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AP World History: Absolutism in Spain, France and Russia

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1 AP World History: Absolutism in Spain, France and Russia
Period 4:

2 I What was absolutism? European monarchs in the 16th and 17th centuries sought to have absolute, or unlimited power. Due to divine right: belief that monarchs receive their power directly from god, and are responsible to god alone. Belief that an absolute monarch would have greater control and efficiency than a monarch with less power.

3 II Absolutism in Spain Spain united as a nation-state when Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile in They conquered Granada (in southern Spain) in 1492. In 1492 they began the Inquisition; they forced all non-Catholics to convert or leave Spain. In 1492 they also funded Columbus’s voyage to find an Atlantic Ocean route to the Indies.

4 Absolutism in Spain Continued…
During the Age of Absolutism, the Hapsburgs remained Europe’s most powerful royal family. 1556 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V retired and divided up his Empire. His son Philip II inherited Spain, the Netherlands and overseas colonies King Philip II made Madrid (a city in Castile) the capital of Spain. He built El Escorial that served as a royal palace, monastery and tomb. 1567 he forced the Dutch to convert to Catholicism, leading to a revolt. With help from the British, the Netherlands declared independence from Spain in 1581. Hapsburg Ruler and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Who wants to kiss me? Philip II

5 El Escorial, Madrid

6 El Escorial Interior

7 Absolutism in Spain Continued…
F) As retaliation for England helping the Dutch, Philip II sent 130 ships and 33,000 men to England in May months later they entered the English Channel. England had faster and more maneuverable ships with longer range cannons. Spanish ships had to retreat to the stormy north sea after running out of water and ammunition. Some of the Spanish ships sank near the rocky coasts of Ireland and Scotland. Defeat of the Spanish Armada signaled the downfall of Spain as a global naval power. An armada is a fleet of warships that is organized to carry out a mission.

8 The Spanish Armada “In the late 1580s, English raids against Spanish commerce and Queen Elizabeth I’s support of the Dutch rebels in the Spanish Netherlands led King Philip II of Spain to plan the conquest of England. Pope Sixtus V gave his blessing to what was called “The Enterprise of England,” which he hoped would bring the Protestant isle back into the fold of Rome. A giant Spanish invasion fleet was completed by 1587, but Sir Francis Drake’s raid on the Armada’s supplies in the port of Cadiz delayed the Armada’s departure until May On May 19, the Armada set sail from Lisbon on a mission to secure control of the English Channel and transport a Spanish army to the British isle from Flanders. The fleet was under the command of the Duke of Medina-Sidonia and consisted of 130 ships carrying 2,500 guns, 8,000 seamen, and almost 20,000 soldiers. The Spanish ships were slower and less well armed than their English counterparts, but they planned to force boarding actions if the English offered battle, and the superior Spanish infantry would undoubtedly prevail. Delayed by storms that temporarily forced it back to Spain, the Armada did not reach the southern coast of England until July 19. By that time, the British were ready…

9 The Spanish Armada Continued…
On July 21, the English navy began bombarding the 7-mile-long line of Spanish ships from a safe distance. On July 27, the Armada anchored in exposed position off Calais, France, and the Spanish army prepared to embark from Flanders. Without control of the Channel, however, their passage to England would be impossible. Just after midnight on July 29, the English sent eight burning ships into the crowded harbor at Calais. The panicked Spanish ships were forced to cut their anchors and sail out to sea to avoid catching fire. The disorganized fleet, completely out of formation, was attacked by the English off Gravelines at dawn. In a decisive battle, the superior English guns won the day, and the devastated Armada was forced to retreat north to Scotland. The English navy pursued the Spanish as far as Scotland and then turned back for want of supplies. Battered by storms and suffering from a dire lack of supplies, the Armada sailed on a hard journey back to Spain around Scotland and Ireland. Some of the damaged ships foundered in the sea while others were driven onto the coast of Ireland and wrecked. By the time the last of the surviving fleet reached Spain in October, half of the original Armada was lost and some 15,000 men had perished. Queen Elizabeth’s decisive defeat of the Invincible Armada made England a world-class power and introduced effective long-range weapons into naval warfare for the first time, ending the era of boarding and close-quarter fighting.”

