Presentation on theme: "Development of Web-based Multimedia Content for Enhancing In- service Teachers' English Language Proficiency and Self-Access Training Program 삼성경제연구소 Presenter:"— Presentation transcript:
Development of Web-based Multimedia Content for Enhancing In- service Teachers' English Language Proficiency and Self-Access Training Program 삼성경제연구소 Presenter: Inseok Kim (Dongduk Women’s University) Date: October 11, 2008 Place: Seoul National University of Technology The 11th KAMALL Conference
2 The order of presentation Ⅰ Ⅰ Introduction The overview of the TETE practices (KICE, KERIS, POEs) II Prerequisites for successful classroom English learning Prerequisites for successful classroom English learning III Linguistic elements necessitated for successful learning of classroom English Linguistic elements necessitated for successful learning of classroom English 3 6 Design and Development of Multimedia Contents Design and Development of Multimedia Contents 7 Ⅵ Ⅵ V V Self-access training 42 Concluding remarks 43 Planning phase, design phase, development phase Five steps for developing a self-access training program
3 ▪ Most English classes are not taught in English English is learned not as a skill, but as a subject area. possess a limited repertoire of classroom English ▪ difficulty with running a class in L2 Better to teach through English Linguistic training Needed for classroom situations Teachers feel more competent in teaching English Students tend to respect their English teachers more. Students learn English better through more comprehensible input. L2 learners’ English learning will be successful in the long run, Underlying Assumptions behind TETE Teacher competence makes a great difference in student outcomes. Ⅰ Part Introduction
4 KERIS (2001) (Multimedia Software) KICE (2000) POEs (2000) Handbook Handbook Ministry of Education (MOE) Change of English Educational Policy Change up for Newly revised English curriculum (7 th ) Need to improve English instruction Practice Rationale Problems English competency takes L2 learners a life time to develop. Teachers are simply too busy to take on classroom English training program. Sent English teachers to the training program Urged teachers to use English for more than 10% of class time Students were encouraged to use English as often as possible. Teachers’ competence affects students’ learning of English The maximum use of English will help students learn more English. In-service teachers make little use of English. Call for improving English instruction in grade schools Ⅰ Part Introduction
5 I Part Five-Year Improvement Plan (Feb of 2008) Cultivating fluent English Speakers The Revival of the TETE Issue Hiring 15,000 fluent English teachers over the period of five years (English teaching professionals with no English teaching certificates by MEST) Reforming the curriculum of English Education majors or related majors More strict English teaching licensing Improving the infrastructure for English Teaching in grade schools Provision of Self-access online digital English Learning materials (2007) (Three Levels – Total 48 lessons) Teach and Learn in Korea (TALK, 2008) ■ Funded 50 million dollars to have hundred elementary schools of 13 POEs install videconferncing system for English learning ■ Embark on a 50 million dollar project to develop digital English textbooks for elementary schools Students will speak English with moderate fluency.
6 II Part Prerequisites for Successful Classroom English Learning Dynamic Nature of Language Proficiency Required Proficiency Fluency/Integrative Vocabulary Pronunciation Grammar Task Sociolinguistic Culture Clifford (1983)
7 Prerequisites for Successful Classroom English Learning II Part Clifford (1983)
8 Prerequisites for Successful Classroom English Learning II Part Classroom English Competency Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) Classroom English Classroom Discourse Vocabulary Communicative Grammar Collocations and Idioms Pronunciation
9 III Part Three phases of software production Planning phase Design phase Development phase Three phases of software production Planning phase Design phase Development phase Planning, Design, and Development of Multimedia Software
10 Planning phase - the heart of software development Database of Classroom English Demo of model Lessons of the textbook Models of Classroom English Teaching Creating multimedia files Development of Prototype Creating multimedia files Development of Prototype Design phase Development phase III Design and Development of Multimedia Software Part Learning Principles, Learning Features, Algorithm and storyboards - Research Stage
11 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase (1) Greeting people (2) Introducing oneself (3) Introducing somebody else (4) Asking about somebody's health (5) Giving and thanking (6) Apologizing … etc. Category 1: Classroom English classified by communicative Functions
12 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 2: Classroom English used for exchanging information (1) Identity Are you Henry Steward? No, I'm his brother. (2) Profession Is he a musician? Yes, and he's an actor. (3) Nature of an object 'What is it? (It's) a box. Is it a dog or a cat? (4) Dimension, height, distance How big is your bag? It's not very big. How tall is that famous basketball player? /About six feet. How far is the school? /Only three hundred yards.
