Presentation on theme: "How Did the Western Worldview Grow Out of the Renaissance?"— Presentation transcript:
1How Did the Western Worldview Grow Out of the Renaissance? Chapter 3How Did the Western Worldview Grow Out of the Renaissance?
2How Did New Religious Views Become Part of the Western Worldview? Two views of religion existed in the Western worldview of the time.One believed that individuals should follow the rules, rituals and teachings of the Roman Catholic ChurchOne believed that individuals should question and respond to the Bible personally.Humanists began to question the behaviour of some of the popes and the clergy.They wanted to see reforms in religion but did not want to break from the Catholic Church.This desire to reform became the basis for the Protestant ReformationThe 16th-century movement to reform the doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church which resulted in the formation of Protestant churches.They did not originally want to separate from the Catholic Church however the disagreements lead to new ideas and religious wars.
3Martin LutherGerman priest and one of the most important reformers.Wrote a pamphlet that listed 95 reforms he felt were necessaryHe believed thatFollowing the rituals of the Church was not enough to get into heavenIndividuals should seek personal religious understandingIndividuals should not pay the church for forgivenessHis books were burned by the Catholic Church but those who agreed with him came together to form the Protestant religion.Members of any Christian Churches that are not Roman Catholic
4Religious ReformReligion became more individualized and influenced the formation of new churches and the Roman Catholic Church itself.The Protestant Reformation is an example of the rapid flow of ideas across Europe.The Catholics and Protestants used their hostilities for political purposesOften at warLead people to follow different leadersThe fight for religion created a sense of common identity among people and influenced the formation of countries.
5How Did Ideas of National Identity and Citizenship Begin to Develop During the Renaissance? The idea of a nation began to develop in the Renaissance and became part of the way we see the world.By the end of the Renaissance, small political units joined together to form larger states or countries.They formed them for the following reasons:Societies became more urbanCitizens developed new identitiesGunpowder was introduced to China which changed warfare.Monarch hired mercenaries (soldiers mostly) who took control of lands to have increasingly larger states.The printing press and use of local languages helped create national identitiesExploration of new lands also led to a sense of greater national identity.
6Changes in European Societies Show Changing Worldviews Social SystemsPeople saw themselves as citizens of a countryExploration = feelings of optimismCitizens more free to move out of their classSome public services began to be providedGrowth of modern states put them in competition with the churchPolitical and Economic SystemsRulers headed central governmentsGovernment policies were set up to ensure political and economic independencePermanent armies establishedResources were provided for large projectsCentralized laws put in placeNational economic policies such as trade and tax rules controlled trade and businessCultureCommon languages unified the citizensMore literacy = more knowledge of historyP. 97
7How Did a Spirit of Exploration Become Part of the Western Worldview? During the Renaissance, the feudal system declined and larger centralized states came under the control of monarchs who wanted the wealth that came from trade with the East.This competition created the need for new trade routes.This as well as new geographic knowledge and sailing technologies paved the way for the Age of Exploration (also called the Age of Discovery)Began in the early 15th centuryThe desire to expand their influence became a major part of their worldviewEuropean expansionism would spread the Western Worldview all over the world.A government policy encouraging territorial or economic expansion to other countries, often by force.
8How Did a Spirit of Exploration Become Part of the Western Worldview? Factors Affecting ExpansionismThe need for new trade routesTrade on the Silk Road became limited and no longer met the demands for good in EuropeWays of doing business were changingMerchants would fund trading ships to bring back goodsAs focus on trade increased, merchants wanted to have their own control over trade, this lead to travel and explorationWhen the Turks were conquered in 1453, the flow of goods from Asia was nearly halted resulting in the need for finding new direct sea routes to India and China.
9How Did a Spirit of Exploration Become Part of the Western Worldview? New ideas and knowledgeGeographypeople believed the world was round and flatSome believed it was round but with one ocean (Ptolemy)Scientist such as Copernicus seemed to confirm that the earth was spherical therefore travelers were not afraid to explore due to fear of falling off the earthInterest in learning more about the worldHumanism brought interest in geographyWriters promoted the idea that people should see as much of the world as possibleAdvances in cartology meant they could travel furtherThe astrolabe (device used to navigate with the stars and the printing press increased travel due to the distribution of maps)
10How Did the Age of Exploration Begin? Portugal, France, Spain and England became more and more powerfulThey became the leading players in the Age of Exploration for the following reasons:Each had an Atlantic coastlineMonarchs financed overseas explorationNew ship designs allowed sailors to travel furtherNew values favouring travel lead to consumerismFocusing on collecting and using material goods or products.
