Presentation on theme: "Japan’s Role in Global Conflicts 20 th Century By Aaron O’Donnell."— Presentation transcript:
Japan’s Role in Global Conflicts 20 th Century By Aaron O’Donnell
WWI Before WWI, Japan was slowly beginning its path to becoming an imperial nation by annexing Korea in 1910, after the end of the Meiji Restoration. From 1914-1918 Japan played an important role in the naval aspect of the first World war. Japan, in an alliance with the Entente Powers, helped to secure the sea passages of the South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the German Navy. Japan proposed to Britain that it would enter the war on their side if they could keep the possessions they seize from Germany. Japan’s Imperial Navy began expansion throughout the Pacific, further displaying the power of their navy. As Japan captured German colonial possessions in the Pacific and East Asia, they maintained their power by directly ruling over their possessions.
During this time period, Japan was also increasing their global political influence by expanding their sphere of influence in China. At the end of the period of the first world war, Japan saw itself with a seat at the Versailles Peace conference along with the Big Four and eventually gaining a permanent seat at the League of Nations. Following the conference a majority of Germany’s holdings in the Pacific went under Japanese Mandate. At the close of the war, Japan was emerging as a major world power that will have a colossal global influence during WWII. WWI Cont.
WWII After WW1, Japan was furthering a path towards becoming an imperialist power, gaining many territories throughout the Pacific. During the interwar periods Japan saw itself in dangerous water as it was drawing the attention of many western world powers during this time, like the U.S., Britain, and France. This lead to the creation of new treaties to keep the naval powers of these countries in check and other treaties, like the Kellogg-Briand Pact, to prevent a war in the Pacific. Meanwhile Japan was still maintaining its influence in China and other Pacific Nations. In 1938, Japan began to embark on the plan known as the Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere, which ought to politically integrate Japan, Manchukuo, China and South East Asia under Japanese rule against western nations.
WWII Cont. The Second Sino-Japanese war, however, was started, before the official creation of the plan, in July of 1937 as Japan entered China in a time of disunity and conflict between the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese nationalists under Chang Kai-Shek This war is what increases the tensions between Japan and Western nations who felt threatened by the rising power of Japan, as the U.S., Britain and France all sent aid to China to support their fight against Japan leading to a stalemate. In 1938, Hitler and Nazi Germany make an alliance with Japan and Italy. Heading into the years of WWII, they officially signed the tripartite Pact in September, 1940. Throughout 1941, Japan and the U.S. participated in diplomatic negotiations to try to achieve peaceful settlement. These talks deadlocked until October 1941, when a Japanese army minister declared the termination of the negotiations.
WWII Cont. Tensions between the U.S. and Japan increased even more as Japan extended its empire into French Indochina and having intension on spreading to the U.S. owned Philippines In response the U.S. countered with an oil embargo on Japan to suffocate its economy. This lead Japan to retaliate with a surprise attack to get the U.S. out of Pacific water and clear way for the imperializing of the rest of South East Asia, which was resource-rich. This surprise attack was the bombing of Pearl Harbor, where Japanese planes dropped bombs on the U.S. Pacific fleet in Hawaii. This event lead to the destruction of 8 battleships and the loss of 2400 American lives. The United States immediately declared war on Japan the following day leading to Italy and Germany declaring war on the U.S. on December 11 th, 1941, bringing America into the Second World War
WWII Cont. Initially the bombing of Pearl Harbor was a success for Japan, as it lead to the seizure of land in Hong Kong, Singapore, The Philippines, Malaya, Burma and New Guinea. However in the long run, this event would eventually lead to the destruction of Japan as it had just brought in a country ready to mobilize into the world’s most powerful economy and in a sense the awoke the ‘Sleeping Giant’. In the later years of WWII Japan would go on to fight a series of battles, throughout the Pacific, against the U.S. as they attempted to liberate the Japanese possessions using a military tactic known as Island Hopping. In 1942, there was a turning point in the Pacific region of World War II as the Japanese were planning a surprise attack on an archipelago, Midway Atholl, near Hawaii. The Japanese planned to lure the still mobilizing U.S. naval fleet to Midway and destroy their fleet inflicting irreversible damage, proving their naval superiority, and allowing them to seize Hawaii easily.
WWII Cont. Japan, however underestimated the naval power of the U.S. and their ability of their code breakers. During the Battle of Midway, the U.S. instead was the victor and bringer of humiliation and destruction to Japans naval fleet. The Battle of Midway set up the U.S.’s subsequent domination of the Pacific region and the eventual decline of the Japanese Imperial Empire By 1945, the U.S. had freed almost all of Japan’s empire and was beginning Japanese mainland invasions in Iwo Jima and Okinawa. It was in these battles that the U.S. lost over 6000 men and Japan over 20,000 due to the massive kamikaze air raids and naval battles. Eventually, the U.S. made a decision to drop two atomic bombs on Japan to avoid the destruction that would ensue with an all out invasion, leading to the deaths of over 80,000 Japanese people and the surrender of Japan ending WWII on August 15 th, 1945.
Most Important event in Japan 20 th Century The most important event in Japan during the 20 th century was the dropping of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These images show the atomic bomb mushroom clouds above Hiroshima (left) and Nagasaki (right).
