Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Helping students use words precisely and powerfully Jeanne Godfrey IATEFL Conference 2013, Liverpool, UK. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013 www.jeannegodfrey.com.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Helping students use words precisely and powerfully Jeanne Godfrey IATEFL Conference 2013, Liverpool, UK. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013 www.jeannegodfrey.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Helping students use words precisely and powerfully Jeanne Godfrey IATEFL Conference 2013, Liverpool, UK. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/

2 Problems students have  Lack of /only partial familiarity with core academic vocabulary.  Inability to control and clearly communicate their ideas.  Lack of confidence in developing their own written voice.  Tutors giving help with technical language but expecting the students to be familiar with sub-technical lexis. Core vocabulary is therefore less marked and given less attention by students also.  Dictionaries – students need to know which word they want to look up and dictionaries don’t give adequate contextualisation within real academic writing.  Thesauruses – again, students need to know which word you want to look up, compounded by the fact that synonyms are grouped and that there is no indication of differences in meaning and context, nuance, connotation or register.  ‘Confusable words’ and ‘key words’ books - again, they need to know which word you want to look up and that they have got a word wrong.  EAP Vocabulary course books – excellent but only one or two are ordered via function and by definition they are (large) course books. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/

3 Key points on mental lexicon and vocabulary acquisition  How many words do L2 students need to know? NNSs: Rundell - about 7,500 words above basic 2 -3,000 threshold level to understand 92 – 93% of a serious text. Nation - 8,000 words = % coverage of serious newspapers. 9,000 are needed for 98% coverage. Size of lexicon needed for native-speaker performance – about 17, ,000 word families. (Nation and Newton. Goulden, Nation and Read.)  Do students learn vocabulary through incidental reading, focussed teaching, reading strategies and guessing? Incidental reading is good but focussed teaching is also needed. Teaching vocabulary is more useful than focussing on reading strategies (Dalton et al., Haynes and Baker, Laufer). Trying to guess words definitely doesn’t work (Bensoussan and Laufer 1984, Laufer 1997).  Importance of learning phrases rather than isolated words? High. (Nattinger and De Carrico, Kilgarrif, Moon, Howarth, Osbourne, Nesselhauf and others.)  Core academic vocabulary versus discipline-specific? Both are important.  (Durrant et al., Corson, Coxhead, Hyland and Guinda 2012.)  Need for practice and precision? Definitely. Established pedagogy. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013

4 The Student Phrase Book: Vocabulary for Writing at University Godfrey, 2013 Palgrave Macmillan Key aims and messages Aims:  to be an accessible self-reference and learning tool that can be used alongside a piece of work or separately;  to give students a ‘way in’ to core academic vocabulary via writing functions;  to help students use words and phrases precisely in their writing;  to raise awareness of common errors and provide practice in error correction;  to raise awareness of the rhetorical, ‘critical thinking’, and other key writing functions and to become familiar with academic writing and its conventions generally. Messages:  academic writing should be uncomplicated, clear and precise and controlled by the student to communicate ideas effectively;  the ability to write well is not achieved merely by using ‘good’ words and phrases, but by understanding their purpose and using them purposefully;  successful and powerful writing is mainly a product of sound research, thinking and ideas combined with the ability to communicate these to the reader. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013

5 Limitations of The Student Phrase Book  Covers core academic vocabulary rather than subject-specific lexis.  Can’t cover all the words every student will need.  Presents synforms together.  Uses only the standard essay and report formats and to a lesser extent original research and experiment, rather than the different genres and sub-genres that exist.  Does not talk to students explicitly about how to learn and develop their vocabulary.  Does not cover in detail the complexities of how to use language to control the development of their ideas - such aspects need to be contextualised within their specific subject areas, using longer sections of authentic disciplinary texts. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013

6 Research that informed The Student Phrase Book Word selection criteria:  core academic lexis used across disciplines in main writing functions ;  mid to advanced level for both native and non-native English speakers ;  rare words that are more common in academic texts and therefore unfamiliar to students;  evidenced in my ‘error corpus’ and published material as often used imprecisely/ incorrectly. My selection was checked against:  West General Service List, Xue and Nation University Word List, Coxhead Academic Word List and the Simpson-Vlach and Ellis Academic Formulas List;  my written error corpus;  top two tiers of high-frequency written words in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 2009 and Macmillan Dictionary for Advanced Learners;  all other relevant and major publications, e.g. Fowler 2004, Pythian 1990, Cobuild Key Words for IELTS Book 2 Improvers and Book 3 Advanced, Swales and Feak;  Concordancers - BNC, Wordsmith Tools 5.0, Lextutor 6.5 and Google. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/

