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UN SUMMER ACADEMY UN Ideas That Changed the World Sir Richard Jolly.

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Presentation on theme: "UN SUMMER ACADEMY UN Ideas That Changed the World Sir Richard Jolly."— Presentation transcript:

1 UN SUMMER ACADEMY UN Ideas That Changed the World Sir Richard Jolly

2 UN Ideas - four main points 1. Ideas are possibly the UN’s most important contributions 2. The nine UN ideas that changed the World 3 Successes and Failures in putting them into action 4. Future challenges and conclusions for UN Staff

3 Lourdes Arizpe “Someone once said that the United Nations is a dream managed by bureaucrats. I would correct that by saying that it has become a bureaucracy managed by dreamers. “Someone once said that the United Nations is a dream managed by bureaucrats. I would correct that by saying that it has become a bureaucracy managed by dreamers. Certainly you have to be a dreamer to work in the United Nations with conviction. It is only if you have this sense of mission that you can withstand the constant battering by governments who are afraid that the United Nations will become a world government… So in the end, someone who works in the United Nations has to be a magician of ideas, because working for the United Nations is like working for a government in which all the political parties are in power at the same time.” So in the end, someone who works in the United Nations has to be a magician of ideas, because working for the United Nations is like working for a government in which all the political parties are in power at the same time.”

4 The Power of Ideas

5 Bernard Chidzero Mrs. Ogata Sir Hans Singer Elise Boulding Samir Amin Boutros Boutros-Ghali Javier Perez de Cuellar Leticia Shahani Just Faaland Fernando Henrique Cardoso Juan Somavía Celso Furtado Dharam Ghai

6 The Power of People

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8 The 9 UN Ideas That Changed the World The 9 UN Ideas That Changed the World Human Rights 1: Human Rights for All 2: Gender Equality and Women’s Rights 2: Gender Equality and Women’s Rights Economic Development 3: Development Goals 3: Development Goals 4: Fairer International Economic Relations 4: Fairer International Economic Relations 5: Strategies for Accelerating Development in Poorer Countries 5: Strategies for Accelerating Development in Poorer Countries 6: Priorities for Social Development 6: Priorities for Social Development Holistic Development Holistic Development 7: Environmental Sustainability 7: Environmental Sustainability 8: Peace and Human Security 8: Peace and Human Security 9: Human Development 9: Human Development

9 Human Rights for All The boldest step of all The boldest step of all UDHR was agreed as no more than a declaration, UDHR was agreed as no more than a declaration, but increasingly has been turned into law and is being implemented A core of seven major human rights conventions have now been ratified by countries A core of seven major human rights conventions have now been ratified by countries Many other conventions and instruments adopted and ratified Many other conventions and instruments adopted and ratified The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights was created in 1993 The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights was created in 1993 Rights-based approaches to development increasingly applied Rights-based approaches to development increasingly applied

10 Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment 1946 – Gender at top of UN’s statistical agenda 1946 – Gender at top of UN’s statistical agenda 1960s – UN women’s studies started in sub-Saharan Africa 1960s – UN women’s studies started in sub-Saharan Africa 1970 – Women in Development, Ester Boserup’s classic 1970 – Women in Development, Ester Boserup’s classic – Four world women’s conferences mobilized women on a global scale – from Mexico to Beijing – Four world women’s conferences mobilized women on a global scale – from Mexico to Beijing 1976 – UNIFEM established 1976 – UNIFEM established 1979 – CEDAW adopted 1979 – CEDAW adopted 2010 – UNWomen established and USG appointed 2010 – UNWomen established and USG appointed

11 Peace and Security Evolving Ideas and Approaches 1945 – Replacing conflict with the rule of law 1945 – Replacing conflict with the rule of law 1950s – Preventive diplomacy 1950s – Preventive diplomacy 1950s-1990s – Disarmament and development 1950s-1990s – Disarmament and development Peacekeeping = 124,000 deployed today, 2,100 from China Peacekeeping = 124,000 deployed today, 2,100 from China 1994 – Human security 1994 – Human security 2001 – The Responsibility to Protect 2001 – The Responsibility to Protect

12 Human Development A paradigm, not just a slogan, nor just for human development indicators The creation of the distinguished Pakistan economist Mahbub ul Haq and the Indian Nobel laureate economist and philosopher Professor Amartya Sen HDRs produced annually and some 750 National Human Development Reports Human Development brings together UN values and most UN activities

