Presentation on theme: " 4-1 Main Idea: The polis or city-state was the central focus of Greek life. The citizens of a polis had defined rights and responsibilities, as well."— Presentation transcript:
4-1 Main Idea: The polis or city-state was the central focus of Greek life. The citizens of a polis had defined rights and responsibilities, as well as a strong identity and loyalty that kept the city-states divided.
Polis: city-state and surrounding country-side. Center of political, social, and religious activities o People who share a common identity and common goal o How might the independence of city-states work against them? Acropolis: main gathering place, usually a hill. Fortified in case of attack. Religious center-temples/public buildings Agora: open area below acropolis. People can assemble also used as a market.
Hoplites: heavily armed infantry soldiers, or foot soldiers. o Round shield o Short sword o Thrusting spear o Marched as a battle unit (rectangle) Phalanx: unit marched into battle, shoulder to shoulder o Wall of shields for protection o Hard for enemy to harm them
Open to page 113 Look at the image of Ancient Athens Answer the questions which relate
Between 750 B.C.E-550 B.C.E o Greeks leave their homeland Overpopulation Greek Colonies o Southern Italy, Southern France, Eastern Spain, Northern Africa West of Egypt o Thrace, Shores of Black Sea Hellespont and Bosporus straits Byzantium (Constantinople) (Istanbul) What were the results of Greek colonization?
Open up to page 115 Answer the questions which relate to the map.
Tyrants: rulers who seized power by force from aristocrats o Not necessarily oppressive o Supported by newly rich merchant class and peasant classes o Launched public work projects and tried to help the poor Market places, temples, and walls o Why did tyrants embark on public building projects? Democracy: government by the people or rule of the many Oligarchy: Rule by the few
Sparta: Aggressive military city-state on Peloponnesus peninsula o Conquered Laconians and Messenians - made these people into Helots: conquered serfs o Highly disciplined o Military schools o Spartan women have greater freedom, power, movement Uphold values of Sparta “come back caring your shield or on it.” o Oligarchy Two kings Ephors: group of 5 men elected each year, responsible for education and conduct of all citizens Council: 28 citizens over 60 years of age- decided on issues presented to Assembly: male citizens voted on issues
Athens: Located on the Attica peninsula, ruled by a King, Oligarchy, and finally a Democracy o Council: 500 free Athenians Supervised foreign affairs Treasury Proposed laws