10 Absolutism in Spain Continued…
G) War of the Spanish Succession, (1701–14), conflict that arose out of the disputed succession to the throne of Spain following the death of the childless Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburgs. In an effort to regulate the impending succession, to which there were three principal claimants, England, the Dutch Republic, and France. Louis XIV of France sought to end the war from 1708 and was willing to give up the Spanish inheritance to the House of Habsburg. The British, however, insisted on the unrealistic demand that Louis use his army to remove his own grandson from Spain. Louis refused, broke off negotiations, and resumed the war. The first group of treaties was signed at Utrecht in April These and the later treaties ignored the will of Charles II and divided his inheritance among the powers. Louis XIV’s grandson remained king of Spain, but the treaties of Utrecht marked the rise of the power of Britain and the British colonial empire at the expense of both France and Spain.


12 Absolutism in Spain Continued…
H) Spanish Artists: 1. El Greco (1541 – 1614) was a Spanish painter born in Greece. He painted Spanish nobles and religious themes. 2. Diego Velazquez (1599 – 1660) was the court painter to King Philip IV. H) Miguel de Cervantes wrote the novel Don Quixote. It pokes fun at medieval chivalry, and is considered to be Europe’s first modern novel. El Greco Self Portrait, Early 17th Century El Greco, Mary Magdalene

13 Absolutism in Spain Continued…
Diego Velazquez Portrait of the Infanta Margarita Teresa of Spain, 1655 Diego Velazquez

14 III Absolutism in France
Born into the Bourbon family of French monarchs, he took the throne at 4 years old! He ruled France 1642 – He did not have real power until his chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin died in Louis was 23 years old. B) Louis XIV believed in the Divine Right of kings; that God chose him to rule the nation. Louis XIV was called “Le Roi Soleil”, or “The Sun King”. “I am the state” – Louis XIV

15 Louis XIV Had Fantastic Legs!

16 Absolutism in France C) He built his palace at Versailles near Paris. It was so expensive that it drained the French economy.

17 Versailles

18 Versailles Gardens

19 Primary Source: The Duke of Saint-Simon on the Daily Rituals of the Sun King
am "Sire, it is time", the first Valet de Chambre awakens the King... Doctors, familiars and a few favorites … followed in succession into the bedchamber of the King who was washed, combed and shaved (every other day)…The officers of the Chamber and the Wardrobe then entered… during which the King was dressed and breakfasted… 10 am: As they left the King's apartment, a procession formed in the Hall of Mirrors… 10 pm: The crowd squeezed into the antechamber of the King's apartments to attend the Grand Public Supper…

20 How did Louis XIV Earn His Name? Continued…
D) He increased the size of France’s military – 1713 Louis XIV went to war with the Holy Roman Empire and Spain over border disputes, as well as his demand for his grandson to become the next king of Spain. (The Wars of the Spanish Succession). The wars ended 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht. Treaty of Utrecht: Louis’ grandson would become the king of Spain, but France and Spain can never unite under one government. *This helped keep nation-states sovereign (recall the Treaty of Westphalia). Louis XIV’s grandson and King of Spain

21 How did Louis XIV Earn His Name? Continued…
E) Louis XIV revoked the Treaty of Nantes, which had granted religious freedom to Protestants. As a result, Huguenots (French Protestants) fled France. (Historians estimate between 200,000 – 800,000 people!) F) Sep 1, 1715, Louis XIV died of gangrene at Versailles. Louis XIV ruled France for 72 years, longer than any other European monarch!

22 IV Absolutism in Russia
A) In the 13th century, Moscow was the capital of Russia, a small state which paid tribute and provided forced labor to the Khans of the Golden Horde. (Remember the Mongols?) Over time the Moscovite princes expanded their territory, and eventually gained independence under Ivan III, known as Ivan the Great. By the time of his death, Ivan the Great had tripled the size of Muscovy.

