN Tibet India Tibet plateau (100 to 300 mm) Nepal Bangladesh 90 o E 98 o E 30 o N 20 o N Southern foot hills (5000 mm)
Bhutan straddles two biogeographic realms - Indomalayan (Oriental) region consisting of the lowland subtropical forests of South and Southeast Asia - Palearctic realms consisting of conifer forests and alpine meadows of northern Asia and Europe -72% Forest cover
- 5,603 species of vascular plants - 369 species orchids & 46 Rhodos - Over 90 species of mushrooms (Matsutake)
Over 300 species of medicinal and aromatic plants (including 105 sp. of endemic (BAP 2009)
Panthera tigris tigris 200 species of mammals Golden Langur (Presbytis geii) Budrocas taxicolor whiteii - Close to 200 species - 27 species globally threatened (1CE, 11E, 15V) - 115-130 nos of tigers recorded upto 4,210m
Herpetofauna - 15 reptiles and 3 amphibians recorded Invertebrates - 800-900 species of butterflies with 150 species catalogue with picture Fish Fauna - Existing record list over 50 species
- 678 species - 14 Globally threatened species & 10 restricted range species - 1 critically endangered (White-bellied heron) as per Red List Crested Serpent Eagle Golden -throated Barbet Boreal owl Black-necked Crane
Bhutan’s conservation policy strongly favors conservation and sustainable management of natural resources; Explicit provisions to maintain 60% forest cover at all times (NFP 1974 & Article 5 of Bhutan’s Constitution 2007). Thrimzhung Chenmo 1959 (Supreme Law of Bhutan) was the country’s first forestry related legislation Bhutan Forest Act 1969 is the first piece of modern forestry legislation enacted to protect the forests; Policies supporting PAs
Buddhist ethics which respect all life forms Strong Political will Sound Environmental Legislation Governance Basic principle is to give back to nature what has been taken away and accord respect to all forms of life.
Conservation: Policy to action Established in 1999 a network of Biological Corridors as a Gift to Earth by the King and people of Bhutan Set up Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation in 1992 with an initial capital of US$ 10m, now reported to have assets over US$ 43 millions.
National and International Initiatives 1960s – First Protected Area designated covering entire northern and southern belt 1974 – eight more designated in different parts of the country 1983 – Notification of Protected Area System 1990s – Ratified 2 major conventions – CBD, UNFCC 1993 – Revision of protected area system 2000s – EIA, BA, Water Act, etc. - CITES in November 2003 2010 – Final Draft Protected Area & Wildlife Bill
Management - 12 Forest Divisions - 10 Protected Areas (4 NPs, 4 WS, 1 SNR, 1 CP) - Antipoaching Unit (FPUD – FPED) - Entry points by road (Samtse, Phuntsholing, Gelephu and Samdrupjongkhar) - Paro International Airport - Manned by Royal Bhutan Police, Customs, BAFRA, & Forest - Clear mandate - Nature Conservation Division – WCD and NRED
CHIEF WILDLIFE OFFICER BIODIVERSITY INVENTORY & DATA MGMT. SECTION 1.Biodiversity Survey & Data Mgmt. Program 2. Mgmt. Planning Program 3. Fish & Herpetology 4. Taxidermy & Forensic Program INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION SECTION 1.Convention on Biological Diversity 2. TRAFFIC, CITES, MIKE, SAWEN HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICT MGT. SECTION 1.HWC Mgmt. Program 2. Wildlife Rescue & rehabilitation Program SPECIES CONSERVATION AND MONITORING SECTION 1.Carnivore Consn. Program 2. Herbivore Conservation Program 3. Ornithology Conservation Program 4. CITES ADM SECTION ACCOUNTS SECTION BIOLOGICAL CORRIDORS PROGRAM ORGANOGRAM OF WILDLIFE CONSERVATION DIVISION STRUCTURE
Capacity Building National Level - On going awareness program on environmental conservation with emphasis on conservation acts and rules - Quarterly meet of Technical Committee - conservation Law enforcement - WCD conducted one day training workshop on how to operate the online database with focal officers identified in all the field offices - Training of trainers on tiger conservation (Teacher, park staff) - Co-existence of human with elephants (Zoo Outreach) Regional Level - Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun - certificate course in wildlife management (1-2 slot Global Tiger Forum) - PG Diploma course (1 slot SAARC) - Observation tour to center of excellence to neighboring countries (Thailand, Nepal, India) - One officer completed a month long attachment course in TLC and hair sampling Jawaharal Nehru Academic of Science, Bangalore - One officer attended a M-stripe course organized by Global tiger Forum
Challenges 1. Rugged Terrain of Bhutan. - Difficulties in monitoring and research. 2. Donor dependent PA Management (sustainable financing) - No continuity of fund flow. 3. Habitat fragmentation through agriculture and development works 4. Lack of skilled human resources (need for capacity building) 5. Knowledge Gap – lacks baseline data of most biological resources 6. Human Wildlife Conflicts (compensation, insurance schemes)
Second photo from JSWNP (2005- 2007) First tiger photo at Peme (TNP) Alt. 2,765m – May 2000 3 rd Photo from JDNP (Alt. 4210m), 2008
Future Plans - Need Assessment workshop on wildlife enforcement (TRAFFIC) - Training on wildlife rescue (RGoB, seeking external support for equipment etc) - Detection machine to be installed at all entry points (funding sought for equipment and transport) - Seek support to extend facility of M-stripe, MIST, etc.