Presentation on theme: "What Can the World Learn from Singapore about Urban Transportation Systems? Presented by Professor David Boyce August 27, 2007 Slides from Singapore’s."— Presentation transcript:
What Can the World Learn from Singapore about Urban Transportation Systems? Presented by Professor David Boyce August 27, 2007 Slides from Singapore’s Land Transport Authority www.lta.gov.sg and Prof. D.-H. Lee, NUS. www.lta.gov.sg
What and where in the world is Singapore? Singapore is an island nation located on the equator in southeast Asia near the Malay Peninsula. The island is 270 sq. miles with 4.6 million residents (2007 est). (By comparison, Chicago is 234 sq. miles with nearly 3 million residents.) Languages are English (commerce and education), Mandarin, Malay and Tamil, reflecting its diverse population: Chinese, Malaysian, Indonesian, and expatriates of the British Commonwealth and USA. Singapore gained independence in 1965, and is a representative democracy controlled by one party, making it somewhat authoritarian in character.
Singapore is a city state in South East Asia, a garden city.
City/Urban AreaLand Area (sq. kilometers) Population (1,000 persons) Density (persons/sq. km) Beijing – Urban Area 1,381 9,369 6,785 Hong Kong 1,100 7,041 6,295 Shanghai 6,30017,420 2,750 Singapore 700 4,326 6,389 New York City 786 8,10410,316 New York Urban Area 8,68318,498 2,130 City of Chicago 588 2,862 4,867 Chicago Urban Area 5,498 8,711 1,584 London 1,5797,500 4,697 Paris Urban Area 2,7239,644 3,542
Economy, Trade and Transportation Singapore has a well-developed market economy based on manufacturing, and is diversifying further to foreign trade and tourism. Per capita GDP is over US$ 29.9K; US is $ 44.2K. Port of Singapore is one of the largest in the world. Singapore’s airport is also world class: Singapore Airlines plus 80 other airlines connect Singapore to 179 cities in 57 countries (2005). Singapore’s land transport system is a world leader in public transit, road pricing and ITS, with an effective system of car ownership restraint. How do these land transport systems work together to serve the people of Singapore?
Land Use Planning and Development Singapore from its beginning has stressed the development of housing for its people, including publicly owned housing estates with associated shopping districts. Land development for commerce and industry has been well-coordinated, especially with regard to the location of transportation services. The concept is shown in the next slides showing the relation of land development to Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) corridors.
Integrated Land Use and Transportation Planning Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA)Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) Housing Development Board (HDB)Housing Development Board (HDB) Jurong Town Council (JTC)Jurong Town Council (JTC) Land Transport Authority (LTA)Land Transport Authority (LTA)
Public Housing Provision of high rise public housingProvision of high rise public housing 800,000+ units have been built800,000+ units have been built Over 85% of people are housed in public housingOver 85% of people are housed in public housing Over 95% owner-occupiedOver 95% owner-occupied
Overview of the Land Transport System Total road length 3,110 km, including 150 km of expressways and 571 km of major arterials; Vehicle population: 800,000, including over 400,000 private passenger cars; Mass rapid transit: 65 stations, 138 km of tracks; Bus transport: nearly 4,000 buses serving 200+ routes with two operators; Taxi: 23,000 vehicle fleet with eight operators; Mode share: 55% by bus and rail transit.
Rail transit (MRT) emphasizes comfort and ease of use, but not high speed; LRT are automated lines. Two areawide bus systems offer point-to-point and rail feeder services with frequency and fares set by competition; Automated feeder service to rail stations in high density residential clusters; Integrated, automatic fare collection system; Transit infrastructure and vehicles provided by the government, with operating costs being paid by the farebox; Widely available, low-cost taxi services. Public Transit System
Better Public Transport Expand MRT coverage and capacity Build LRT, seamless transfer Upgrade BUS services Accessible, affordable and comfortable
Electronic Road Pricing to shift travel by route, time-of-day, mode, destination and frequency; Road system operated with ITS technology (no time for details in this seminar). Expressway – Arterial Road System
Objective: Operate roads at Level of Service D or better.
Road Pricing Manual road pricing, the Area Licensing Scheme, was introduced in the CBD in 1975; That system needed much manpower, was inconvenient, and inflexible in varying road prices.
Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) Automated the Area Licensing Scheme Fully replaced the manual scheme in Sept. 1998 A new generation of ERP is being studied
Car Ownership Restraint Policies Excise tax (over 100% of car value) Annual road tax (about S$ 1,000) based on engine size and age Certificate of Entitlement to license car for 10 years – about S$ 10,000 High fuel prices relative to cost of production Parking requirements and fees Cars are not manufactured in Singapore, so there is no direct economic development impact of car purchases on the Singapore economy.
Current Status and Future Plans During 1997-2007, S$ 3.4 B was spent on roads; The 10th expressway will cost S$ 2.5 B for 5 km; Future road construction is limited by lack of land, so S$ 20 B will be spent to increase the rail network from 150 km (S$ 13 B to date) to 215 km; Bus improvements will reduce all headways to 10 minutes or less. Even so, roads must be priced to avoid overuse; ERP is keeping roads moving at average speeds over 55 kph (33 mph);
Vehicle ownership taxes reduced from S$ 3.4 B (1997) to S$ 1.7 B (2006) as ERP was phased in; Vehicle population increased from 680 K (1997) to 800 K (2006) as a result, but congestion did not increase; Hence, ERP is more effective, and less expensive for motorists (S$ 90 M/year), but needs to be expanded to maintain the Level of Service D objective; Next goal is to introduce continuous pricing over the system, rather than the current point-by-point pricing.