13 The UN’s Economic Ideas – pioneering and brilliiant but often neglected: Nine Nobel Prize Winners in Economics 1969: Jan Tinbergen 1973: Wassily Leontief 1974: Gunnar Myrdal 1977: James Meade 1979: W. Arthur Lewis and Theodore W. Schultz 1980: Lawrence R. Klein 1984: Richard Stone 1998: Amartya Sen Amartya Sen Lawrence R. Klein

14 The UN economic ideas have often differed from those of the World Bank and the IMF – but the Bretton Woods Institutions have received most donor support Fairer International Economic Relations – priorities for trade, aid and TNCs National Development strategies –directed to accelerated national development Development Goals –mostly focused on human advance, recently towards the MDGs Social Development priorities–a key component of development from the UN’s earliest years

15 UN goals “ a mixed record but more achievement than generally realized” 1950s Eradicating Malaria UPE (Universal Primary Education) (First) Development Decade –accelerating economic growth –accelerating economic growth Smallpox Eradication –achieved in 11 years Water and Sanitation Decade “Child Survival & Development Revolution” The Millennium Development Goals (the MDGs)

16 The Millennium Summit Agreed the MDGs September 2000

17 Structural Adjustment and the Washington Consensus missed their goals- with disastrous effects 20-year changes in per capita income 20-year changes in per capita income Latin America + 80%+ 9% Sub-Saharan Africa + 36%- 15% Source: Mark Weisbrot et al, The Emperor Has No Growth :Declining Growth in the Era of Globalization (Washington DC, Centre for Economic and Policy Research) 2001

18 A Balance Sheet of the UN’s Contributions The UN has led the way with many fundamental ideas, more than is often realized – notably in statistics, setting global goals, development thinking, environment, supporting equitable economic relations, peace and security, human rights and human development The UN has often been ahead of the World Bank and the IMF – though these have received most donor support and most finance Over the long run, the UN shows considerable impact Ideas are among the UN’s most important contributions

19 Negatives on the UN Balance Sheet Late reaction to the Washington Consensus Late reaction to the Washington Consensus Weak response to the special needs of the least developed countries Weak response to the special needs of the least developed countries Too little done to introduce cultural aspects into the development equation Too little done to introduce cultural aspects into the development equation Tardy and weak reaction to HIV/AIDS Tardy and weak reaction to HIV/AIDS Inadequate attention to inequalities of income and wealth, nationally & internationally Inadequate attention to inequalities of income and wealth, nationally & internationally

20 UN Ideas gain global influence in four ways Changing the way issues are perceived Redefining state and non-state interests and goals, thereby setting agendas for action Mobilizing coalitions to press for action Becoming embedded in institutions, which have responsibilities for oversight, implementation and monitoring

21 The Three UNs: 1 st UN Governments Source: UN Photo Archives

22 The Three UNs: 2 nd UN Staff members Source: UN Photo Archives

23 The Three UNs: 3 rd UN Experts, members of commissions, and NGOs closely associated with the UN Source: UN Photo Archives

24 Global challenges for the UN’s future 1 Strengthen global governance in a multi-polar world with strengthened regionalism 2 Tackle climate change and sustainability 3 Diminish national and global inequalities 4 Pursue sustainable holistic development 5 Build international values of humanity and solidarity and bridge divides of culture and identities

25 Priorities for recovering from the crisis ( drawn from the Stiglitz Report to the UN GA, 2009) Immediate 1 National and regional actions to tackle the three scourges = Unemployment, inequalities & environmental sustainability 2 Global and regional coordination of actions 3 Make finance and the banks the servant not the master Over the medium and longer run 1 Reform governance in the IMF and World Bank, with double majority voting 2 Restore and strengthen the position of the UN in economic governance Embark on more fundamental changes Embark on more fundamental changes 3A global reserve system 4Mechanisms to diminish causes of global instability 5 Legal and economic modalities for Sovereign Debt default and restructuring 6 An international Court for Debt Restructuring