13 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 2: Classroom English used for exchanging information (5) Color What color is your book?/ (It's) blue and yellow. (6) Possession Whose pen is this? (I think) it's Jane's. (7) Quantity How many boys are there? Only five, but there are twenty girls. (8) Reason and cause Why are you late?/ Because my mother is ill.]
14 III Part -> Planning Stage -> 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 3: Classroom English used to ask students to do something (1) Using a command, an injunction, an instruction Stand up, Come here, Go to the board, Go back to your seat, Sit down. Look (here), Look at the picture (the board, your books, page 16,...). Listen (carefully), Listen to me (John, Susan, Myriam, the song,...). Repeat after me (after Richard,...). Ask Joan (Robert, Tom, Betty, your neighbor). Ask me (him, her,...) a question. Answer her (his, my) question. Spell your name (the word,...).
15 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Category 3: Classroom English used to ask students to do something (2) Using a polite request or an invitation Lend me your book, please. Help me, will you? Can you show me your picture? Please raise your hands. (3) Making a suggestion How about a little game now? What about learning a new song?] Planning Phase
16 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English used to express one's opinion, judgment, or preference (1) About different sports Do you like football (soccer)? Yes, I do. I love it. or No, I hate it; it's very boring. Which sport do you like best? Tennis is my favorite. I prefer basketball. (2) About pastimes and holidays What do you do on Sundays? I like watching television. or I like playing with my brothers and sisters. or I prefer cycling or swimming.
17 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English used to express one's opinion, judgment, or preference (3) About different singers, actors, books, films I like Jean-Paul Belmondo : he's very funny. I think he's silly. Look at this picture. Do you like it? Oh, yes. It's a lovely picture. I don't like it at all.
18 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 1) Warming activities before starting a class Hello, children (boys and girls). Good morning, teacher (Mr. X, Miss Y, Mrs. Z). How are you? Fine, thank you. Not too bad. What's the matter with you, Tim? I'm tired. You went to bed too late! Look at the sky. What's the weather like? Lovely. Cloudy. It's going to rain.
19 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 2) Expressions used to review the previous lessons Is everybody here today? No, Sandra is not here. Thank you, Bob. Everybody is here except Sandra. Now, Listen everybody. Do you remember the last lesson? What do you remember? The bad boy and the nice dog. Yes, the bad boys lost his bag and the dog...
20 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 3) Expressions that can be used during a main class Listen to me, please. The new lesson is about Betty going to the zoo with her parents. We're going to learn the names of six animals at the zoo. Do you know what a zoo is? Betty will ask questions about these animals. She will learn a lot of interesting things. And we will learn with her. Then we will learn a new song. All right? What a pity Sandra is not here today! We will tell her about Betty at the zoo tomorrow.
21 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 4) Directing words or commanding expressions used before starting a class Listen everybody. Are you all ready? Then we can start. Look at this picture. Listen to the tape. Say this word (sentence) with me. Open your books at page eight. Look at the pictures and listen again. Take your books and your pens or pencils. Draw an elephant and a giraffe. Write the words 'elephant' and 'giraffe' under the pictures. Now shut your books and copybook. We're going to talk about...
22 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 5) Expressions used for learning activities Is everything all right? Now, Tim, ask Harry where the cat is. Harry, can you answer the question?, Who can? Good! But be careful; is she on the basket or in the basket? What's this?, Are you sure? Say it again. Write the name again. What are you drawing?, Look at page eight again. Look at the board everybody. Read the sentence, Bill, Susan, Bob,... Take your copybooks and write it down.