7 Extract from my academic writing error corpus (raw data)  V about/generally. The UK population is generally 60,000,000.  V About/o.f Personal writing is more of your own feelings..  V above/earlier...with the restriction mentioned earlier on.. (cf above)  V Abundant side-effects ( too positive cf common)  V academic. The target audience can be white collar, business people or academical.  V Accompanies. The deforestation of the Amazon Basin escorts the concerns in various continents in the world.  V According. Lupton (1998) the public is extremely interested in medical stories.  V according to. … According to Inoue Yukiko he is concerned that…  V According to me…  V According to. Mites and Hermes it confirms that...  V accordingly. According to this vs. accordingly  V Across. (over) the years there has been  V adapt/apply. Academic writing is a form of writing that students adapt to their work.  V addicted. Being Internet addicted isn’t so bad  V addiction. An addiction for the Internet  V addictive. Cannabis is habitual (addictive)…  V addictive/addiction. The effect it might have if its addicted.  V adequate collocation. - My language skills are somewhat (-) adequate. (cf quite)  V Adopt/adapt. Academic writing is a form of writing that students adapt to their work.  V advance. Advances vs advancements  V Advances vs advancements  V advantage/disadvantage. Disadvantages for species to have more than one blood group is that….  V advantage. There are many advantages for students to embark (of embarking) on a course of study  V Affect/influence. Testing on animals has numerous consequences; it influences animals in several aspects.  V affect/reflect. In the long term, deforestation does not reflect on only one part of the world. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013

8 The Student Phrase Book word coverage  University word list - Level 1 90% coverage - Level 11 8% coverage.  Academic Word List – 51% coverage. This may seem low but AWL has a slightly higher proportion of words from commerce than from other subjects 1. I also excluded words that are not directly associated with key writing functions and also vocabulary that is fairly basic and/or unproblematic for advanced NNSs and NS students. Examples of words not included in The Phrase Book: aid /adult /administrative/ attachment /automatic /area /civil /colleague/commodity/commission/consent/corporate/couple/contracted/culture/domes tic/draft/drama/ export /federal/ file/funding.  The Phrase Book mainly covers words that are in the 3,000 – 7,000 th frequency range, e.g. analogy, analyse, arbitrary, comparable (Macmillan Dictionary project and Rundell) and also some extra words outside the 7,000 th frequency range that are problematic for students in academic writing, e.g. infer.  Examples of rare words and words outside the 7,000 th frequency range not included in TSPB: heuristic/inimical/prudent/nomenclature/perspicuity/promulgate/redact/reify. 1. NB This does not imply bias in Coxhead’s AWL data. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013

9 The Student Phrase Book: Vocabulary for Writing at University Godfrey, 2013 Palgrave Macmillan Basic statistics  28 writing function groups.  1, 200 words or phrases highlighted in sentences.  About 900 complete sentences from correct academic writing. These are nearly all adapted sentences from good/excellent student work and all contain accurate reference details.  Just over 500 of the 1,200 words are then defined and have key information, including other main forms of the word, colligations and collocations, common confusions with synonyms and synforms, and key grammatical points.  280 incorrect adapted student sentences from my error corpus with corrected sentences given.  Has both a function/section headings index and alphabetical word/ phrase index. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013

10 Extract from The Student Phrase Book © J. Godfrey 2013.

11

12

13 13

14 Extract from The Student Phrase Book © J. Godfrey

15 Extract from The Student Phrase Book © J. Godfrey 2013.

16

17 Extract from The Student Phrase Book © J. Godfrey

18 Extract from The Student Phrase Book © J. Godfrey 2013.

19

20

21

22 Bibliography  Alderson, J. C. (1984). Reading in a foreign language: A reading problem or a language problem?  In J. C. Alderson and A.H. Urquhart (Eds.), Reading in a foreign language. London: Longman.  Arnaud, P. and Sauvignon, S. (1997). Rare words, complex lexical units and the advanced learner. In J.Coady and T. Huckin (Eds.) Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. USA: CUP.  Bensoussan, M. and Laufer, B. (1984). Lexical guessing in context in EFL reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 7 (1),  Biber, D. (2004). If you look at... Lexical Bundles in University Teaching and Textbooks. Applied Linguistics, 25(3), 371 – 405.  Boers, F. and Lindstromberg, S. (2009). Optimizing a lexical approach to instructed second language acquisition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.  Coady, J. and Huckin, T. (Eds.) (1997).Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. USA: CUP.  Coady, J., Magoto, J., Hubbard, P., Graney, J., and Mokhtari, K. (1993). High Frequency Vocabulary and Reading Proficiency in ESL Readers. In T. Huckin, M. Haynes and J. Coady, (Eds) Second language reading and vocabulary learning. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.  Corson, D. (1997).The learning and use of academic English words. Language Learning,4 (4),  Cortes, V. (2004). Lexical Bundles in Published and Student Disciplinary Writing: Examples from History and Biology’. Journal of English for Specific Purposes, 23 (4),  Coxhead, A. (2000). A New Academic Word List. TESOL Quarterly, 34 (2),  Coxhead, A. (2008). Phraseology and English for Academic Purposes. In Meuner, F. and Granger S. (Eds) Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.  Dalton, B., Proctor, C. P., Uccelli, P., Mo. E. and Snow, C. E. (2011).Designing for diversity: The role of reading strategies and interactive vocabulary in a digital reading environment for fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students. Journal of Literacy Research, 43(1),  Durrant, P and Mathews-Aydinli J. ‘A function-first approach to identifying formulaic language in academic writing,’ (2011).Journal of English for Specific Purposes, 30 (1),  Evans, S. and Morrison, B. (2010). The first term at university: implications for EAP. English  Language Teaching Journal,65 (4),  Evans, S. and Morrison, B. (2011). Meeting the challenges of English-medium higher education: The first-year experience in Hong Kong. Journal of English for Specific Purposes, 30 (3), Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013

