Presentation on theme: "Global Studies: Global Links Copyright 2006 Dr. Aran S. MacKinnon What is Global Studies, how have humans made global linkages, and what impact have these."— Presentation transcript:
Global Studies: Global Links Copyright 2006 Dr. Aran S. MacKinnon What is Global Studies, how have humans made global linkages, and what impact have these had?
WORLD SYSTEMS in GLOBAL STUDIES What is a world system ? Interconnections amongst human communities on the planet earth based on the following aspects and relationships: Economic Political Social Biological Geographic Ideological (beliefs)
Theories of World Systems Modern world: Over time, increasing levels of interconnectedness have led to an exponential growth in the direction of human communities finding similar economic patterns. The predominant system is capitalism and it has a crucible effect. Eventually, all people around the world will be either haves or have nots, and this will lead to an ultimate conflict: Teleology
World Systems Postmodern: Human beings have common needs/attributes (eg. food, clothing shelter), but historically human communities have developed unique societies adapted to their own discrete environments. While capitalism has had a profound effect on the homogenization of the world, it is contested by people all over the world, and it cannot reduce us all to the same bland consumer if we struggle against it. Our world is the creation of a synthesis between the haves and the have nots (subaltern)
Key Features: 1. Effects of Capitalism: Duality of Productivity and Inequality: Capitalism creates great poverty and great wealth in both absolute and relative terms 2. Creation of dual economy?: The ‘Third World’, Lesser Developed Countries Developed vs. underdeveloped or the Uneven effects of Capitalism 3. The Homogenization of the World and its peoples: The ‘McCoke culture’ 4.Production-consumption: The use and abuse of resources: with what impact/cost? 5. Modernity and Malcontents?
World Connections: Chronology 1. Approx. 500,000 BCE > 50,000 BCE: emergence of modern humans (Homo Sapiens Sapiensas) 2. 20,000 BCE- 4,000 BCE: The Struggle for Agricultural Surplus: The Agricultural Revolution 3. Approx. 4,000 BCE> development of Civilization: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus Civilizations 4. 200 BCE-600 CE: Emergence of Long Distance Trade: The Silk Road from Rome to China, via West Africa, Arabia and India Specialized goods, religions, disease
World Connections 5. 600 CE - 1000 CE: From The Age of Empires to the State New empires emerged and sought unity through political, economic and ideological features of state rule. Empires fragment and nation states emerge (more efficient units linked to others) 6. 1000 CE -1400CE. Prelude to the Age of Discovery and Conquest -The Rise of Trade Towns and the Bourgeoisie: Europe. Overcoming religious dogmatism. Rise of the Merchant Class, the closing off of China 7. 1400-1600/ The Age of Discovery and Conquest -Gold Glory God -The New World and the “Other” -The Columbian Exchange: Precious metals and the Price Revolution; Diseases; Foods
World Connections 8.1650-1750 The rise and persistence of COMPANIES. Merchant-Trade companies and colonization. Egs. Hudson s Bay Co., Virginia Company, Dutch and British East India Company. White Settlement and the implantation of capitalism in new world colonies 9. 1450s-1850s: The Atlantic World Economy: Primitive Agriculture and Slavery, The African Slave Trade, the creoleization of the Atlantic World. Significant for intensifying racial ideologies and difference 10. 1750s-1850s The Rise of the Age of Capital: Stemming from Agricultural surpluses, dramatic increases in food supply and security, population, credit (debt) and finance. Creates demands for new avenues of investment and new systems of production
World Connections 11. Industrial Revolution: Technological, Ideological, Economic and Social impact Machines and new systems of production (factory) led to dramatic increase in levels of production, new and innovative products, and most significantly dramatic increase in demands for LABOR and RAW MATERIALS. Also contributes to people’s increasing sense of ALIENATION from production and the economy. 12. 1870s-1900 The New Imperialism: Driven by demands for new raw materials, new markets and new sources of labor and new areas of investment, European nations embark on the age of Free market empire-building (Read as monopoly markets). Marx and Lenin refer to this as a period of Overproduction and Under consumption and the emergence of Monopoly Capitalism. Imperialism is also driven by Racism, virulent Nationalism (Jingoism), Christian missionary activity and the Civilizing Mission
World Connections 13. 1870s-1900 II Age of Primary Resistance and Conquest. Indigenous peoples resist Imperial intrusion and the implantation of capitalism. These efforts fuel both rising tensions over conquest and the differentiation of “The Other”. The Opium War in China, African Resistance: Asante, Ethiopia. 14 The Colonial Period. Structural Economic Exploitation or Necessary Capitalist Development. ‘Teach Them to Want’ Racism and Underdevelopment: The Developing World’s Place in the Global Economy: Raw Materials and Labor
World Connections 15. 1914-1950 The Watershed years: WWI- WWII: Nation State Competition and Conflict, Rising Anti-Colonialism and Colonized peoples Nationalism. The Cold War and the New World Order: Neo-Imperialism 16. 1950-present: Post War Consumerism: “Fordism”, The American Global Corporation and Patriotic Consumerism. The Global market- place for labor, raw materials and products. The persistence of rapacious capitalism: Diamonds, DeBeers and Sierra Leone