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Ming and Manchu Dynasties World History - Libertyville High School.

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Presentation on theme: "Ming and Manchu Dynasties World History - Libertyville High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ming and Manchu Dynasties World History - Libertyville High School

2 Founding of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Ethnic Han Chinese overthrew Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in 1368 First Emperor = Hongwu (r. 1368-1398) focused on centralizing power to himself & recovery from Mongol rule – Rebuilt irrigation systems – Developed courier system throughout empire – Est. secret police to spy, suppress dissent Courier routes became major trade, agricultural corridors that spurred internal economy

3 Early Ming Dynasty Hongwu also ordered maintenance and expansion of Great Wall – Stone facing, towers added – Wall lengthened Standing army of over one million soldiers established

4 Ming Government Capital moved to Beijing in 1403 under Emperor Yongle, the grandson of Hongwu Built the “Forbidden City” (residence of emperor and family) Ordered construction and exploration of Treasure Fleets

5 Treasure Fleet Voyages Massive fleets commissioned to embark on exploration, trade, diplomatic missions – Ships were massive – Fleets had up to 37,000 sailors, soldiers, diplomats Zhenghe (1371-1433), trusted advisor to Emperor, put in charge Made a total of seven voyages, as far away as East African coastline – Re-established trade contacts – Also demanded tribute from states visited

6 Decline and Fall of Ming Emperor Wanli (1572-1620) – Began as capable emperor – Became tired of politics, war after major conflict from 1595-1603 vs. Korea, Japan (China won) – Withdrew to Forbidden City – Relied on eunuchs to run government Civil service lost power relative to imperial eunuchs Eunuchs effectively became rulers of China Corruption, abuses increased

7 “Closing” of Ming China to Outsiders Ming became pre-occupied with land threats from North, West and Korea and Japanese to Northeast Saw selves as superior to rest of world Edicts of emperors limited foreigners and their imports to one Chinese city, Canton Continued export trade, but that trade dwindled in 1700s

8 Fall of Ming Economic disaster – Ming had converted to silver as coinage, replacing paper money – Ming got lots of silver through international trade Sources included Japan, South America, Africa, India – Disruption of international silver supplies in 1630s caused inflation, debasement of currency Famine & drought occurred (loss of MOH) Invasion by Manchu (northern nomads) overthrew Ming in 1644

9 Manchu (Qing) Dynasty (1644-1912) Last dynasty of Chinese history – At height, Qing dynasty covered 5 million square miles with over 200 million citizens Manchu – Jurchen nomads – seized control of China and completed conquest by 1683 Continued most policies of traditional Chinese government – Civil service bureaucracy – Maintenance of Great Wall

10 Qing Dynasty Pre-occupied with controlling huge empire Biggest challenges – Exploding population put strain on food supply – Economic stagnation – Internal unrest (religious, social causes) – Dealing with natural disasters (1887 Yellow River flood = 900k-2 million dead) All of these factors, together, kept Qing emperors focused inward during 17-1800s

11 “Foreign Devils” and Qing 19 th century saw Qing engage with rest of the world – Europeans were militarily and technologically superior – Europeans forced their way into Chinese markets – After 1867, Japanese advanced technologically past the Chinese

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