11How Did the Age of Exploration Begin? PortugalPortuguese sailors headed south and east along the west coast of Africa to find a new route to ChinaSo successful in finding new trade routes that Lisbon became Europe’s new trade capital.Between 1487 and 1497, Batholomew Diaz and Da Gama helped establish a sea route to the east establishing wealth for Portugal
12How Did the Age of Exploration Begin? SpainThey were jealous of Portugal’s wealth and also sent sailors to the eastIn an attempt to gain a trade route unkown to the Portuguese, they travelled in the opposite direction, unaware that the two continents of the America’s stood in the way.Christopher ColumbusIn 1492, he set sail from Spain and after two months at sea he spotted and island he thought was Japan which was in fact an island in the CaribbeanHe remained convinced that he had sailed all the way to Asia but explorers would later prove that he found land unknown to EuropeansFerdinand MagellanExplored the sea coast of South America in 1519Discovered and named the Pacific OceanOne of his five ships made it to Asia and became the first to circumnavigate the globe.
13How Did the Age of Exploration Begin? EnglandSlower to fund exploration, more interested in trade within EuropeOne of the few voyages funded came in 1497 when John Cabot reached North AmericaUnder the reign of Queen Elizabeth I at the end of the 16th century came the interest in exploration.By the beginning of the 17th century, England established more colonies along the North Atlantic Coast and in the West Indies than any other power.FranceAfter Spain and Portugal found wealth in the Americas, France decided to embark on explorationIn 1534, Jacques Cartier sailed to the New World and explored he St. Lawrence river.
14How Did the Age of Exploration Lead to Imperialism? During the Age of Discovery, European nations began to recognize the wealth the new lands and its people could provideOver time, some countries such as Spain and Britain had built so many colonies that they had their own empires.This would lead to imperialismThe policy of a country or empire to extend its authority or domination by political, economic or military means.The view of these countries was the need to further the interest of thier nation and therefore became very competitive for land.P.109
15How Did the Age of Exploration Lead to Imperialism? The European View of the Rest of the World.WE ARE THE BEST!!!!! WE ARE SUPERIOR!!!!Europe’s imperialist nations thought that they had the right to control colonies based on a belief of cultural and political superiority.Indigenous peoples were not generally viewed as equalsThey therefore practiced some degree of ethnocentrismA belief that one’s own race or culture is superior to others
16How Did the Age of Exploration Lead to Imperialism? Examples of ethnocentric viewsThe Aztec and Inca of the Americas has bigger cities and more sophisticated societies but were still treated as inferiorsChinese civilizations who were thousands of years older were thought to be barbariansTraditional governments were replaced with European systemsIndigenous peoples were displaced or used for slave labourAfrican civilizations almost wiped out through slave tradeChristianity the only true religion
17How Did the Exchange of Goods and Products Change the World? Exploration lead to the redistribution of plants and animal around the world.Europeans transformed the Americas with the introduction of their metals, the wheel, work animals, as well as their firearms and technologiesThe Americas introduced things such as rubber, canoes, snowshoes, toboggans and chewing gum.The biggest exchange and impact came with the spread of European diseasesSmallpox, measles and tuberculosis were especially destructiveIt is estimated that between 75% and 90% of the Aboriginal population died due to exposure to European diseases.In some cases, whole cultures were destroyed because of their weakened state.P.112
18How Did Imperialism Affect European Worldviews? Ideas and KnowledgeExploration soon made the Europeans realize that there were entire civilizations different then their ownEven though they were generally ethnocentric, scholars and leaders were impressed by the North American indigenous peoples’ way of lifeThey began to think about the inequalities in their own system of governmentThe idea of personal freedom became part of the European WorldviewIndividual choice and choice of religion became an important part of life for the Europeans
19How Did Imperialism Affect European Worldviews? Economic SystemsContrary to what might be thought, the economy in most European countries ended up in turmoil as a result of the wealth gained from their colonies.As more and more gold and silver was brought to Europe from their colonies its buying power was reduced.This resulted in inflationAn increase in prices and a decrease in the purchasing power of moneyP.120