23 Absolutism in Russia Continued…
B) Ivan IV was the grandson of Ivan the Great. In 1547 he proclaimed himself czar instead of the Grand Duke of Russia. He built St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow. “The czar is in nature like all men, but in authority he is like the highest God.” – Ivan the Terrible Ivan the Terrible was alleged to have tortured small animals as a child. However, there is also evidence that he had been an intelligent and sensitive child who was neglected by the boyars (Russian nobles) after his mother’s death.

24 Absolutism in Russia Continued…
C) Ivan IV had 3 main goals: 1. Resist the Mongols 2. Conquer more land and centralize the Russian government 3. Gain access to the Black Sea (and a warm water port) He succeeded at Goals # 1 and #2, but not #3 D) After the death of his wife in 1560, Ivan IV began a 24 year reign of terror. Paranoid of betrayal, he sent 1000s of boyars (nobles) to Siberia and confiscated their land, and executed many others. It was during this period that Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law, causing a miscarriage, killed his son in a subsequent fit of rage, and blinded the architect of St. Basil's Cathedral. It was also during this time that he created the Oprichniki, the first official secret Russian police force [who rode on black horses and dressed all in black]. –

25 St. Basil’s Cathedral

26 St. Basil’s Cathedral Interior

27 Absolutism in Russia Continued…
E) 1682, 10 year old Peter “The Great” became czar. Due to the destruction by the Mongols, Russia was very behind Western Europe Peter traveled to Western Europe with the intention of “borrowing” ideas that would advance Russian society. Peter traveled to Amsterdam to study shipbuilding; he wanted to create Russia’s first navy. He actually took on a pseudonym (fake name) and worked at a shipyard! St. Petersburg, his namesake city, was modeled after Amsterdam’s canals!

28 Absolutism in Russia Continued…
F) Some of Peter the Great’s reforms: 1. Modernized the Russian military and created a navy based on the river Don and the Baltic Sea. 2. Created schools specializing in math, engineering, medicine and science. He imported teachers from Western Europe! 3. Built factories 4. Forced men to cut their beards to adhere to European fashion.

29 Absolutism in Russia Continued…
G) Because the Baltic Sea freezes in winter, Peter the Great wanted a warm water port. The nearest warm water port was the Black Sea. Peter fought the Ottoman Turks for it but failed. H) He sent explorers to Siberia and Alaska. I) He signed treaty with China defining their borders in the East. “I mentioned in the relation of the former year [1698] the Tsar's coming out of his own country; on which I will now enlarge. He came this winter over to England and stayed some months among us. I waited often on him, and was ordered by both the king and the archbishops and bishops to attend upon him and to offer him such information of our religion and constitution as he was willing to receive... He is a man of very hot temper, soon inflamed and very brutal in his passion... He is mechanically turned, and seems designed by nature rather to be a ship carpenter than a great prince. This was his chief study and exercise while he stayed here. He wrought much with his own hands and made all about him work at the models of his ships.” Bishop Burnet, Peter the Great 1698

30 Absolutism in Russia Continued…
J) St. Petersburg was Russia’s “Window on the West”. It was designed by Western engineers to imitate Amsterdam 100 years later, Russian poet Pushkin wrote: “…Here we at Nature’s own behest. Shall break a window to the West…” Amsterdam St. Petersburg

31 Absolutism in Russia Continued…
K) Born a German princess, she came at 15 to Russia to wed Czar Peter III. In 1762 her husband was murdered, and Catherine took the throne. Like Peter the Great, Catherine wanted to modernize Russia. This led to many reforms: She promoted the French language and culture She increased the size of Russia. She conquered Poland and divided it up with Prussia (eastern Germany). She fought the Ottoman Turks for access to the Black Sea. Unlike Peter the Great, she was successful! She promoted many ideals of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment (Age of Reason). She was a patron of the arts. Much of her art collection is now at the Hermitage Museum. However, she also gave greater rights to the boyars (Russian nobles), thereby giving them greater control over their serfs.