23  Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Flowerdew L. and Aston, G. (Eds.) (2011).New trends in corpora and language learning. London: Continuum International Publishing.  Gilquin, G. Granger, S. Paquot, M.(2007) Learner corpora: The missing link in EAP pedagogy. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6 (4), 319 – 335.  Goulden, R., Nation, P. and Read, J. (1990). How large can a receptive vocabulary be? Applied Linguistics, 11 (4),  Harwood, N. (2005) What do we want EAP teaching materials for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11 (4),  Hartmann, R. R. K. (2001). Teaching and researching lexicography. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.  Haynes, M. and Baker, I. (1993). American and Chinese readers learning from lexical familiarization in English texts. In T. Huckin, M. Haynes and J. Coady (Eds) Second language reading and vocabulary learning. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.  Huckin, T., Haynes, M. and Coady, J. (Eds) 1999) Second language reading and vocabulary learning. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.  Hyland, K. and Guinda, C. S. (Eds.).(2012). Stance and Voice in Written Academic Genres.  Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.  Hyland, K. and Tse, P. (2007). Is there an ‘academic vocabulary’?. TESOL Quarterly, 41(2),  Koda, K. ( 2005). Insights into second language reading. Cambridge: CUP.  Kilgarriff, A. (2006). Collocationality (and how to measure it). Proceedings of 12 th EURALEX International Congress. Torino: Edizioni Dell’Orso.  Laufer, B. (1997). The lexical plight in second language reading. In J.Coady and T. Huckin (Eds.). Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. USA: CUP.  Llach, M. P. A. (2011). Lexical errors and accuracy in foreign language writing (58). Channel View Books.  Low, G. (1996). Intensifiers and Hedges in Questionnaire Items and the Lexical Invisibility Hypothesis. Applied Linguistics, 17 (1),  Mason, B. and Krashen, S. (2010). The Reality, Robustness, and Possible Superiority of Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Another Look at File and Adams. TESOL Quarterly, 44 (4) 790 – 793.  Meuner, F. and Granger S. (Eds) (2008) Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.  Moon, R. (2008). Sinclair, phraseology and lexicography. International Journal of Lexicography, 21(3)  Nation, I.S.P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Newbury House.  Nation, I.S.P. (2001)Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: CUP.  Nation, I. S. P.(2006) How large a Vocabulary is Needed for Reading and Listening? Canadian Modern Language Review, 63 (1) Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013

24  Nation, P. and Newton, J. (1997) Teaching Vocabulary. In J. Coady, J. and T. Huckin, T. (Eds.) Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. USA: CUP.  Nattinger, J. and De Carrico, J.(1992).Lexical phrases and language teachers. Oxford: OUP.  Nesi, H. (2011) BAWE: an introduction to a new resource. In A. Frankenberg-Garcia, L. Flowerdew and G. Aston (Eds.). New trends in corpora and language learning. London: Continuum International Publishing.  Nesselhauf, N. (2004). Collocations in a learner corpus. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.  Osborne, J. (2008). Phraseology effects as a trigger for error in L2 English. In F. Meunerand S. Granger (Eds) Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.  Simpson-Vlach, R. and Ellis, N.C. (2010). An Academic Formulas List: New Methods in Phraseology Research. Applied Linguistics, 31 (4),  Schmitt, N. and Schmitt, D. (1995). Vocabulary notebooks: Theoretical underpinnings and practical suggestions. Journal of English Language Teaching, 49(2),  Schmitt, N. (2008).Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12 (3),  Simpson-Vlach R. and Ellis N. C.(2010).An academic formulas list: new methods in phraseology research. Applied Linguistics, 31 (4), 487 – 512.  Singleton, D. M. (2000).Language and the Lexicon: an introduction. Arnold.  Thornbury, S. (2008).How to teach vocabulary. Pearson Longman.  Thurston, J. and Candlin, C. (1998). Concordancing and the Teaching of the Vocabulary of Academic English. Journal of English for Specific Purposes, 17 (3),  Verstraten, L. (1992) Fixed Phrases in monolingual dictionaries. In P. J. L. Arnaud and H. Bejoint (Eds.) Vocabulary and. Applied Linguistics. London: Macmillan.  Xue G. and Nation, I.S.P. (1984).A University Word List. Language Learning and Communication, 3 (2), 215 – 229. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013


Download ppt "Helping students use words precisely and powerfully Jeanne Godfrey IATEFL Conference 2013, Liverpool, UK. Jeanne Godfrey 9/3/2013 www.jeannegodfrey.com."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google