23 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 6) Expressions used to wind up activities Have you all finished? Stop drawing (writing). Is everybody clear?, Any questions? Remember the new words (and their pronunciation!) Now we're going to learn a little poem. 7) Expressions used to correcting errors Yes, Janet, good!, Right! Good for you., Well done! Good, but you can say it better. Will you repeat?/ I haven't finished./ No. Listen. Betty, will you say it for her?/ I haven't finished./ Yes, that's it. Susan, can you say it now?
24 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 8) Expressions used to end the class Well, that's enough for today., It's time to finish., Time is up. You've been very good. Have you all finished? Shut your books : it's time to clear up. Hurry up! Remember what we learned today... For your homework, you'll have to read the little poem again... Myriam, will you please collect the drawings with the new words. When is our next lesson? I will tell you a new story, a very nice story. Goodbye, everyone. See you next Friday.
25 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 9) Songs, rhymes, and chants (1) It’s a time for a song. Let’s sing. How about singing a song? Do you feel like singing? Shall we listen to a song? What shall we sing today/next/first? What is your favorite song, Thomas? Now I have a new/pop song for you. (2)Do you know this song? You might know/recognize this song. You already know this song. This melody should be familiar. Here is a song by The Beatles. (3) Repeat the words after me. Try to sing the words after me. Listen carefully to the tune/melody/words.
26 III Part 1) Compiling a Database of Classroom English Planning Phase Category 4: Classroom English in accordance with types of classroom activities 10) Teacher Comments ★★★★★ Excellent! Very good! That’s excellent! That’s very good! ★★★★ Good! That’s good! Well done! Great! Yes, that’s right – good! ★★★ That’s it! That’s better-well done! (to show improvement) That’s nearly/almost right – try again! (to show progress) ★★ Not quite right – try again! Not quite right – will someone else try? Not quite right! [Name], you try! ★ No – that’s not right! Try again!/Will someone else try?/ [Name], you try!
27 Schema Building Model Direct Feedback Model: Initiation --> Response (positive) --> Feedback Indirect Model: Initiation --> Response (negative) --> Feedback Elicitation Model: Initiation --> Response (failure)--> Delayed Feedback Reinforcement Model: Initiation --> Response (successful) --> Reinforced Feedback III Part 2) Models of Classroom English Teaching Planning Phase
28 III Part 2) Models of Classroom English Teaching Planning Phase Schema Building Model
29 III Part 2) Models of Classroom English Teaching Planning Phase Direct Feedback Model Initiation --> Response (positive) --> Feedback
30 III Part 2) Models of Classroom English Teaching Planning Phase Indirect Model Initiation --> Response (negative) --> Feedback
31 IV Part 2) Models of Classroom English Teaching Elicitation Model Initiation --> Response (failure)--> Delayed Feedback Planning Phase
32 III Part 2) Models of Classroom English Teaching Planning Phase Reinforcement Model Initiation --> Response (successful) --> Reinforced Feedback
33 III Part 3) Presentation of Model Lessons Taught by Using Classroom English Planning Phase ■ Writing Lesson Plans for English textbooksWriting Lesson Plans for English textbooks ■ Video shooting the class ■ Aligning it with multimedia engines such as ASR, TTS, TTS, etc. ■ Programming aligned contents into a digital module program
34 III Part The Integrated Approach for Designing Interactive Multimedia Content Design Phase 1950s Behaviorist Approach Programmed instruction materials were based on Skinner’s behaviorism. 1970s Cognitive Approach Cognitivists including Ausubel, Bruner, Gagne, and others dominated thinking about learning 1990s Constructivist Approach The influence of Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky and others led to the emergence of the constructivist view of learning Multimedia Software
35 Learning Features TTS/ STT Engine Automatic Sound Recognition Vocabulary Learning aligned With ASR Repeat Record Reply Compare Random listening practice Pronunciation training Dictation Exercises Functional Exercises CAT Error Retrieval System Checking and training Comparing Learning vocabulary in context Pronunciation practice with the ASR engine Three Learning Principles implemented implemented Relevancy of three learning principles to learning features explained Identifying incorrect pronunciations Correcting pronunciations Modeling, Exercises, My Own Model Evaluation Model The following learning features will be implemented in the multimedia content. III Part Design Phase
36 III Part Create algorithms and storyboards Design Phase
37 III Part Create algorithms and storyboards Design Phase
38 III Part Creating multimedia files Development Phase Files Type Multimedia Tools TextAll classroom English complied Prerequisites (Diagram) Videos, narration with English captions Quick time Models of Classroom English Use 3D animated video, narration with English captions Automatic Recognition System (ASR) aligned (1) Functional Classifications (2) Classroom English compiled during Classroom Activities Sound files (wav, MP3) stereo quality TTS STS Model Presentation of Lessons using classroom English Video, narration with English captions ASR aligned Model lessons taught by American grade-school teachers Video (ready-made)ASR aligned