32 Catherine the Great Continued…

33 Catherine the Great’s Palace

34 Catherine the Great’s Palace


36 V Absolutism in England
Recall the history of English government since the middle Ages: the Magna Carta was signed, limiting the rights of Kings. st parliament (law-making body) met. Made decisions on spending & taxes 3. King Henry VIII created the Anglican Church 1536 B) Elizabeth I was the daughter of King Henry VIII. Ruled 1. She increased the power of the British navy. Her navy defeated the Spanish Armada (fleet of ships on an attack mission) in 1588! 2. Gave aid to France & the Netherlands to keep Spain from gaining power. 3. After her death, the Ruling house of England changed from Tudor to Stuart. Queen Elizabeth I

37 English Absolutism Continued…
“…I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart of a king, and of a king of England, too; and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realms: to which, rather than any dishonor should grow by me, I myself will take up arms; I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, by your forwardness, that you have deserved rewards and crowns; and we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble and worthy subject; not doubting by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and by your valor in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over the enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.” Queen Elizabeth I – 1588 on the Spanish Armada

38 Absolutism in England Continued…
C) King Charles I believed in the divine right of kings and did not want to listen to parliament. Charles I's third Parliament in four years met on March 17th 1628, and immediately started discussing recent grievances against the way the King had been treating them. The Commons leader, Sir Edward Coke came up with the Petition of Right...a statement of a person's fundamental rights which the King should agree to honor. He based his argument on the Magna Carta. As a result, King Charles I refused to let Parliament even meet for 11 years! 1642 he finally called a meeting of parliament to raise taxes to modernize his navy. Led to a civil war. 1. supporters of Charles I were called Cavaliers, due to their plumed hats 2. supporters of Parliament were called Roundheads, due to their short hair Oliver Cromwell, a parliament member, convinced parliament to raise a professional army. He soon became its leader and led parliament to victory. Charles I was executed in 1649.*He was the 1st English monarch ever executed! It sent a message that no king was above the law. King Charles I During this time, many British were fleeing to Britain’s 13 colonies in the New World (including the Pilgrims in 1621). Also, Charles I’s father King James was responsible for the King James Bible!

39 Absolutism in England Continued…
D) After the Civil War, Oliver Cromwell refused to be named the new monarch. Instead, in 1653 he made himself “lord protector” of the new English Commonwealth. Cromwell and Parliament were Puritan; they believed hard work is rewarded in heaven; entertainment is pointless. The English Revolution had led to the Puritan Revolution: Inns and theatres were shut, most sports were banned and swearing was fined.

40 On Oliver Cromwell “On a cold January day in 1649, King Charles I stepped before a hushed crowd of Londoners. He ascended the scaffold, wished his executioner well, and knelt, thrusting his head forward onto the dry chopping block. The ax fell, severing his head from his neck. Then the executioner lifted the king’s head and cried, "Behold the head of a traitor.” The unthinkable had happened. A "Christian" nation had put its king to death… The ideals of the Reformation had reached full expression, affecting even the sphere of politics, and the Puritans were the vehicle in which these ideals had traveled. They terminated in Charles’ execution. And, no one was more single mindedly devoted to the Bible, and the political implications of its truths than the Puritan, Oliver Cromwell (1599–1659), the man primarily responsible for the king’s beheading. He was England’s greatest 17th-century statesman and a military genius who, although lacking formal military training, was never defeated in battle. To his dismay, he eventually replaced the king, ruling England as Lord Protector. He was offered crown and monarchy but refused it.” By William P. Farley

41 Absolutism in England Continued…
E) Cromwell died in In 1660 Parliament asked the exiled Charles II (son of Charles I) to return to England and bring back the monarchy. Charles II reopened theatres and taverns. He also secretly had Catholic sympathies. “King Charles II exhumed Cromwell’s body on the twelfth anniversary of his father’s execution and in retribution for the regicide staged an execution of his own—albeit with Cromwell’s dead body. The Lord Protector’s corpse was strung up on display, beheaded and dumped into a vast London pit. Cromwell’s head was mounted on a pike on the roof of Westminster Hall, where it remained for decades as a warning to would-be revolutionaries.”