26 Conclusions for UN Staff Never underestimate the power of UN ideas Never underestimate the power of UN ideas Apply and support UN ideas at country level Apply and support UN ideas at country level National Human Development ReportsNational Human Development Reports Reports on Human SecurityReports on Human Security Catalytic support for implementationCatalytic support for implementation Monitoring nationally and regionallyMonitoring nationally and regionally Support analysis of national interests in global actionsSupport analysis of national interests in global actions Collaborate around common goals and ideas Collaborate around common goals and ideas Goals and ideas are a constructive alternative to bureaucracy Goals and ideas are a constructive alternative to bureaucracy Partner with the Bank and the Fund but recognize the power of UN ideas Partner with the Bank and the Fund but recognize the power of UN ideas

27 Sergio Vieira de Mello “Unless we aim for the seemingly unattainable, we risk settling for mediocrity.” “Unless we aim for the seemingly unattainable, we risk settling for mediocrity.”

28 Kofi Annan “Applaud us when we prevail. Correct us when we fail. But above all, do not let this indispensable, irreplaceable institution wither, languish or perish…” “Applaud us when we prevail. Correct us when we fail. But above all, do not let this indispensable, irreplaceable institution wither, languish or perish…”

29 Sources on UN history UN Websites – many UN Websites – many UNIHP = UNIHP = Oral histories =CD ROM of UNIHP interviews Oral histories =CD ROM of UNIHP interviews UK careers records and related records = Bodleian Library, Oxford UK careers records and related records = Bodleian Library, Oxford

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31 UNIHP Book Series Ahead of the Curve? UN Ideas and Global Challenges (2001; 2nd edition 2003; French, German, Arabic editions published 2003) Ahead of the Curve? UN Ideas and Global Challenges (2001; 2nd edition 2003; French, German, Arabic editions published 2003) Unity and Diversity in Development Ideas: Perspectives from the UN Regional Commissions (2004) Unity and Diversity in Development Ideas: Perspectives from the UN Regional Commissions (2004) Quantifying the World: UN Contributions to Statistics (2004) Quantifying the World: UN Contributions to Statistics (2004) UN Contributions to Development Thinking and Practice (2004) UN Contributions to Development Thinking and Practice (2004) The UN and Global Political Economy: Trade, Finance, and Development (2004) The UN and Global Political Economy: Trade, Finance, and Development (2004) UN Voices: The Struggle for Development and Social Justice (2005) UN Voices: The Struggle for Development and Social Justice (2005) Women, Development, and the UN: A Sixty-Year Quest for Equality and Justice (2005) Women, Development, and the UN: A Sixty-Year Quest for Equality and Justice (2005) The Power of UN Ideas: Lessons from the First 60 Years (2005) The Power of UN Ideas: Lessons from the First 60 Years (2005) Human Security and the UN: A Critical History (2006) Human Security and the UN: A Critical History (2006)

32 The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (2007) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (2007) Human Rights at the UN: The Political History of Universal Justice (2008) Human Rights at the UN: The Political History of Universal Justice (2008) Preventive Diplomacy at the UN (2008) Preventive Diplomacy at the UN (2008) The UN and Transnational Corporations: from Code of Conduct to Global Compact (2008) The UN and Transnational Corporations: from Code of Conduct to Global Compact (2008) The UN and Development: From Aid to Cooperation (2009) The UN and Development: From Aid to Cooperation (2009) UN Ideas That Changed the World (2009) UN Ideas That Changed the World (2009) The UN and Global Governance: An Unfinished Journey (forthcoming 2010) The UN and Global Governance: An Unfinished Journey (forthcoming 2010) Development Without Destruction: The UN and the Global Resource Management (forthcoming 2010) Development Without Destruction: The UN and the Global Resource Management (forthcoming 2010) UNIHP Book Series

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34 Fifteen UN Organizations and Individuals Have Received the Nobel Peace Prize 1949: John Boyd Orr 1950: Ralph Bunche 1954 and 1981: Office of The UN High Commissioner for Refugees 1957: Lester Pearson 1961: Dag Hammarskjöld 1965: UNICEF –The UN Children’s Fund 1968: René Cassin 1969: The International Labour Organization 1982: Alva Myrdal and Alfonzo Garcia Robles 1988: UN Peacekeeping Forces 2001: Kofi Annan and the UN 2005: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei 2007: The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (jointly with Al Gore) 2008: Martti Ahtisaari Kofi Annan Martti Ahtisaari

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