These bombing were the most significant event in Japan during the 20 th century because: It signified the end of WWII, a war in which Japan had huge participation. It devastated Japan killing over 80,000 and injuring 40,000 more. It indicated the end of the Imperial Japanese empire as it was declining and losing all its external territory throughout the later years after WWII, leading to the modern era of Japan that started after the 1947 constitution was passed. After allied occupation and Japan’s reparations, it was granted membership into the U.N. in 1956. in the following years, Japan’s economy rapidly grew to be the second largest economy until 2010. Most Important event in Japan 20 th Century
Globalization of Culture and Economy Japan represents a large portion of globalization of culture and economy, with many Japanese companies invested all around the world Economically, Japan is a member of trade networks such as CTN (U.S./Japan Cultural Trade Network), RENGO/ JTUC (Japanese Trade Union Confederation) and OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). Huge Japanese companies and corporations have major popularity and influence around the world such as Toyota, Mitsubishi, Nintendo and Nikon Japan’s economy is also the third largest in the world by GDP and the worlds second most developed economy and is a member of the G7 (Group of 7 most advanced economies of the word). Since its membership in the U.N. began in 1956, Japan has become the second most financial contributor to the U.N. behind the U.S. and has a chair as a Security Council Member, which it dreams to make permanent.
Globalization of Culture and Economy Culturally, Japan is a very globalized and western oriented nation. Music in Japan is heavily influenced by American and European popular music styles leading to the creation of J-Pop ( Japanese pop music). Throughout major cities in Japan, along with traditional Japanese restaurants, you can also find many American chain Restaurants like McDonalds or KFC Sports in Japan are very globalized since the introduction of many western sports post-WWII. The Olympics were held in Tokyo in 1964 and will be held there again in 2020. Japan has also held the Winter Olympics twice. Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby country and will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup Japan co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea
Globalization of Culture and Economy Baseball in Japan is currently the most spectator popular sport in the country and their Nippon League, equivalent to the MLB, continues to supply the U.S. and MLB with highly regarded Japanese players Japanese players such as Masahiro Tanaka and Yu Darvish thrive in the U.S. baseball league. Japan has also produced one NBA player, Yuta Tabuse
20 th Century: Progress or Chaos While it seems like throughout the 20 th Century Japan may have gone through more chaos than progress, however there was more combined progression throughout. During the 20 th Century Japan had three major setbacks being the breakup of their empire, the Atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their loss in WWII. However the amount that Japan accomplished before the setbacks and then recovered and accomplished after the setbacks outweighs the three setbacks. For example, before the breakup of their Empire, from the beginning of the 1900’s to the mid 1940’s Japan had conquered almost all of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, parts of China and had fought off Russia for a while. They also achieved naval superiority and became known as a world power in the period between the two wars.
20 th Century: Progress or Chaos Then, after their empire being destroyed and losing their status after WWII, Japan eventually recuperated and was on a track to greatness again. After being devastated in WWII, Japan managed to boost its economy and maintain it as one of the top three most advanced and strongest economies of the world to this day. Japan is seen again as a major power of the world and has major influence on the global population. Therefore since Japan managed to climb to superiority for the first 30 years of the 1900’s and again in the last 40 years, their growth and progress throughout this period of time outweighs the chaos they faced at the end of WWII.
Voices of Japan The events involving Japan throughout the 20 th Century have many different perspective depending on the stance of the source. Certain events could spark different responses around the world depending on who the event affected The Bombing of Pearl Harbor: Japanese Perspective: "The fate of the Empire rests on this enterprise. Every man must devote himself totally to the task in hand.”- Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander in Chief of the Japanese Navy, Dec. 7, 1941. ---This quote shows that the Japanese felt that this attack would help in keeping the U.S. out of Japanese endeavors in the Pacific. They felt that this attack would increase the power of the empire of Japan so they needed to focus on totally destroying the U.S. fleet. U.S Perspective: "Yesterday, December 7, 1941-a date which will live in infamy-the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan... No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people will through their righteous might win through to absolute victory.”-President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Dec. 8, 1941, speech asking Congress to declare war on Japan. --- This quote shows how the U.S. felt devastated by this attack but also promises to use it to fuel their fighting in WWII to avenge the fallen. Meanwhile Japan thinks they’ve defeated the U.S fleet but they rebound against Japan stronger than ever.
Voices of Japan Battle of Iwo Jima: Japanese perspective: “No man must die until he has killed at least ten Americans” - Japanese General Kuribayashi Tadamichi before the Battle of Iwo Jima--- This quote shows the harsh rule of the Japanese military as it is instructing the members not to die until they has killed 10 Americans. This also shows the animosity felt between the U.S. and Japan during WWII as they will both fight till the death to maintain their standing. United States Perspective: “Among the men who fought on Iwo Jima, uncommon valor was a common virtue.” - Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz (March 16, 1945) ---This quote shows that although the U.S. military wasn’t as harshly ruled, the soldiers still fought to their last breath, also showing the reluctance to give up fighting. This was why the battle of Iwo Jima was such a bloody struggle.