42 VI The Glorious Revolution
Charles II’s brother, James II inherited the throne in 1685. James II practiced Catholicism openly. Parliament feared he would restore the Catholic Church to England. 1688 parliament invited James II’s Protestant daughter Mary Stuart and her Dutch husband William III to become rulers of England. When Mary and William III landed in England, James II fled to France. This bloodless revolution became known as the Glorious Revolution. King James II

43 VII The English Bill of Rights
Before they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accepted the English Bill of Rights, that was passed by Parliament in 1689. The English Bill of Rights ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy. 1. Required monarch to summon Parliament regularly 2. Gave the House of Commons power over spending 3. Barred any Catholic from becoming monarch 4. Monarch could no longer suspend laws 5. Renewed trial by jury 6. Affirmed habeus corpus: no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime C) The Glorious Revolution created a limited monarchy, where Parliament limited the powers of the monarch.

44 How Similar are These? English Bill of Rights American Bill of Rights
That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament… That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law… Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press… (1st Amendment) A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. (2nd Amendment)

45 VIII The Rise of Prussia
A) The inhabitants of Prussia in the early middle Ages were related to the Slavs. In the 13th century Teutonic (Germanic) Knights conquered Prussia, Christianized it and brought German and Dutch settlers. It was ruled by the Teutonic Knights as a papal fief. B) In 1410 a Polish and Lithuanian army defeated the Teutonic Knights. In 1466, this left the Knights in possession of eastern Prussia, which it held as a fief of the Polish crown. Western Prussia was ceded to Poland. In 1618 the duchy, still a vassal state of Poland, passed to John Sigismund; his grandson, Frederick William, centralized the administration of the duchy and assumed governing powers.


47 Frederick II “The Great”
Prussia Continued… C) Frederick William's son, Frederick I, became king of Prussia in 1701, receiving royal recognition in exchange for a promise of military aid to Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. Frederick's son, Frederick William I, greatly increased the size of the Prussian army and rebuilt the organization of the state around the military establishment. To his son, Frederick II “the Great”, he left enormous financial reserves and the best army in Europe. Through the military genius of Frederick the Great, Prussia became a major power in Europe. Frederick II “The Great”

48 HW Questions Fill in the appropriate parts of your period 4 Chart.
What were the greatest achievements (in your opinion) of Spain, Russia, England, France, and Prussia during the Age of Absolutism? *Describe at least one achievement for each and explain your answer. What were the greatest abuses of power (in your opinion) during the Age of Absolutism? *Describe at least two abuses of power and support your answer. Why was the English Civil War necessary if the Magna Carta had already been signed in the 13th century? Of all of the Absolute rulers, who would you have most supported and why? Imagine if England had not defeated the Spanish Armada. What would the consequences have been? Do you think it would have been better or worse for history?

49 Key Vocabulary Oliver Cromwell Oprichniki Parliament Peter the Great
Absolutism Catherine the Great Cavaliers Cervantes Charles I Charles II Czar/Tsar El Escorial El Greco English Bill of Rights English Civil War Frederick I Frederick II “the Great” Frederick William I Glorious Restoration Hapsburgs Holy Roman Empire Isabella & Ferdinand Ivan the Great Ivan the Terrible Louis XIV “Sun King” Madrid Magna Carta Oliver Cromwell Oprichniki Parliament Peter the Great Petition of Right Philip II of Spain Prussia Puritan Revolution Queen Elizabeth I Round Heads Spanish Armada St. Basil’s Cathedral St. Petersburg The Wars of the Spanish Succession Treaty of Nantes Treaty of Utrecht Vasquez Velasquez Versailles

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