39 III Part Development of Prototype Development Phase
40 III Part Development of Prototype Development Phase
41 III Part Development of Prototype Development Phase Development of My Own Prototype ?
42 III Part Development Phase Handheld Wireless Internet Learning Devices(Handheld WILDs) Tablet PCsCell PhonesPDAs Delivery Mode
43 III Part Development Phase Handheld WILDS
44 III Part Development Phase Rationale for Choosing Delivery Mode ■ The CD-ROM/DVD platform may be an easy way out, but it requires the space and computing facility, and has the physical constraints of being place-bound. ■ The in-tandem online learning system can be a good alternative. But it still requires computers that need to be hard-wired to Internet connections through Ethernet or LAN. ■ The low cost and portability of Wireless Internet Learning Devices (WILDS) offer exciting possibilities. ■ These devices enable ubiquitous use of technology rather than technology being used intermittently as an add-on. ■ Wireless users are no longer tethered in one place by cables and connections.
45 Program Operation Committee Program Monitoring Program Evaluation Program Management Staff Development of a self- access English certificate program Requirement for completion Selecting and Grouping Co-work between Subject Expert/Project Manager MEST KERIS POEs Individual schools Development of Self-access Multimedia Online Contents In-service Teachers Awarding the online classroom English Certificate Online orientation Opening the re-training program IV Part Self-access Training Program
46 Needs 3,000-4,000 hours of intensive training to be fluent/take 32 years to master English Full-time teaching with school chores In-house training is not a realistic solution to this problem Materials to research Classroom English Database Model Use of Classroom English Model English classroom Teaching Multimedia Content Designing learning features/ASR Creating algorithm and storyboards Creating Multimedia files Self-access Program Open-ended Program Hand-held devices Learning Wireless learning Self-directed learning Self-access Online Program Concluding Remarks Part V Self-directed training Fluent English Teachers
47 The significance of technology in opening up educational possibilities to distance English learners (namely English teachers in this case) has been emphasized over the last decade. Many language teachers have often shown to be on the leading edge of computer-based technologies because of their involvement in communication. Many in-service English teachers who want to get additional certification to enhance their English proficiency do not live close to host institutions. This presentation has focused on developing a self-access online training program for English teachers. The pedagogical underpinnings have to be looked into before computer programmers take the program to the stage of the multimedia development. V Part Concluding Remarks Challenges and Future Directions
48 Software systems to deliver content and facilitate learning should be addressed. The issues of program quality and online/WILDS modes of delivery should be also addressed. Challenges may lie in advertising and attracting teachers to the online program. But the government provision of the digital devices such as Table PCs to each individual English teacher can serve as a greatest incentive. MEST should allocate adequate funding for developing the online content this presentation has proposed. The proliferation of online learning requires a “paradigm shift in bedrock views on training for English teachers.” It is my hope that this presentation will give some insights not only to whoever is officially concerned with English teacher training, but also to multimedia program developers. V Part Concluding Remarks Challenges and Future Directions END